64 R. L. Carson, “Industry That Once Gave Employment to 25,000 Now Near Extinction,” Raleigh News and Observer, 28 February 1937; unpaged clipping.
65 Cecelski, A Historian's Coast, 87-92. This account is drawn principally from Cecelski.
66 “Planning Vast Future for Tar Heel Oysters,” Raleigh News and Observer, 5 December 1929; unpaged clipping.
67 “The Oyster Now Moves South,” Raleigh News and Observer, 28 December 1924; “Making the Oyster Safe,” Raleigh News and Observer, 13 November 1925; Robert E. Coker, “State Potentially Rich in the Oyster Industry” and “Why state Ranks Low in Farming of Oysters,” Raleigh New and Observer, 16 and 23 March 1930; unpaged clippings.
68 Wade Lucas, “State’s Oyster Industry Hard Hit by Two Hurricanes,” Raleigh News and Observer [undated clipping, possibly 18 March 1955].
69 “Oyster Probe Being Waged,” Raleigh News and Observer, 19 October 1961;”Scarcity of Tar Heel Oysters Discussed,” Raleigh News and Observer 10 February 1963; “Oyster Industry Hit By Polluted Waters,” Raleigh News and Observer, 17July 1963; unpaged clippings.
70 Mark Warren, “Pollution Threatens Life of Tar Heel Shellfish,” Durham Morning Herald, September 28, 1972; “C&D Board Closes Polluted Area of State’s Coast to Shellfishing,” Greensboro Daily News, 15 October 1972; unpaged clippings.
71 Brunswick Star-News, 13 August 1989; unpaged clipping.
72 “N.C. Seeks to Revive Oyster Crop,” Raleigh News and Observer, 12 July 1970; “Shellfish Supply Keeps Dwindling,” Raleigh News and Observer, 4June 1973; Richard Whittle, “N.C. Oystering on the Decline,” Raleigh News and Observer, 3 September 1977; unpaged clippings.
73 “Oysters Now Making Comeback in State,” Fayetteville Observer-Times, 29 April 1979; Charlotte Observer, 19 November 1989; unpaged clippinigs.
74 “State’s Crab Industry May Be Expanded Soon,” Raleigh News and Observer, 29 August 1941; unpaged clipping.
75 “A Neglected Tar Heel Resource,” Raleigh News and Observer, 11 July 1943, unpaged clipping; and “The Crab Crop,” Raleigh News and Observer, 12 August 1944, unpaged clipping.
76 Wade Lucas, “Clam Digging Is Showing Decline in N.C.,” Raleigh News and Observer, 13 February 1955; unpaged clipping. Lucas reported that the Ocracoke factory shipped whole clams, clam chowder and clam juice. Lucas quoted University of North Carolina Institute of Fisheries mollusk specialist F. S. Chestnutt as reporting that the factory shipped more than one million pounds of clam products as late as 1902.
77 Frank A. Montgomery, Jr., “ Reap the King of Tar Heel Seafood Moneymakers,” Raleigh News and Observer, 13 May [?] 1958; “Huge Shrimp Hauls Reported in Craven,” Raleigh News and Observer, 24 August 1940; “Southport Man to Head Study,” Raleigh News and Observer, 3 July [?] 1947; “N.C. Shrimp Industry Balloons,” Asheville Citizen, 26 September 1948. All unpaged clippings.
78 “Tar Heel Shrimpers Put in Long Hours,” Raleigh News and Observer, 5 August 1951; unpaged clipping.
79 ‘Shrimp Question Still Unsettled,” Raleigh News and Observer, 20 January 1954; “Protective Steps Are Taken,” Raleigh News and Observer, 23 March [?] 1954unpaged clipping.
80 Wade Lucas, “Shrimpers Are Ready for Hauls,” Raleigh News and Observer, 28 March 1954; unpaged clipping in North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina Library.
81 “Shrimp Season in State May Be Best in 15 Years,” Raleigh News and Observer, 15 October 1962; “Shrimp Catches Show Big Gains,” Raleigh News and Observer, 25 January 1963; “Six-Month Shrimp Catch Termed Best Since 1965,” Raleigh News and Observer, 4 August 1971; “Shrimp Campaign Launched,” Raleigh News and Observer, 13 August 1974; “Tar Heel Shrimpers Hurt by Steep Drop in Prices,” Raleigh News and Observer, 18 August 1974; unpaged clippings. For an extended discussion of the industry, see John R. Maiolo, Hard Times and a Nickel a Bucket: Struggle and Survival in North Carolina’s Shrimp Industry (Chapel Hill: Chapel Hill Press, 2004).
82 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Fisheries Office’s loggerhead site is available at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/loggerhead.htm(accessed 5 February 2009). Full information on the species is available there. A summary of range-wide protections for the diamondback is available in Christina F. Watters, “A Review of the Rangewide Regulations Pertaining to Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin),” Wetlands Institute (2004) at http://wetlandsinstitute.org (accessed 5 February 2009).
83 Raleigh News and Observer, 15 July [?] 1945; unpaged clipping, date partly obscured.
84 Ross, “Conservation and Economy,” 25.
85 North Carolina Maritime History Council, List of Ships Built in North Carolina from Colonial Times to circa 1900 (n.p., n.p., n.d.) in Maritime History Research Resources (http://www.ncmaritimehistory.org; accessed 22 August 2008). Unless otherwise attributed, data used in this brief discussion are from this source.
86 The median vessel size in the Maritime History Council list was approximately 37 tons. Barbour Boat Works in New Bern also built wooden minesweepers and escort boats. Powell (ed.), Encylopedia of North Carolina, 625, 671, 1032, 1243. Powell also says that the Meadows yard in New Bern built “standardized cargo vessels and submarine chasers” as part of the World War I effort. For a useful summary of the development of and production from the North Carolina Shipbuilding Company, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Carolina_Shipbuilding_Company (accessed 12 January 2010). For a list of the Wilmington liberty ships by name, see http://www.usmm.org/l/southe.html#1222 (accessed 12 January 2010).
87 The Maritime History Council lists gives “North” as the place of building for a very large number of the vessels. We have not yet been able to identify this location, or to determine whether it may be an inclusive designation of several individual northern locations.
88 Specific locations in Carteret County are not given in the Maritime History Council data.
89 Powell (ed.), Encylopedia of North Carolina, 625, 671, 1032, 1243. Powell also says that the Meadows yard in New Bern built “standardized cargo vessels and submarine chasers” as part of the World War I effort. For a useful summary of the development of and production from the North Carolina Shipbuilding Company, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Carolina_Shipbuilding_Company (accessed 12 January 2010). For some construction records of the Company, see http://www.shipbuildinghistory.com/history/shipyards/4emergency/wwtwo/northcarolina.htm (accessed 12 January 2010). A photo of the SS Zebulon B. Vance under construction may be found at http://ncmuseumofhistory.org/workshops/WWII/LibertyShips.htmand (accessed 12 January 2010).
90 Simpson and Simpson, Whaling on the North Carolina Coast, 44-45.
91 Michael Alford, Traditional Work Boats of North Carolina (Beaufort: North Carolina Maritime Museum, 1990), 1. See also Dunbar, Geographical History of the Carolina Banks, 122-124.
92 Mark Taylor, “Sharpies, Shad Boats, and Spritsail Skiffs,” Wildlife in North Carolina (July 1984), 20-27, reprinted in Stick, An Outer Banks Reader, 168-174.
93 Alford, Work Boats, 5
94 Taylor, “Sharpies, Shad Boats, and Spritsail Skiffs,” in Stick, An Outer Banks Reader, 168-174. Unless otherwise indicated, our brief description of these types is based upon Taylor’s article. See also Alford, Work Boats, 7.
95 Ibid., 8.
96 Dunbar, Geographical History of the Carolina Banks: Technical Report No. 8, Part A, 120.
97 Alford, Work Boats, 18-21. Dunbar, Geographical History of the Carolina Banks: Technical Report No. 8, Part A, 121-123, notes that the Dough family of Manteo were also major builders of shad boats.
98 Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 179.
99 Taylor, “Sharpies, Shad Boats, and Spritsail Skiffs,” in Stick, An Outer Banks Reader, 172-173.
100 This characterization of the boat comes from William S. Powell, Encyclopedia of North Carolina (Chapel Hill NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2007), 551. Several photos of such boats may be seen at http://www.downeasttour.com/harkers_is/Tia02_vt003_03b.htm (accessed 18 February 2009).
101 Ruffin, Agricultural, Geological, and Descriptive Sketches of Lower North Carolina, and the Similar Adjacent Lands; quoted in Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 92-93. Stick quotes Ruffin’s extended description of how hunters operated here.
102 “Market Gunning” in Odum and Brimley, A North Carolina Naturalist, 17-23. Quoted from Stick, An Outer Banks Reader, 29-32.
103 Cecelski, A Historian's Coast, 93-98.
104 Ibid., 100.
105 Torres, Cape Hatteras National Seashore Historic Resource Study, 105-106. A version of the lantern on the pony’s neck can be found in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, May 1860, 733.
106 Dunbar, Geographical History of the Carolina Banks: Technical Report No. 8, Part A, 41-42. Dunbar’s conclusion is seconded in Ethnohistorical Description of the Eight Villages Adjoining Cape Hatteras National Seashore and Interpretive Themes of History and Heritage: Final Technical Report, Volume II (Washington DC: National Park Service, 2005), II, 421-422.
107 Ibid., 70. Dunbar, 95 n.41, notes that the law was modified a number of times, and remained on the books at least until the 1950s. Dunbar gives the date for the law (and its specified procedures) as 1801, but Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 76, reproduces an announcement from a vendue master in the State Gazette for 2 May 1794. Stick implies that the 1801 law merely set up wreck districts, the vendue master system having been established earlier. The 1899 version of the law may be found in Public Laws and Resolutions of the State of North Carolina Passed by the General Assembly (Raleigh: Howards & Broughton, 1899), Chapter 79, 209 (online version). This law (as well as earlier versions of 1838-1846) established five districts in Carteret County. The 1917 revisions reduced that number to three. James Iredell, A Digested Manual of the Acts of the General Assembly of North Carolina, 1847), 221 ff., and Lucius Polk et al., Consolidated Statutes of North Carolina, Prepared Under Public Laws 1917, 1920), Chapter 134, 1084 ff. (online versions). The law as it stood in the 1830s is synopsized in Joseph Blunt, The Shipmaster's Assistant, and Commercial Digest (New York: E. and G. W. Blount, 1837), 275-277.
108 Albert Ray Newsome and Hugh Lefler, North Carolina: The History of a Southern State, rev. ed. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1976), 42-43.
109 Ehrenhard, Cape Lookout National Seashore: Assessment of Archeological and Historical Resources, 28 ff.
110 Noleen McIlvenna, A Very Mutinous People: The Struggle for North Carolina, 1660-1713 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009), 22, 46, 48, 52-54, 77-78, 89, 98-99.
111 Ibid., 30-31.
112 Aycock Brown, “Outer Banks of Carolina Paradise for Atlantic Smugglers,” Raleigh News and Observer, 2 December 1934; unpaged clipping.
113 Associated Press report in Spartanburg SC Herald, 15 December 1977, C7.
114 http://openjurist.org/451/us/997/trapper-v-north-carolina; accessed 23 June 2010.
115 Lindley S. Butler, Pirates, Privateers, and Rebel Raiders of the Carolina Coast (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 5-6. Berkeley quotation from Donald Grady Shomette, “Preface” to Shirley Carter Hughson, Blackbeard & the Carolina Pirates: The Carolina Pirates and Colonial Commerce, 1670-1740 (1894; reprint, Hampton VA: Port Hampton Press, 2000), ix. Hughson says (9) that the earliest accounts of pirates on the Carolina coast date from 1565. The literature on pirates and piracy (more than 25,000 volumes produced so far, worldwide) is very mixed, with much of it focused on undocumented legend and fantasy. Besides Butler and Hughson, two of the most reliable sources are Marcus Rediker, Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), and Robert H. Patton, Patriot Pirates: The Privateer War for Freedom and Fortune in the American Revolution (New York: Pantheon, 2008). Unfortunately, Patton confines his discussion to New York, New England, and the West Indies. Butler’s analysis is solidly grounded in extensive archival and other primary sources such as memoirs and diaries, as well as wide-ranging secondary materials. Rediker focuses not on specific pirates, episodes, or geographical areas, but rather on the cultural and working worlds of seamen, including those of pirates.
116 Newsome and Lefler, North Carolina, 62-63.
117 McIlvenna, A Very Mutinous People, 77-78.
118 Ehrenhard, Cape Lookout National Seashore: Assessment of Archeological and Historical Resources, 29.
119 Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 28-30. The vast majority of the 2,500 operated in the Caribbean rather than in North Carolina, but Shomette, “Preface” to Hughson, Blackbeard & the Carolina Pirates, xiv, says that by around 1715 “a score or more pirate ships were prowling the Atlantic coast between Virginia and South Carolina.”
120 Shomette, “Preface” to Hughson, Blackbeard & the Carolina Pirates, ix-x.
121 Butler, Pirates, Privateers, and Rebel Raiders of the Carolina Coast, 6-8. Powell, Encyclopedia of North Carolina, 888.
122 Butler does not mention Bonny, a central figure in Capt. Charles Johnson’s [pseudonymn for Daniel Defoe?] A General History of theRobberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates (1724). Red-haired, Irish, powerfully built Bonny (1698-1782) was a ferocious (and reputedly bare-breasted) fighter who operated principally in the Caribbean, at times with her fellow woman pirate (and lover) Mary Read (ca. 1695-1721). On Bonny and Read, see Ulrike Klausmann, Marion Meinzerin, and Gabriel Kuhn, Women Pirates and the Politics of the Jolly Roger (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1997), 191-216; and Oxford Encyclopedia of National Biography (http://www.oxforddnb.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/view/article/39085; accessed 7 January 2010) Bonny later reformed, married a local man in Charles Town SC, and had eight children. She died in South Carolina in 1782.
123 For a more detailed account of the often chronicled Battle of Ocracoke, see Shomette, “Preface” to Hughson, Blackbeard & the Carolina Pirates, xiii,xvi and Hughson, 69-89.
124 Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 28-32. An extended account of Blackbeard’s adventures on the Banks is in Butler, Pirates, Privateers, and Rebel Raiders of the Carolina Coast, 25-50. The year 1718 was the most active ever for piracy along the North Carolina coast. William S. Powell (ed.), Encyclopedia of North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006), 888.
125 Acts of the North Carolina General Assembly, September 1736. William L. Saunders, ed., Colonial and State Records of North Carolina, vol. 25 (Raleigh: P.M. Hale, 1886-1914), 225, (Documenting the American South electronic edition, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2007, http://docsouth.unc.edu/csr/index.html/document/csr03-0089).
126 “RICHMOND, July 6. Extract of a letter from a gentleman in Washington, (N.C.) dated June 24,” Accessible Archives (http://www.accessible.com; accessed 6 January 2010). J. Wallace was presumably John Wallace, local entrepreneur and developer of Shell Castle Island.
127 Stick, The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 30, 63-64.
128 Hughson, Blackbeard &The Carolina Pirates, 13-14. Hughson has a meticulous examination of early English maritime and trade law as it related to privateers and piracy, and of the collusion between pirates and colonial officials.
1 David Cecelski, The Waterman's Song: Slavery and Freedom in Maritime North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 36. This brief sketch of Grandy is drawn from Cecelski, 31-56.
2 Moses Grandy, Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy, Late a Slave in the United States of America (1843; electronic ed., Chapel Hill: Academic Affairs Library University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1996), 8-24 (http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/grandy/menu.html, accessed 26 February 2009).
3 Cecelski, The Waterman's Song, 36-39.
4 John Larkins, The Negro Population of North Carolina: Social and Economic (Raleigh: North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, 1944), http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/larkins/menu.html; accessed 23 February 2009).
5 Guion Johnson, Ante-bellum North Carolina a Social History (Chapel Hill: Academic Affairs Library University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1937), 582-583 (http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/johnson/menu.html; accessed 25 February 2009).
6 Paul D. Escott, Flora J. Hatley, and Jeffrey Crow, A History of African Americans in North Carolina, rev. ed. (Raleigh: Department of Cultural Resources, Office of Archives and History, 2002), 1-11, 21. Kristi A. Rutz-Robbins, “Colonial Commerce: Race, Class and Gender in a Local Economy, Albemarle, North Carolina, 1663--1729” (Ph.D. diss., Michigan State University, 2003), 202, says that such trade without a master’s consent was made illegal by a 1705 law.
7 See Elizabeth A. Fenn, “’A Perfect Equality Seemed to Reign’: Slave Society and Jonkonnu,” North Carolina Historical Review LXV (April 1988).
8 Escott, Hatley, and Crow, A History of African Americans in North Carolina, 26-30.
9 William S. Powell, Encyclopedia of North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007), 1048 (map); Cecelski, The Waterman's Song, p. xii.
10 Escott, Hatley, and Crow, A History of African Americans in North Carolina, 11.
11 Paul Escott, Many Excellent People: Power and Privilege in North Carolina, 1850-1900 / (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 18 (Table 10).
12 Kenneth E Burke, The History of Portsmouth, North Carolina, from Its Founding in 1753 to Its Evacuation in the Face of Federal Forces in 1861, rev. ed. (Washington DC: Insta-Print, Inc., 1976), 23-59. Population figures given in the Portsmouth Village National Register Nomination (29 November 1978) differ slightly from these, but reports significantly that in 1790 the town’s leading citizen David Wallace, Jr. owned sixteen slaves.
13 Cecelski, The Waterman's Song, xv.
14 Our brief discussion here is drawn from ibid., 103-117. All unattributed quotations are from this source.
15 For a succinct history of the Clubfoot Creek Canal (1766) between the Neuse River and Old Topsail Inlet, see James E. White, “The Clubfoot Creek Canal,” Journal of the New Bern Historical Society 19 (May 2006), 3-14. The North Carolina Business History website (http://www.historync.org/canals.htm) has numerous readily accessible maps of these and other canals.
16 The following discussion is drawn entirely from Robert B. III Outland, “Slavery, Work, and the Geography of the North Carolina Naval Stores Industry, 1835-1860,” Journal of Southern History 62, no. 1 (1996): 27-56. Outland, “Slavery, Work, and the Geography of the North Carolina Naval Stores Industry, 1835-1860,” 30, points out that the term “naval stores” originally included hemp, flax, masts, spars, planking, tar, and pitch, but that by 1800 it generally referred only to “tar, raw turpentine, and their derivatives – spirits of turpentine, rosin, and pitch.”
17 Lawrence Earley, Looking for Longleaf: The Fall and Rise of an American Forest (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004). See map on 109, and 131-171 on the destruction of the longleaf pine forests.
18 Catherine W. Bisher and Michael Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Eastern North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), 127.
19 Outland points out (52-53) that, although it was not understood at the time, turpentine is “a local irritant and central nervous system depressant.” Ingesting it or breathing the fumes could produce a variety of gastrointestinal and respiratory problems.