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Background

In the last several years Thailand and Cambodia have been involved in a dispute over the Preah Vihear temple, a so-called World Heritage site. At least six deaths have occurred in fighting between 2008 and January 2011.(See attached Preah Vihear temple Map)

Thailand

Army


The Royal Thai Army is made up of over 190,000 soldiers, and is organized into the following components; 4 regional army headquarters, 2 corps headquarters, 2 cavalry divisions, 1 rapid-reaction battalion, 3 armored infantry divisions, 2 mechanized infantry divisions, 1 light infantry division, 2 special forces divisions, 1 artillery division, 1 AD division, with 6 AD artillery battalions, 1 engineer division, 4 economic development divisions, 1 independent cavalry regiment, 8 independent infantry battalions, 4 reconnaissance companies, 1 armored cavalry regiment, with 3 air-mobile companies and several helicopter units. Additionally, Reserve strength currently stands at four infantry divisions.

Deployment
The 1st, 2nd, 9th and 11th Infantry divisions, as well as the 1st development division are assigned to the First Army Area that stretches from central Thailand to the central Isthmus of Kra. The First Army headquarters is in Bangkok.
The 3rd, 6th and 12th infantry Division as well as the 2nd development Division are responsible for the Second Army Area, which is Northeast Thailand. The Second Army headquarters is in Nakhon Ratchasima
The 4th infantry division, 1st armored division and 3rd development divisions are all assigned to the Third Army Area, which covers Northwestern Thailand. The Third Army headquarters is in Phitsanulok

The 5th and 15th infantry divisions, as well as the 4th development division are all stationed in the Forth Army area which covers lower half of the Isthmus of Kra. The Fourth Army headquarters is in Nakhon Si Thammarat.


The Special Forces Command Center in Lop Buri is home to the 1st and 2nd Special Forces Divisions, The 31st Infantry Regiment(rapid-deployment unit), the 31st Artillery Battalion and four rapid-deployment battalions (See attached Thai Army map)

Air Force


The total active manpower of the air force is 46,000 which is split up into 9 fighter/ground attack squadrons, 3 transport squadrons, 1 RECCE/ELINT squadron, 1 training squadron, 1 liaison squadron, 2 helicopter squadrons, 4 air defense battalions and 1 survey squadron.

Deloyment

The RTAF is headquartered in Bangkok and maintains airbases in Lop Buri, Nakhon Ratchasima, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Surat Thani, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Phitsanulok, Chiang Mai and Takhli. The national flight training school is located in Kamphong Son. (See attached Thai Air Force map)



Jane’s Assessment

The Thai Royal Air Force is the most professional of Thailand’s armed services, with well trained and competent pilots. The RTAF maintains fighter aircraft at readiness levels across the country, however it has limited rapid deployment capability.


The use of air power in the battlefield is centered around air interdiction, joint operations, aerial reconnaissance and search and rescue.

Navy


The total active manpower of the Royal Thai Navy (RTN) is approximately 70,000, including the Thai Royal Marines and Naval Aviation Division.The Thai navy surface force units are organized into three fleets and one operational command, comprising of 2 frigate squadrons, 1 patrol squadron,1 anti-submarine squadron, 1 mine warfare squadron, 1 amphibious squadron,1 service squadron,1 riverine squadron and 1 submarine squadron.
Marines

The Thai Royal Marines are a fighting force 23,000 that are headquartered at Camp Samesan (Sattahip Naval Base). The Marines are broken down into 2 infantry regiments, 1 artillery regiment with 3 forward artillery battalions and one anti-aircraft battalion, 1 amphibious assault battalion and 1 reconnaissance battalion. The Marines are responsible for conducting counter-insurgency operations along the Malaysian border and security along Thailand's southeast border with Cambodia.


Deployment

The Thailand Royal Navy and the 1st fleet are headquartered in Sattahip. The 2nd fleet is based in Songkhla, in the Gulf of Thailand. The Third fleet is headquarted in Phang-ga on the Andaman Sea. The Riverine force is headquarted in Nakhor Phanom on the Mekong River. There are also smaller naval facilities located in Paknam and Trat.(See attached Thai Navy map)

The Royal Marines Marines are headquartered at Camp Samesan in Sattahip Naval Base. The Royal Marines also have bases in Trat, Narathiwat, and Nakhon Phanom. (See attached Thai Marine map)
Jane’s Assessment
The Thailand navy is poorly funded due to economic constraints and a military structure that is dominated by the Army. The navy is also under trained because of the limited amount of time the sailors and ships actually spend at sea. The lack of English speaking sailors also limits participation in multi-national training exercises.

Cambodia

Army


The Cambodian army is made up of 75,000 soldiers that are slit into 6 Military regions with 22 infantry divisions, 3 independent infantry brigades, 9 independent infantry regiments, 1 protection brigade with 4 battalions, 3 armored battalions, 1 airborne/special forces regiment, 4 engineer regiments, 3 field regiments, 1 construction regiment and some air defense, artillery battalions, several recce, artillery, air defense and other units.

Air Force

The Air Force’s 1,500 airmen are organized into one fighter squadron, some reconnaissance/training squadrons, one VIP transport squadron and one helicopter squadron.

The air force acknowledges that most of its planes and helicopters have not flown in years and funds are lacking to repair the aircraft. In February 2000, a MiG-21bis and MiG-21UM were overhauled in Israel, but Cambodia does not have enough money and skilled personnel to maintain the aircraft.



Jane’s Assessment

The Cambodian Air Force possesses no worthwhile combat capability. All fixed wing transport resources have been handed over to the Council of Ministers and are no longer operated by the Air Force.


Navy


There are 2,800 sailors in the Cambodian navy, including an infantry force of 1,500. The naval infantry is organized into seven infantry battalions and one artillery battalion.
Jane’s Assessment

China’s donation of 15 patrol craft between 2005 and 2007 allow Cambodia to signal sovereignty over maritime territory and reinforce claims to areas disputed with Vietnam.



Deployment

The Cambodian military maintains six regional headquarters in Stung Treng, Kompong Cham, Kompong Speu, Siem Reap, Battambang and a special military zone in Phnom Penh. (See attached map)


Equipment Inventories
Thailand Army
APR07 JUL08 SEP09 FEB11 GROUND COMBAT VEHICLES
Tanks

125 125 125 125 M60A3

53 53 53 53 M60A1

105 105 105 105 M48A5 Patton

255 255 255 255 M41/A1/A2/A3 Walker Bulldog

106 106 106 106 Stingray light

104 104 104 104 FV101 Scorpion light (U.K.) (50 in storage)

50 50 50 50 Type 69-II (China) (most in storage)
Reconnaissance

32 32 32 32 S52 Shorland Mk3 (U.K.)

# # # # HMMWV (all types)
Armored Personnel Carriers

340 340 340 340 M113A1/A2

18 18 18 18 M901A3 Improved TOW anti-tank

142 142 142 142 V-150 Commandos

# # # # YW 531H amphibious (Chinese Type-85)

# # # N/A WZ 551 (6 x 6)(China)

450 450 450 Type 85 (China)

# # # Reva 4 x 4 mine-protected vehicle

(South Africa)(98 on order)
ARTILLERY

Guns

15 15 15 15 130-mm Type 59-1 (Russia M-46)

24 24 24 24 105-mm LG1 Mk II Light Gun towed (France)

6 6 6 57-mm S-60 towed (Russia)

48 48 48 40-mm L/70 towed (Sweden)

52 52 52 37-mm Type 74 towed (China)

24 24 24 24 20-mm M167A1 Vulcan towed air defense

24 24 24 24 20-mm M163 Vulcan SP air defense
Howitzers

20 20 20 20 155-mm M109A2 self-propelled

50 50 50 50 155-mm M114 towed

61 61 61 61 155-mm M198 towed

32 32 32 32 155-mm M71 towed gun/howitzer (Israel)

42 42 42 42 155-mm GHN-45A1 (Switzerland)

297 297 297 297 105-mm M101/M102 modified towed

32 32 32 32 105-mm M618A2 towed (Thai-modified US M101)

6 22 22 22 105-mm L119 light guns (U.K.)(+16 on order)

30 30 30 30 40-mm M1/M42
Mortars

12 12 12 12 120-mm M1064A3 mortar carrier

(1,897, including the following):

# # # # 107-mm M106A1 self-propelled

# # # # 81-mm M29

21 21 21 21 81-mm M125A3 mortar carrier
Recoilless Rifles

150 150 150 150 106-mm M40 recoilless rifle

30 30 30 30 75-mm M20 recoilless rifle
Multiple Launch Rocket

# # # # 130-mm Type 85 self-propelled (China)
Anti-Tank Rocket Launchers

# # # # 60-mm M72 LAW
MISSILES

Anti-tank

300 300 300 300 M47 Dragon

18 18 18 18 M-901A5
Surface-to-Air

# # # # FIM-43 Redeye MANPADS short-range

# # # # HN-5A MANPADS (China)

# # # # Aspide (Italy)
Radars

# # # # RASIT artillery/vehicle (France)

# # # # TPQ-36 mortar/artillery

# # # # LAADS (Low Altitude Aircraft Detection System)
Army Aviation
APR07 JUL08 SEP09 FEB11 FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT
Transport

2 2 2 2 C212-300 (Spain)

2 2 2 2 Beech 1900C

2 2 2 2 Super King Air 200 liaison/VIP

2 2 2 2 330UTT Short Sherpa (U.K. C-23)

2 2 2 2 Jetstream 41 (U.K.)
Training

42 42 42 42 Hughes 300C
Communications

40 39 40 40 O-1A/E Bird Dog (Cessna L-19)

10 10 10 10 U-17B

15 15 15 T-41B
HELICOPTERS

Attack

5 5 5 5 AH-1F Cobra
Utility

6 6 6 6 CH-47D Chinook

(65, including the following):

# # # # B212 utility/VIP (UH-1N Huey)

# # # # Bell 214ST utility (UH-1)

# # # # B412 VIP (UH-1N Huey)

# # # # B206A/B Jetranger scouting (OH-58)

# # # # TH-300C training (TH-55)

# # # # TH-55 training (Hughes 269)

92 91 92 92 UH-1B/D/H Iroquois utility (UH-1H Huey)

(1 crashed June 2008)

2 2 2 2 UH-60L
UAV

# # # # Searcher (Israel)

Thailand Navy

APR07 JUL08 SEP09 FEB11 SHIPS
Light Carrier

1 1 1 1 CHAKRI NARUEBET (Spanish Bazan design)
Frigates

2 2 2 2 NARESUAN-class guided-missile

(Chinese Type 25T design)

2 2 4 4 CHAO PHRAYA-class guided-missile

(Chinese JIANGHU III design)

2 2 2 2 KRABURI class (Chinese JIANGHU IV)

1 1 N/A N/A MAKUT RAJAKUMARN class

2 2 2 2 PHUTTHAYOTFA CHULALOK class (ex-U.S. KNOX class)
Corvettes

2 2 2 2 TAPI class (ex-U.S. PF 103 class)

2 2 2 2 RATANAKOSIN class (U.S. PFMM Mk 16 design)
Patrol Ships

2 2 2 2 PATTANI class (Chinese 1,500-ton design)
Fast Attack Craft

3 3 3 3 RATCHARIT class (Italian Breda BMB 230 design)

3 3 3 3 PRABRARAPAK class (German FPB-45 design)
Patrol Boats

3 3 3 3 KHAMRONSIN class (Thailand)

6 6 6 6 SATTAHIP class (U.S. PSMM Mk 5 design)

3 3 3 3 CHONBURI class (Italian MV 400 design)

10 10 10 10 T 11 class (ex-U.S. PGM 71 design)

# # 7 7 T 93 class (Thailand)

9 9 9 9 T 91 class (Thailand)

3 3 3 HUA HIN class (Thailand)

3 3 3 Sea Spectre (U.S.)
Patrol Craft

14 14 13 13 T 213 class (Thai 19.8-m design)
Riverine Patrol Craft

# # # # 5-meter GRP-hulled assault boats (Thailand)

# # # # U.S. PBR Mk 2 class
Mine Warfare

2 2 2 2 GAETA class MCMV (THA DIND DAENG first unit)

1 1 1 1 THALANG-mine countermeasures support

(Thai 55.7-m design)

2 2 2 2 BANGRACHAN class minehunters

(German Lurssen M48 design)

2 2 2 2 LADYA class minesweepers (ex-U.S. MSC 289-class)
Amphibious

2 2 2 2 SICHANG class (French Normed/PS 700 design)

4 4 4 4 CHANG-class tank landing ships

(ex-U.S. LST 542-class)

1 1 1 1 KUT-class medium landing ship

(ex-U.S. LSM 1 class)

# # # # NAKHA support landing craft

(ex-U.S. LSSL 1 class)

# 2 2 2 PRAB infantry landing ship

(ex-U.S. LCI(M) 351 class)

# # # # THONG KAEO-class utility landing craft

(Thai 41-m design)

# 6 6 6 MATAPHON-class utility landing craft

(ex-U.S. LCU 501-class)

# # # # L 14-class mechanized landing craft

(ex-U.S. LCM-6 class)

# 12 12 12 L 51-class vehicle/personnel landing craft

(ex-U.S. LCVP class)

# # # # L 40-class armored riverine transports

(Thai 12-m design)

3 3 3 Man Nok-class LCU
Hydrographic Ships

1 1 1 1 SUK-class oceanographic research/survey

(Thai 62-m design)

1 1 1 1 CHANDHARA oceanographic research

(German 70-m design)

2 1 1 1 OCEANOGRAPHIC II-class inshore survey ships

(German Lurssen 29-m design)
Auxiliary Ships

1 1 1 1 CHULA-class underway-replenishment oiler

(Singapore 67-m design)

1 1 1 1 170-m Chinese-design replenishment oiler

(Chinese modified FUQING class)

1 1 1 1 SURIYA-class navigational bouy tender

(Thai 54-m design)

1 1 1 1 SAMUI (YO/YOG)

1 1 1 CANNON-class AXT trainer

1 1 1 DAXIN-class naval trainer
MISSILES

Surface-to-Surface

# # # # AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship

# # # # MM38 Exocet anti-ship (France)

# # # # Gabriel-I anti-ship (Israel)

# # # # C801 anti-ship (China)

# # # # RUR-5A ASROC ASW
Surface-to-Air

# # # # RIM-7 Sea Sparrow (U.S.)

# # # # Albatros (Italy)
Air-to-Surface

# # # # AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship
Naval Aviation
APR07 JUL08 SEP09 FEB11 AIRCRAFT
Attack

7 7 7 7 AV-8S/TAV-8S Harrier

9 9 9 9 Sentry 02-337 (Cessna O-2)
Maritime/Reconnaissance

2 2 2 2 P-3T Orion ASW/MPA (2 in store)

2 3 3 3 F27 Mk 400 Maritime Enforcer ASW/AsuW

(Netherlands)

2 2 2 2 CL215 SAR (Canada)

4 4 4 4 N-24A Nomad Search Master

5 5 5 5 Do 228 maritime patrol (Germany)
Transport

2 2 2 2 F27-400M Troopship (Netherlands)
Trainers

1 1 1 1 UP-3T Orion

2 2 2 2 TAV-8A Harrier

14 14 14 TA-7
Helicopters

6 6 6 6 S-70B Seahawk SAR/ASuW

5 5 5 5 S-76B

2 2 2 2 UH-1H/N Huey SAR

5 5 5 5 B212 ASW (UH-1N)

5 4 4 4 B214ST SAR/utility (1 crashed March 2007)

2 2 2 2 Super Lynx 300 (U.K.)
MISSILES

# # # # AGM-84 Harpoon
Royal Marines
APR07 JUL08 SEP09 FEB11 GROUND COMBAT VEHICLES
Armored Personnel Carriers

33 33 33 33 LVTP-7 (AAV7)

24 24 24 24 LAV-150 Commando
ARTILLERY

Guns/Howitzers

12 12 12 12 155-mm GC-45 (Belgium)

12 12 12 12 155-mm M-68 Soltam (Israel)

36 36 36 36 105-mm towed artillery

14 14 14 14 12.7-mm air defense guns
MISSILES

# # # # M47 Dragon
Thailand Airforce
MAR07 JUL08 SEP09 FEB11 AIRCRAFT
Fighter/Ground Attack/COIN

41 41 41 41 F-16A Fighting Falcon fighter

(18 being modernized)

9 9 9 9 F-16B ex-USAF Fighting Falcon fighter

35 35 35 35 F-5E/F Tiger II fighter

2 2 2 2 F-5B Freedom Fighter

22 22 22 22 AU-23A Peacemaker COIN

(Swiss PC6 Turbo-Porter)

15 18 18 18 N22B Nomad COIN/gunship (Australia)
Electronic/Reconnaissance/Liaison

3 3 3 3 RF-5A Freedom Fighter reconnaissance

3 3 3 3 IAI201 Arava ELINT (Israel)

1 1 1 1 UC-35A Learjet ELINT/ECM/survey

6 6 6 6 Merlin IVA aerial mapping

1 1 1 1 King Air E-90 liaison

2 2 2 2 Queen Air A80 liaison

9 9 9 9 Basler Turbo-67

3 3 3 3 Rockwell Commander 500

2 2 2 Learjet 35A
Transport

2 2 2 2 Super King Air 200 VIP

3 3 3 3 Boeing 737

7 7 7 7 C-130H Hercules

5 5 5 5 C-130H-30 Hercules

6 6 6 6 HS748 Andover (U.K. BAE 748 Srs 208)

3 3 3 3 G222 (Italy)

1 1 1 1 A310-324 Airbus VIP (International)

1 1 1 1 A-319CJ (France)

9 9 9 SA-226AT Merlin

2 Saab 340/E Transport (Sweden)
Training

29 29 29 29 CT-4B/E Airtrainer primary training

(New Zealand)

29 29 N/A N/A RFB Fantrainer 400 basic training

(Germany)

13 13 13 13 RFB Fantrainer 600 weapons

training/light attack (Germany)

23 22 23 23 PC-9 basic training (Switzerland)

(1 crashed August 2007)

6 6 6 6 Bell 206B

10 10 10 10 Alphajet (Germany/France)

46 46 46 46 L-39 ZA Albatros COIN/training (Czech

Republic)

3 3 3 3 Cessna 150

12 12 12 12 T-41D Mescalero
Helicopters

13 13 13 13 Bell 212 utility (UH-1N)

2 2 2 2 Bell 412 utility (UH-1N)

6 6 6 6 Bell 206B JetRanger II

20 20 20 20 UH-1H Iroquois utility

3 3 3 3 AS332L-2 Super Puma Mk II VIP (France)

3 3 3 3 AS532 Cougar
MISSILES

Surface-to-air

# # # # Blowpipe (U.K.)

# # # # Spada (launchers) (Italy)

# # # # Aspide SAM (Italy)

# # # # RBS 70 SAM (Sweden)
Air-to-air

# # # # AIM-120 AMRAAM

# # # # AIM-9 Sidewinder

# # # # Python 3 (Israel)
Anti-surface

# # # # AGM-65 Maverick
Radars

# # # # TPS-43 air surveillance

# # # # TPS-70 air surveillance

# # # # FPS-117 air surveillance

# # # # S-743D Martello air surveillance (U.K.)

# # # # S-723D Martello air surveillance

# # # # FPS-100 air surveillance


Cambodia Army

NOV06 JAN08 APR09 JUN10 GROUND COMBAT VEHICLES
Tanks

50 50 50 50 Type 59 MBT (China)

20(+) 20(+) 20(+) 20(+) Type 62/63 MBT (China)

100(+) 100(+) 100(+) 100(+) T-54/T-55 medium
Armored Personnel Carriers

160 160 160 160 BTR-60/152
30 30 30 30 OT-64 (Czech Republic)

# # # # M-113 (U.S.)
RECCONNAISANCE

# # # # BRDM-2
Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicle

70 70 70 70 BMP-1
ARTILLERY

Guns

(At least 400 of all types)

# # # # 130-mm Type 59-1

N/A # # # 107-mm B-11 recoilless anti-tank
# # # # 82-mm B-10 recoilless anti-tank

# # # # 76-mm M1942 field gun

# # # # 57-mm S-60 anti-aircraft

# # # # 37-mm M-1939 anti-aircraft

# # # # 14.5-mm anti-aircraft
Howitzers

# # # # 122-mm D-30 towed

# # # # 122-mm M-1938 towed
Mortars

# # # # 82-mm M-37

# # # # 120-mm M-43

# # # # 160-mm M-160
Multiple Launch Rocket Systems

20 20 20 20 140-mm BM-14-16

# # # # 132-mm BM-13-16

8 8 8 8 122-mm BM-21

# # # # 107-mm Type 63

Cambodia Air Force

NOV06 JAN08 APR09 JUN10 AIRCRAFT
Fighter/Ground Attack

14 14 14 14 MiG-21bis Fishbed L
Communications

1 1 1 1 Cessna 421 (U.S.)
Transport

2 2 2 2 An-24RV Coke (transferred to Air Kampuchea)

2 2 2 2 Y-12 Yunshuji (China)

1 1 1 1 BN-2 Islander (UK)

1 1 1 1 Falcon VIP (U.S.)

1 1 1 1 AS-350

1 1 1 1 AS-365
Training

5 5 5 5 MiG-21UM Mongol B (non-operational)

5 5 5 5 P92 Echo

5 5 5 5 L-39 Albatros (Czech Republic)
Helicopters

13 13 14 14 Mi-8/Mi-17 Hip transport

(transferred to Air Kampuchea)

2 2 2 2 Mi-26 Halo heavy transport
Cambodia Navy
NOV06 JAN08 APR09 JUN10 SHIPS
Patrol Craft

2 2 2 2 ex-Soviet STENKA class fast patrol craft

2 2 2 2 KAOH CHHLAM class

1 1 1 1 ex-U.S. LCM 8-class medium landing craft

2 2 N/A N/A ex-Soviet SHERSHEN-class torpedo boats

6 6 N/A N/A ex-Chinese patrol boats

N/A 5 5 5 ex-U.S. medium landing craft

N/A 2 2 2 ex-U.S. riverine patrol boats

N/A # 7 7 misc. patrol boats (China)
Sources:

Global Security: Thailand army base locations



http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/thailand/army-intro.htm
Preah Vihear temple info:

http://www.militaryperiscope.com/nations/seasia/thailand/organzn/index.html
Jane’s World Navies: Jane’s Assessment

Cambodia – Page 56

Thailand – Pages 411-415
Jane’s World Air Forces: Jane’s Assessment

Cambodia – Pages 85-86

Thailand – Pages 538-542
Military Periscope – Everything else.
Thailand Army – http://www.militaryperiscope.com/nations/seasia/thailand/army/index.html

Thailand Navy – http://www.militaryperiscope.com/nations/seasia/thailand/navy/index.html


Thailand Air Force – http://www.militaryperiscope.com/nations/seasia/thailand/airforce/index.html
Cambodia- http://www.militaryperiscope.com/nations/seasia/cambodia/organzn/index.html

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