Champagne is a sparkling wine produced from grapes grown in the Champagne appellation of France following rules that demand secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to create carbonation Some use the term champagne as a generic term for sparkling wine, but many countries reserve the term exclusively for sparkling wines that come from Champagne and are produced under the rules of the Champagne appellation..
The Champagne wine region is a historic province within the Champagne administrative province in the northeast of France. The area is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the region's name. EU law and the laws of most countries reserve the term "Champagne" exclusively for wines that come from this region located about 100 miles (160 km) east of Paris. The viticultural boundaries of Champagne are legally defined and split into five wine producing districts within the administrative province: Aube, Côte des Blancs, Côte de Sézanne, Montagne de Reims, and Vallée de la Marne. The towns of Reims and Épernay are the commercial centers of the area.
Grape varieties and styles
Champagne is a single Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée. As a general rule, grapes used must be the white Chardonnay, or the dark-skinned "red wine grapes" Pinot Noir or Pinot Meunier. Due to the gentle pressing of the grapes and absence of skin contact during fermentation, the dark-skinned varieties also yield a white wine. Most Champagnes are made from a blend of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, for example 60%/40%. Blanc de blanc ("white from white") Champagnes are made from 100% Chardonnay. Blanc de noir ("white from black") Champagne is pressed from Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier or a mix of the two.
The 2010 version of the appellation regulations lists seven varieties as allowed, Arbanne, Chardonnay, Petit Meslier, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Meunier, and Pinot Noir. But varieties other than Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay are rarely used. The main areas of production are:
Montagne de Reims
Valée de la Marne
Côte des Blanc
Côte de Sézanne
. Pinot Noir is the most widely planted grape in the Auberegion and grows very well in Montagne de Reims.Pinot Meunier is the dominant grape in the Vallée de la Marne region. The Côte des Blancs is dedicated almost exclusively to Chardonnay.
Geography and climate
The Champagne province is located near the northern limits of the wine world along the 49th parallel. The high altitude and mean annual temperature of 10 °C (50 °F) creates a difficult environment for wine grapes to fully ripen. Ripening is aided by the presence of forests which helps to stabilize temperatures and maintain moisture in the soil. The cool temperatures serve to produce high levels of acidity in the resulting grape which is ideal for sparkling wine.
During the growing season, the mean July temperature is 18 °C (66 °F). The average annual rainfall is 630 mm (25 inches), with 45 mm (1.8 inches) falling during the harvest month of September. Throughout the year, growers must be mindful of the hazards of fungal disease and early spring frost.
Ancient oceans left behind chalk subsoil deposits when they receded 70 million years ago. Earthquakes that rocked the region over 10 million years ago pushed the marine sediments of belemnite fossils up to the surface to create the belemnite chalk terrain. The belemnite in the soil allows it to absorb heat from the sun and gradually release it during the night as well as providing good drainage. This soil contributes to the lightness and finesse that is characteristic of Champagne wine. The Aube area is an exception with predominately clay based soil. The chalk is also used in the construction of underground cellars that can keep the wines cool through the bottle maturation process.
Classification of Champagne vineyards
Classifications and vineyard regulations
In 1927, viticultural boundaries of Champagne were legally defined and split into five wine producing districts- The Aube, Côte des Blancs, Côte de Sézanne, Montagne de Reims, and Vallée de la Marne. This area covers 33,500 hectares (76,000 acres) of vineyards around 319 villages that are home to 5,000 growers who make their own wine and 14,000 growers who only sell grapes. The region is set to expand to include 359 villages in the near future.
The different districts produce grapes of varying characteristics that are blended by the champagne houses to create their distinct house styles. The Pinots of the Montagne de Reims that are planted on northern facing slopes are known for their high levels of acid and the delicacy they add to the blend. The grapes on the southern facing slope add more power and character. Grapes across the district contribute to the bouquet and headiness. The abundance of southern facing slopes in the Vallée de la Marne produces the ripest wines with full aroma. The Côte des Blancs grapes are known for their finesse and the freshness they add to blends with the extension of the nearby Côte de Sézanne offering similar though slightly less distinguished traits.[
In 1942, the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC) was formed with the purpose of protecting Champagne's reputation and marketing forces as well as setting up and monitoring regulations for vineyard production and vinification methods. Champagne is the only region that is permitted to exclude AOC or Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée from their labels.
For each vintage, the CIVC rated the villages of the area based on the quality of their grapes and vineyards. The rating was then used to determine the price and the percentage of the price that growers get. The Grand Cru rated vineyards received 100 percent rating which entitled the grower to 100% of the price. Premier Crus were vineyards with 90–99% ratings while Deuxième Crus received 80–89% ratings.
Under appellation rules, around 4,000 kilograms (8,800 pounds) of grapes can be pressed to create up to 673 gallons (either 2,550 L or 3,060 L) of juice. The first 541 gallons (either 2,050 L or 2,460 L) are the cuvée and the next 132 gallons (either 500 L or 600 L) are the taille. Prior to 1992, a second taille of 44 gallons (either 167 L or 200 L)was previously allowed. For vintage champagne, 100% of the grapes must come from that vintage year while non-vintage wine is a blend of vintages. Vintage champagne must spend a minimum three years on its lees with some of premier champagne houses keeping their wines on lines for upwards of five to ten years. Non-vintage champagne must spend a minimum of 15 months on the lees.
The classification of Champagne vineyards developed in the mid-20th century as a means of setting the price of grapes grown through the villages of the Champagne wine region. Unlike the classification of Bordeaux wine estates or Burgundy Grand cru vineyards, the classification of Champagne is broken down based on what village the vineyards are located in. A percentile system known as the Échelle des Crus ("ladder of growth") acts as a pro-rata system for determining grape prices. Vineyards located in villages with high rates will receive higher prices for their grapes than vineyards located in villages with a lower rating. While the Échelle des Crus system was originally conceived as a 1-100 point scale, in practice, the lowest rated villages are rated at 80%.Premier crus villages are rated between 90 and 99 percent while the highest rated villages, with 100% ratings are Grand crus.
The Échelle des Crus was originally established as a fixed pricing structure. The price for a kilogram of grapes was set and vineyards owners would receive a fraction of that price depending on the village rating where they were located. Vineyards in Grand crus villages would receive 100% of the price while Premier crus village with a 95 rating would receive 95% of the price and so forth down the line. Today the business dynamic between Champagne houses and vineyards owners is not so strictly regulated but the classification system still serves as an aide in determining prices with Grand and Premier crus vineyards receiving considerably more for their grapes than vineyards in villages with ratings below 90%.[
When the Échelle des Crus was first established 12 villages received Grand cru status. In 1985 that number was expanded to 17 with the promotion of five villages). Less than 9% of all the planted vineyard land in Champagne have received a 100% Grand cru rating. All of the Grand cru and Premier cru villages are located in the Marne department.
Champagne is primarily a product of vast blending - of different grape varieties, different vintages and different vineyards - with a typical non-vintage blend being composed of grapes from up to 80 different vineyards. However for their prestige cuvee (such as Moët et Chandon's Dom Pérignon or Louis Roederer's Cristal) Champagne producers will often limit the grape sources to only Grand cru (and sometimes Premier crus) vineyards. While single vineyard Champagnes are rare, they do exist, such as Krug's Clos du Mesnil coming from the Grand cru vineyard located near Le Mesnil-sur-Oger.[Grower Champagnes, the product of a single producer and vineyard owner, located in Grand cru villages will often label their wines "100% Grand cru" if their wines qualify for the designation.
Use of the word champagne
There are many sparkling wines produced worldwide, yet most] legal structures reserve the word champagne exclusively for sparkling wines from the Champagne region, made in accordance with Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne regulations. In the European Union and many other countries, the name Champagne is legally protected by the Treaty of Madrid (1891), which reserved it for the sparkling wine produced in the eponymous region and adhering to the standards defined for it as an Appellation d'origine contrôlée; the protection was reaffirmed in the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. Similar legal protection has been adopted by over 70 countries. Most recently Canada, Australia, and Chile signed agreements with Europe that limit the use of the term "champagne" to only those products produced in the Champagne region. The United States bans the use from all new U.S.-produced wines.[ Only those that had approval to use the term on labels before 2006 may continue to use it and only when it is accompanied by the wine's actual origin (e.g., "California"). The majority of U.S.-produced sparkling wines do not use the term champagne on their labels and some states, such as Oregon, ban producers in their states from using the term.
Even the terms méthode champenoise and champagne method were forbidden by an EU court decision in 1994. As of 2005, the description most often used for sparkling wines not from Champagne yet using the second fermentation in the bottle process is méthode traditionnelle. Sparkling wines are produced worldwide, and many producers use special terms to define them: Spain uses Cava, Italy designates it spumante, and South Africa uses cap classique. An Italian sparkling wine made from the Muscat grape uses the DOCG Asti. In Germany, Sekt is a common sparkling wine. Other French wine regions cannot use the name Champagne: e.g., Burgundy and Alsace produce Crémant. In 2008, more than 3000 bottles of sparkling wine produced in California labeled with the term "Champagne" were destroyed by Belgian government authorities.
The village of Champagne, Switzerland, has traditionally made a still wine labelled as "champagne", the earliest records of viticulture dated to 1657. In an accord with the EU, the Swiss government conceded in 1999 that by 2004 the village would phase out use of the name. Sales dropped from 110,000 bottles a year to 32,000 after the change. In April 2008 the villagers resolved to fight against the restriction following a Swiss open-air vote.
Harvest dates are usually 100 days after flowering, and the exact starting date is fixed by the CIVC. This will be determined by the composition of the grapes so that the sugar levels will be sufficient to produce wines of 10 to 11 percent alcohol whilst retaining sufficient acidity to balance. Chardonnay is usually a week later than the two Pinots. Occurring normally in mid-September, 2007 was an unusually early vintage and starting dates are predicted to be 4-6 weeks ahead of schedule. The grapes are always harvested by hand, and begins in the cool of the dawn to prevent spontaneous fermentation. Picking in full sunlight or in the rain is also avoided. Pressing plants will be located as near to the vineyards as possible to ensure the process can begin as quickly as possible
To ensure the best possible juice quality, the amount of liquid extracted from the grapes is stringently regulated. Inspectors from the CIVC are common sights in the press-houses to ensure this. Traditional flat basket presses are used as it is believed that this is the gentlest form of extraction, due to the large surface area and the small fruit loads allows the juice to drain without picking up harsh tannins along the way. Modern pneumatic bladder presses are also used as they are much faster and less labour intensive. The bunches are always put through whole as the stems and stalks act as a natural sieve for the juice to pass through. The juice is released from the press in the order of quality, the more the fruit is pressed, the higher the uptake of tannins, through skin and seed contact. The best quality juice always comes from the free-run and first pressing. Second pressings may be used but generally for lesser wines or sold off.
Under appellation rules, around 4,000 kilograms (8,800 pounds) of grapes can be pressed to create up to 673 gallons (either 2,550 L or 3,060 L) of juice. The first 541 gallons (either 2,050 L or 2,460 L) are the cuvée and the next 132 gallons (either 500 L or 600 L) are the taille. Prior to 1992, a second taille of 44 gallons (either 167 L or 200 L) was previously allowed. For vintage champagne, 100% of the grapes must come from that vintage year while non-vintage wine is a blend of vintages. Vintage champagne must spend a minimum three years on its lees with some of premier champagne houses keeping their wines on lees for upwards of five to ten years. Non-vintage champagne must spend a minimum of 15 months on the lees.[
Skins and other impurities in the must need to be removed this can be achieved by a filter or centrifuge, but most producers will allow this to occur naturally by gravity settling. If the must is chilled to -5 degrees C, this process will be quicker and more thorough
Once the must has settled the clear juice will be racked off into clean fermentation vats. Small vats allow greater control over the individual components and stainless steel ensures cleanliness. However producers such as Alfred Gratien and Krug still prefer fermentation in oak barrels.Fermentation normally lasts about 10 days and takes palce at about 18-20 C, some producers prefer cooler temperatures to preserve the wines fruitiness. The choice of malolactic fermentation or not is generally a house style decision.This process converts the tart malic acid into the milder lactic acid. The advantage of the process is that it makes wines much more approachable when young. Wines that have not undergone malolactic fermentation are more acidic and sharp in their youth but retain a high level of acidity for a very long time, acting as a preservative.
Once fermentation is complete the wine will be cold stabilized to remove any suspended material, and also to prevent tartrate precipitation at a later stage. It will then be racked off its lees and further clarified by filtering or fining.
The most important stage of the Methode Champenois process and the best example of where art meets science. It requires great skill and experience to create a consistent house style particularly when vintage conditions can vary widely. The cellar master has at his disposal a range of varieties, from different villages and vintages- all of which will be considered through constant tastings- as to what will constitute the final blend. The greater the tasting skill of the blender, the more influence that can be brought to the final blend. At a large house such as Moet, the cellar master has over 800 vats sourced from over 150 villages to choose from. In lesser vintages, reserve wines from previous vintages will be used to achieve balance and consistency. As the blend will contain numerous wines of differing chemical composition, the finished blend will once more have to be clarified, filtered and fined to produce a stable final product free of any impurities. The wine will then undergo its third and final racking. This blend is called as the vin de cuvee or simply cuvee.
Most Champagnes are made from a blend of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, for example 60%/40%. Blanc de blanc ("white from white") Champagnes are made from 100% Chardonnay.
Blanc de noir ("white from black") Champagne is pressed from Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier or a mix of the two.
Liqueur de tirage
After racking the wines will be transferred to the bottling line where the liqueur de tirage mixture which is a mixture of reserve wine, sugar and selected yeast will be added to the base wine prior to bottling to promote a secondary fermentation in the bottle. Sugar is necessary in the blend as all base wines for Champagne are dry, with no fermentable sugars.
During the first alcoholic fermentation, carbon dioxide is formed and dispelled into the air, but during the second fermentation all the carbon dioxide is imprisoned in the bottle. The bottled wines will then be brought down to the cellars where the temperature is a constant 10-12 C, and laid down horizontally on racks to rest and develop their all important sparkle. The cool temperature allows for a slow and gradual fermentation with smaller, finer bubbles produced. During this time the wine will gain creaminess and complexity through the wines contact with the yeast sediment (lees). Restacking and shaking of the bottles is carried out at various intervals to avoid the yeast sticking to the bottle, which could later cause clarification problems. Such shifting of bottles periodically is referred to as poignetage.
Under the Appellation d'origine contrôlée, Champagne requires a minimum of 1.5 years to develop completely. In years where the harvest is exceptional, a vintage (millesimé) is declared and the wine must mature for at least three years.
The amount of added sugar determines the pressure of the bottle. To reach the standard value of 6 bars (600 kPa) inside the bottle, it is necessary to have 18 grams of sugar; the amount of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is regulated by the European Commission (Regulation 1622/2000, 24 July 2000) to be 0.3 gram per bottle. The liqueur de tirage is then a mixture of sugar, yeast and still Champagne wine.
Aging on lees
Non-vintage wine from Champagne cannot legally be sold until it has aged on the lees in the bottle for at least 15 months. Champagne's AOC regulations further require that vintage Champagnes be aged in cellars for three years or more before disgorgement, but most top producers exceed the requirement, holding bottles on the lees for 6 to 8 years.
Once secondary fermentation is completed the dead yeast lees need to be removed from the bottle. Traditionally the bottles are moved to angled wooden racks (pupitres) where each bottle must be gradually riddled ( where the bottles are slowly tilted from a horizontal to vertical position) to encourage the sediment to move down the bottle and into the neck. A skilled remueur can move tens of thousands of bottles in a day, and the whole process can take several months. Today, many houses use the gyropalette, a machine which greatly shortens the riddling time to just over a week.
Moet & Chandon has done an enormous amount of research into the development of the alginate yeast capsules, whereby the yeast are trapped inside the porous beads, and removal is straightforward. This could theoretically make riddling and gyropallettes redundant, however more research is still required as Moet are still not entirely satisfied with the results.
Once the sediment has been moved into the neck, the bottles will be matured sur pointes (upside down or ‘on tiptoe’) for up to five years, with the wine greater complexity through contact with the yeast lees.
The final stage in the production of Champagne where the yeast is finally removed before corking. As this movement briefly exposes the wine to air the operation needs to be performed as quickly as possible to prevent oxidation. As the yeast deposit has moved into the neck space, the bottles are inverted and the necks placed into a freezing brine solution of -28 C. The deposit is half frozen and viscous and easily removed by the pressure of the Champagne as the crown seal is removed. Some winemakers still perform this task by hand, such as Salon, where they wish to check and aerate the wine. The volume of wine lost at disgorgement will be replaced by the dosage.
The dosage or liqueur d’expedition is a mixture of wine and sugar, the level of sweetness will depend on the style required. For young wines that may be dry yet acidic, this dosage will give greater balance and approachability. For wines that have undergone long aging on the yeast lees and gained complexity and roundness with time, dosage may not be required, but will still need topping up with wine after the removal of the sediment. One such example are the brilliant late disgorged wines from Jacquesson, which require no dosage, and show how magnificent aged Champagne can become.
¤ Brut-Naturale: 0-3 gram of sugar per liter (the driest of the dry, unsweetened)
◘ Extra-Brut less than 0-6 gram of sugar per liter (dry, this is the typical style of Champagne with no sweetness)
¤ Brut 0-12 grams of sugar per litre of Champagne
◘ Extra-Dry 12-17 gram of sugar per liter (still dry with a hint of sweetness or slightly sweet)
◘ Sec 17-32 gram of sugar per liter (medium sweet)
◘ Demi-Sec 32-50 gram of sugar per liter (sweet)
◘ Doux more than 50 gram of sugar per liter (Sweetest, very rare and is considered as dessert wine)
Once the liqueur d’expedition has been added the bottles will immediately be corked and shaken to ensure the dosage is mixed in thoroughly with the wine in bottle. The cork will then be held in place by a wire cage called a muselet. Some wines will undergo additional aging on the cork to achieve greater complexity, as the esters introduce further characters such as coffee, caramel and even mushroom notes.
Even experts disagree about the effects of aging on Champagne after disgorgement. Some prefer the freshness and vitality of young, recently disgorged Champagne, and others prefer the baked apple and caramel flavors that develop from a year or more of bottle aging. In 2009, a 184-year-old bottle of Perrier-Jouët was opened and tasted, still drinkable, with notes of "truffles and caramel", according to the experts.
There are more than one hundred Champagne houses and 19,000 smaller vignerons (vine-growing producers) in Champagne. These companies manage some 32,000 hectares of vineyards in the region. The type of Champagne producer can be identified from the abbreviations followed by the official number on the bottle:[
NM: Négociant manipulant. These companies (including the majority of the larger brands) buy grapes and make the wine
CM: Coopérative de manipulation. Cooperatives that make wines from the growers who are members, with all the grapes pooled together
RM: Récoltant manipulant. (Also known as Grower Champagne) A grower that also makes wine from its own grapes (a maximum of 5% of purchased grapes is permitted). Note that co-operative members who take their bottles to be disgorged at the co-op can now label themselves as RM instead of RC
SR: Société de récoltants. An association of growers making a shared Champagne but who are not a co-operative
RC: Récoltant coopérateur. A co-operative member selling Champagne produced by the co-operative under its own name and label
MA: Marque auxiliaire or Marque d'acheteur. A brand name unrelated to the producer or grower; the name is owned by someone else, for example a supermarket
ND: Négociant distributeur. A wine merchant selling under his own name
Types of Champagne
Non vintage Champagne
Most of the Champagne produced today is "Non-vintage", meaning that it is a blended product of grapes from multiple vintages. Most of the base will be from a single year vintage with producers blending anywhere from 10–15% (even as high as 40%) of wine from older vintages.
Prepared exclusively from grapes of a vintage year. Under Champagne wine regulations, houses that make both vintage and non-vintage wines are allowed to use no more than 80% of the total vintage's harvest for the production of vintage Champagne. This allows at least 20% of the harvest from each vintage to be reserved for use in non-vintage Champagne .
A cuvée de prestige is a proprietary blended wine (usually a Champagne) that is considered to be the top of a producer's range. Famous examples include Louis Roederer's Cristal, Laurent-Perrier's Grand Siècle, Moët & Chandon's Dom Pérignon, Duval-Leroy's Cuvée Femme and Pol Roger's Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill. Perhaps the original prestige cuvée was Moët & Chandon's Dom Pérignon launched in 1936 with the 1921 vintage.
Blanc de noirs
A French term (literally "white of blacks") for a white wine produced entirely from black grapes. Black, or red, grapes have a white flesh and grape juice obtained after minimal possible contact with the skins produces white wine, the colour of which is offset by the small amount of red skin pigments and turns into lighter shades of yellow, often described as white-yellow, white-grey, or silvery. It basically refers to a Champagne made entirely from black grapes.
Blanc de blancs
A French term that means "white of whites", and is used to designate Champagnes made exclusively from Chardonnay grapes. A famous example is Ruinart. The term is occasionally used in other sparkling wine-producing regions, usually to denote Chardonnay-only wines rather than any sparkling wine made from other white grape varieties.
The rosé wines of Champagne (also known as Pink Champagne) are produced either by leaving the clear juice of black grapes to macerate on its skins for a brief time (known as the saigneé method) or, more commonly, by adding a small amount of still Pinot noir red wine to the sparkling wine cuvee. Champagne is typically light in colour even if it is produced with red grapes, because the juice is extracted from the grapes using a gentle process that minimizes the amount of time the juice spends in contact with the skins, which is what gives red wine its colour. Rosé Champagne is one of the few wines that allows the production of Rosé by the addition a small amount of red wine during blending. This ensures a predictable and reproducible colour, allowing a constant Rosé colour from year-to-year.
Due to the comparatively high risk and cost of using the saigneé or 'skin contact only' technique, there are very few producers who habitually do not add any additional red wine.
The different sizes and capacities of Champagne bottles seen in the market are
Magnum – 1.5 litres
Champagne is normally fermented in these two sized bottles
Jeroboam – 3 litres
Rehoboam – 4.5 litres
Methuselah – 6 litres
Salmanazar – 9 litres
Balthazar – 12 litres
Nebuchadnezzar – 15 litres
Champagne corks are built from several sections and are referred to as agglomerated corks. The mushroom shape that occurs in the transition is a result of the bottom section, which is in contact with the wine, being composed of two stacked discs of pristine cork, cemented to the upper portion which is a conglomerate of ground cork and glue. Prior to insertion, a sparkling wine cork is almost 50% larger than the opening of the bottle. Originally they start as a cylinder and are compressed prior to insertion into the bottle. Over time their compressed shape becomes more permanent and the distinctive "mushroom" shape becomes more apparent.
The aging of the Champagne post disgorgement can to some degree be told by the cork, as the longer it has been in the bottle the less it returns to its original cylinder shape.
Other methods of sparkling wine production
While the traditional, or "Champagne method", is the most widely known style of production, there are several ways to produce sparkling wine that are less costly in labor.
Metodo Italiano (Charmat process)
The Charmat process is known as Metodo Charmat-Martinotti (or Metodo Italiano) in Italy, where it was invented and is most used. The wine undergoes secondary fermentation in stainless steel tanks or steel vessels covered with vitreous enamel rather than individual bottles, and is bottled under pressure in a continuous process. Many grape varieties, including Prosecco, are best suited for fermentation in tanks. Charmat method sparkling wines can be produced at a slightly lower cost than méthode champenoise wines.
This follows the first steps of "methode champenoise" in that after primary fermentation the cuvée is transferred to bottles to complete secondary fermentation. When the secondary fermentation is complete and the wine has spent the desired amount of time in bottle on yeast lees (six months is the requirement to label a wine 'bottle fermented') then the individual bottles are transferred (hence the name) into a larger tank. The wine is then filtered, the liqueur de dosage added, and then filled back into new bottles for sale. This method allows for complexity to be built into the wine, but also gives scope for blending options after the wine has gone into bottle.
Comparatively inexpensive sparkling wine is made by simple injection of CO2 from a carbonator. This way of manufacturing is not allowed in the European Union.
Abelé, Ayala, Billecart-Salmon, Boizel, Bollinger, Brice, Brun, Bruno Paillard, Burtin - Besserat de Bellefon, Charles Heidsieck, Delamotte, Deutz, Gosset, Heidsieck & Co Monopole, Henriot, Jacquesson, Joseph Perrier, Krug, Lanson, Laurent-Perrier, Mercier, Moët & Chandon, Mumm, Perrier-Jouët, Piper-Heidsieck, Pol Roger, Pommery, Louis Roederer, Ruinart, Taittinger