Chapter 17 the atlantic system & its consequences (1690-1740) key terms introduction

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  1. What were the most important consequences of the growth of the Atlantic System?

Atlantic System --


  1. What might you have previously called (in 7th grade?) the trading system described on p. 520?

  1. The development of the Atlantic System and the growth of international trade helped create a new ______________________________. What does this term mean?

  1. In the New World, why did planters and their plantations win out over smaller, independent farmers?

  1. Analyze Figure 17.1. What would be the impact on both the societies in Africa and the plantations of the New World of the importation of so many African slaves to the Americas?

  1. How did slaves in the Americas manage to show their displeasure with the slavery system?

  1. Why did many Europeans choose to live as “absentee landlords?”

  1. How did the slavery system of the 1700’s lead to the development of racism in the modern world?

  1. How did Europeans expand their trade to the rest of the world (Africa and Asia) in the 1700’s? What was the effect of this?

  1. What were the risks to European women who came to the Americas as indentured servants?

  1. Writings about colonized people increased Europeans interest in the outside world, but also led to _________________________________________________



  1. What happened to Europe’s population between 1700 & 1750? What happened to the population of Europe’s cities? What best explains the start of this modern population explosion?

  1. How was the development of coffeehouses and cafes related to the Consumer Revolution?

  1. A new economic dynamic steadily took shape that would influence all of subsequent history. More and more people escaped the confines of a ______________________________. Demand for ____________________

___________________________ rose. What were some of these “new items” that created more jobs for more people, and thus more income?

Vocabulary Important Terms, People, Places, & Dates

Plantations --

Joint-stock companies --

Quilombos --

Mestizos --

Consumer Revolution --

Middle Passage -- (term not in book)


  1. What were the four changes in British agriculture that led to agricultural output increasing 43% and British population growing by 70% in the 1700’s?

  1. What was the enclosure movement? What was its effect on Britain?

  1. What was the new social hierarchy on British farms in the 1700’s?

  1. Despite these innovations, most Europeans, western and eastern, eked out their existence in the countryside and ________________________________


  1. What were the changing urbanization patterns in Europe by the 1700’s? What does this dramatic shift say about European geographic power and wealth at this time?

  1. Provide a brief overview of the new urban social classes and their lifestyles in the early 1700’s.

    1. Landowners –

    1. Middle Class --

    1. Artisans and shopkeepers --

    1. Unemployed poor --

  1. Has the social living patterns of cities, as described on p. 531, changed much over the past 300 years? Explain.

  1. What was the general trend in literacy in the early 1700’s? What do you suppose will be the effect of a more literate public and increased publication of newspapers and daily periodicals in the near-term and long-term future?

  1. In addition to newspapers, the new, literate public clamored for _______________, attended _____________________, and besieged booksellers in search of _________________________________.

  2. Contrast the new rococo style of painting with the earlier baroque style.

  1. How did music change in this new consumer society?

  1. Why did the novel become so important in the early 1700’s? Has this trend continued into our modern world?

  1. What was Pietism, and where was it most influential?

  1. What effect did the Jansenist movement have on France in the early 1720’s?

  1. Analyze the Taking Measure chart on p. 531. Why is crop yield an important measure of agricultural productivity?

Vocabulary / Important Terms, People, Places, & Dates

Agricultural Revolution --

Tenant farmers --

Domestic servants --

Enclosure movement --

Subsistence agriculture --

Social status was not an abstract idea. It permeated every ____________


Not in Section -- Know these guys

Charles Townsend -- Townshend introduced to England the four-field crop rotation pioneered by farmers in the Waasland region in the early 16th century. The system (wheat, barley, turnips and clover), opened up a fodder crop and grazing crop allowing livestock to be bred year-round, and increased productivity by avoiding leaving the soil uncultivated every third year.

Jethro Tull -- Improved the seed drill, which allowed for seeds to be planted evenly across a field


  1. What effect did the lessening of European wars after the death of Louis XIV have on European nations? What did peace bring?

  1. What condition was France in upon Louis XIV’s death in 1715?

  1. Describe how the terms of the Peace of Utrecht were disadvantageous to France (and Spain).

  1. How did Cardinal Hercule de Fleury stabilize the French economy? What was the effect of his policies?

  1. Describe the succession crisis in England in the early 1700’s and how it was resolved? What was ironic in the elector of Hanover (a German) and his successors becoming monarchs of England?

  1. What restrictions did the Irish Parliament (made up of minority Protestants members) pass against the majority Irish Catholic population? What effect do you suppose this would have on future Anglo-Irish relations?

  1. What voting restrictions existed in England in the early 1700’s? What was the effect of this?

  1. What was Robert Walpole’s legacy?

  1. What military and financial forces enabled Great Britain to become the dominant world power in the early 1700’s?

  1. What were several reasons for the decline of the Dutch as a trading power in the early 1700’s?

  1. When did Peter the Great rule as czar of Russia?

  2. Peter transformed public life in Russia and established an _______________

___________________ on the ___________________ model.

  1. What were several ways in which Peter the Great attempted to Westernize (make it more like Europe) Russia?

  1. Analyze the cartoon in the box on p. 541, Peter the Great Modernizes Russia. Why was everyday appearance such a contested issue in Russia?

  1. How was the city of St. Petersburg a physical symbol of Peter’s desire to Westernize Russia?

  1. Hw were the lives of the great majority of Russia’s people affected by Peter’s policies?

  1. How were several ways that Peter the Great worked to create an absolutist state in Russia?

  1. How did the result of the Great Northern War and the Treaty of Nystad (1721) affect Swedish power? What did it represent for Russian power?

  1. How did King Frederick William I develop Prussia into a modern military state?

  1. Describe how a “balance of power” came to Europe in the early 1700’s and the effect this had on Europe.

  1. Why did public health become a major area of concern for European governments in the early 1700’s? How did the compilation of population statistics become a governmental area of interest at this time?

  1. As a result of these (public health) efforts, _____________________________ undertook such measures as draining ___________________________, burying _____________________, and cleaning _________________, all of which eventually helped lower the __________________________________


  1. What positive changes took place in hospitals in the early 1700’s?

  1. How did Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, and later Edward Jenner, revolutionize the treatment of infectious diseases?

Vocabulary / Important Terms, People, Places, & Dates

Act of Union of 1707 --

Constitutional system / constitutional monarchy --

patronage --

Westernization --

Triennial Act of 1694 –

Table of Ranks (1722) --


Ch. 16, sec. 3 -- Social Contract Theory: Hobbes and Locke

  1. Both Hobbes and Locke argued that all authority came not from diving right, but from a __________________________________ among citizens.

  2. Why did Thomas Hobbes insist in Leviathan that absolutism, whether in a king or a parliament, was the best form of government?

  1. Why did Hobbes’ theories enrage both royalists and parliamentarians? Why did many eventually link his governmental theories to Machiavelli?

  1. How did Locke’s theories on human nature contrast with Hobbes?

  1. According to Locke, what was the function of government? How are Locke’s ideas linked to the American Declaration of Independence in 1776?

  1. Why were Locke’s ideas on human nature, expressed in Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) so influential?


1. social contract --

2. life, liberty, and property --

3. tabula rasa --

Ch. 17, sec. 4 -- The Birth of the Enlightenment

  1. According to pp. 545 & 546, what did Enlightenment writers believe? What did they glorify, and what did they champion as the solution for all of society’s problems?

  1. What theory accepted in our modern world did Pierre Bayle contribute? On what did he base his ideas?

  1. Why would religious skepticism and the publication of religiously critical books work to undermine state power as well?

  1. How did Voltaire’s early writings express skepticism of the French government and why was his publication of Newton’s scientific ideas worrisome to the French government?

  1. How did travel accounts like Baron de Montesquieu’s Persian Letters (1721) criticize European society?

  1. Outside of the textbook because it does not really go into detail, research Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws (1748). What were its main ideas? Where would these eventually become influential?

  1. Women writers began to use the language of _________________ and _______________ to argue for concrete changes in their status. ________________ ideas were not entirely new, but they were presented systematically for the first time during the ________________________ and represented a fundamental ___________________ to the ways of traditional societies.

  2. How did Mary Astell reflect these new ideas in her writings?

  1. How did most male writers react to these new ideas of early Enlightenment female writers?

Vocabulary / Important Terms, People, Places, & Dates

Enlightenment --

“noble savages” --

Ovism --

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