Combating human trafficking: broadening the perspective

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Report delivered at “Stop Child Trafficking Conference”

Helsinki, Finland, 1-3 June 2003
by Gloria Moreno-Fontes Chammartin

International Migration Programme

ILO, Geneva

  1. Introduction

The International Labour Organisation, as the UN specialized agency on labour issues, is concerned by the labour dimensions of human trafficking. The ILO views trafficking as an assault on human dignity and a denial of a person’s opportunity to make the most of his or her resources and to contribute to the economic development of his or her nation. The exploitation suffered by victims of trafficking is contrary to “full, productive and freely chosen employment” – even more so for trafficked children, who often suffer the loss of their potential to become productive adults.

The ILO considers trafficking of human beings as unacceptable under any circumstances, and trafficking of vulnerable children and young people as an intolerable violation of their rights to protection from exploitation, to play, to an education, to health and to family life. The ILO sees trafficking in women and children as one of the fast growing human rights abuses that is linked to economic gain involving people being moved from place to place by parties seeking economic profits from them.

The ILO has stood resolutely against the dangerous proposition that human labour should be valued merely as a commodity. The organization acts forcefully against forced labour of adults and children alike. The increasing role of employers’ and workers’ organisations, as well as governments’ in its work against trafficking in human beings into labour and sexual exploitation is ILO’s key response to the phenomenon.

Anti-trafficking policy and action is central to the spirit of the ILO Charter, whose preamble specifically refers to the duty to protect ‘the interests of workers employed in countries other than their own’, and the goals of social justice, humanity and permanent peace. Given these over-arching aims, there is no one part of the ILO ‘responsible’ for anti-trafficking efforts but rather a complementary effort by several different parts of the organization: Cross-border trafficking is becoming widespread in all regions, as economic differentials between neighbouring countries widen and reflect increased people movement in general. Trafficking could be considered as a response to the demand of labour within the country and across national borders.

Drawing upon its long and diverse expertise in analysis and understanding of labour markets and mechanisms, labour migration, forced labour, child labour, gender issues, project management, partnerships and networks, the ILO has a unique role to play in combating trafficking worldwide. In articulating its anti-trafficking efforts in a broad labour migration, forced labour and child labour framework, the ILO has carved out a niche for itself that both complements the work of partner agencies and avoids duplication. Over a number of years, the ILO has gained significant experience in a number of programme areas including training and capacity building, technical cooperation, support to the development of not only national but also regional policy, and advocacy and research. This experience is all being harnessed in efforts to combat human trafficking.

With its unique tripartite structure, the ILO is ideally placed to build social consensus around some of the difficult issues linked to labour trafficking. This includes, for example, how to monitor the activities of contracting intermediaries in origin and destination countries; how to find the right balance between the promotion of private employment agencies in the interests of greater labour market efficiency and adequate supervision of such agencies to ensure they do not collude with criminal trafficking activities. To global anti-trafficking work, the ILO brings the unique strengths of its tripartite structure, its working links with ministries of labour and labour-focused bodies, its standards-based framework and the supervisory mechanisms that contribute to translating commitments into effective action, and its long history of social dialogue.

Activities include data collection, skills training, employment services, labour inspection, micro-finance and projects implemented in collaboration with workers’ and employers’ organizations. In the early stages, already, a body of research is being developed to inform new programmes and projects that will target forced labour as a major component of trafficking.

  1. The ILO, a Standards’ based organisation

The International Labour Organization (ILO) was created to promote social justice as the foundation of international peace, specifically by articulating and supervising fundamental human rights in the world of work. Throughout its standards-related work, the ILO has dealt with the issue of human trafficking in relation to forced labour, the abuse of migrant workers, discrimination at work (particularly where certain sections of society, such as women or indigenous peoples, are affected), and as one of the worst forms of child labour.

The ILO has for a long time addressed child trafficking through its Forced Labour Convention (No. 29) that aims to eradicate “all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily”. Since 1999, the combat against trafficking has been reinforced by ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182). This powerful instrument confirms child trafficking as a practice similar to slavery and calls for countries to take immediate action to secure the prohibition and elimination of all worst forms of child labour. By the end of March 2002, 117 member countries had ratified Convention No. 182. In the framework of Conventions Nos. 29 and 182, States Parties will report on measures taken to combat child trafficking and other worst forms of child labour, allowing the organization to monitor progress made by member states and facilitating the sharing of information worldwide.

Convention 182 (Art.1) specifies that “Each Member which ratifies this Convention shall take immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour as a matter of urgency”.

It defines the trafficking of children as a practice similar to slavery (Art.3) and tasks ratifying states with designing and implementing programmes of action to eliminate it as a priority, “in consultation with government institutions and employers’ and workers’ organizations, taking into consideration the views of other concerned groups as appropriate”.
In addition, the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work adopted in June 1998 was drafted in the same spirit of social justice that had inspired earlier conventions and, indeed, the creation of the ILO itself. It represents ‘social ground rules founded on common values to enable all those involved to claim their fair share of the wealth they have helped to generate’,i and it is complemented with mechanisms for follow-up that ensure that the Declaration is translated into action.
The Declaration embodies four imperatives:

  • Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;

  • The elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour;

  • The effective abolition of child labour;

  • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

  1. ILO’s Tripartite Structure

ILO’s tripartite structure allows for cooperation between employers, workers and governments in the work carried out by the Organisation. ILO has always been a unique forum where governments and social partners from 174 member States have had the opportunity to freely and openly compare their experiences and national policies. Thanks to its tripartite structure, ILO is the only global organization whose policy and programmes are decided on by representatives of employers and workers on an equal footing with government representatives.

ILO also encourages the development of a tripartite system within member States through the promotion of a social dialogue involving trade unions and employers in the formulation and eventual implementation of national policies on the protection of national and foreign workers, particularly with regard to social and economic issues.

  1. ILO’s Anti-trafficking Strategies in The Field

The ILO’s experience and expertise in combating trafficking in children, and in general in human beings, show that, in order to be effective and meaningful, interventions to tackle the problem must be broad-based and comprehensive and should involve government, employers’ and workers’ organisations, as well as non-governmental organisations.

Prevention is key

The ILO’s expertise in developing skills and employment opportunities as a protection and prevention measure against exploitation in general and trafficking more specifically will continue to be developed. This is an area where the ILO can and does work not only with NGOs and government partners but with employers’ and with workers’ organizations. Targeted awareness raising also aims to prevent people falling into the hands of traffickers, and can be carried out at many levels, from village community to shopfloor. The prevention component is key to addressing the root causes of trafficking in human beings and includes the following components:

  • direct support to children at risk and their families through income generating activities, financial schemes and skills training to help the parents meet the basic needs of the family and to avoid children dropping out of school;

  • educational and vocational training opportunities for victims (especially girls) who are often discriminated against in their societies and are the first to fall prey to traffickers;

  • community mobilization and awareness raising in vulnerable areas in order to create a common sense of responsibility among the people to protect potential victims from the traffickers.

Withdrawal and repatriation

It is important to identify and locate trafficked persons, evaluate their needs, protect them from further abuse and withdraw them from their exploitative situation in a carefully planned and sensitive manner through:

  • involvement and collaboration of law enforcement and legal authorities to make sure that victims are treated with all considerations due to their age, protected from traffickers and employers, and safely repatriated to their countries of origin;

  • transit centres play an important role in responding the immediate needs of victims on their ways back home;

  • programmes that seek to sensitise, train and strengthen the capacities of national partners;

  • bilateral and regional cooperation to harmonize anti-trafficking legislation that would facilitate both the repatriation of victims and the prosecution of traffickers and abusers.


Finally, reintegration programmes are at the heart of all anti-trafficking strategies. What specific ILO activities are available to support reintegration?

  • services for returnees, including medical care, psycho-social rehabilitation schemes, legal counselling, formal or non-formal education and vocational training. For children or very young victims, a solution is sought whenever possible to reintegrate them in their families.

Successful reintegration schemes are long-term endeavours that require monitoring and regular follow up of each victim several months after he/she has left the programme.

V. ILO’s Specialised Programmes

a) ILO’s International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)

Within the ILO, action against the trafficking of children has been undertaken since 1992 primarily through the International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). Guided by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and ILO Convention 182, IPEC works towards the effective elimination of trafficking of children by addressing its root causes. IPEC conducts action research on child trafficking; supports the efforts of governments, workers’ and employers’ organizations and civil society in the prevention of trafficking, in the rescue, repatriation and restoration of the rights of victims and in strengthening the judiciary and police in prosecuting offenders.

IPEC’s in-country programmes are reinforced by action at the subregional level, because it is recognized that concerted action is needed in both sending and receiving countries to stop child trafficking that occurs across borders. IPEC strives to mobilize public opinion against trafficking so that society as a whole is mobilized to support and sustain action. The ILO tackles child labour not as an isolated issue, but as an integral part of national efforts for economic and social development. ILO’s slogan is: Parents to Work, children to school

World Day Against Child Labour 2003- The 12th of June 2003 will mark the second year that the International Labour Organization will be leading the observance of World Day Against Child Labour. The ILO launched the World Day last year as a way to highlight the worldwide movement to eliminate child labour, particularly its worst forms. It is hoped that the selection of child trafficking as a theme will help raise worldwide visibility and focus attention to this egregious violation of children’s rights that comprises one of the worst forms of child labour. It is an opportunity to gain further support of individual governments as well as that of the social partners, civil society and others to the larger issue of child labour and the worldwide movement to eliminate it.

By no means a new phenomenon and affecting 1.2 million children worldwide, child trafficking is an issue that affects all regions of the world as most countries are sending, receiving and/or transit countries for trafficked children. Additionally, in some countries, children are trafficked internally from rural areas to urban centres. Certain categories of worst forms of child labour are consistently being denied in many countries, with the trafficking of children being no exception.

Most children continue to be trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation. However, many children are also trafficked into other forms of labour exploitation, including domestic service, armed conflict, service industries like restaurants and bars, and hazardous work in factories, agriculture, construction, fishing and begging.

The trafficking of children results from the unmet demand for cheap and malleable labour in general, as well as the demand for young girls and boys in the fast-growing commercial sex sector. Though children are generally less productive than adults, they are easier to abuse, less assertive and less able to claim their rights – and accordingly, can be made to work longer hours with little food, poor accommodations and no benefits.

Cases of child trafficking have been reported in South Asia, South-East Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe, with patterns of trafficking in the Americas and Caribbean only now beginning to emerge. South Asia, South-East Asia, Central and West Africa show particularly high numbers.

IPEC has recently published a pamphlet “Combat the trafficking of children” and a booklet “Unbearable to the human heart: Child trafficking and action to eliminate it” that provide a wealth of information on this subject. The publications are available in electronic form on the IPEC website. Click on “Knowledge Areas” and then “Child Trafficking”).

ILO-IPEC :Website: email:
b) ILO’s Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL)
The creation of the Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL), has given increased impetus to ILO’s efforts to combat trafficking. The SAP-FL approaches trafficking through the exploitation component of forced labour. It aims to significantly raise global awareness of forced labour and to build integrated operational programmes that involve as many as possible of the ILO’s technical capacities.

Since June 2002, SAP-FL has worked with ILO-IPEC in Albania, Moldova, Romania and Ukraine to address supply factors through research on the nature and dynamics of various stages of the trafficking process, labour market conditions that provoke demand for irregular workers, recruitment mechanisms through irregular labour institutions, and the role of state authorities and civil society organizations. The programme works with at-risk groups to provide alternative forms of livelihood in their places of origin, and addresses the role of migration management and job placement systems in countries of origin and transit. Rapid assessment studies on trafficking for labour and sexual exploitation have been completed in four European countries of origin: Ukraine, Moldova, Rumania and Albania. The main findings of this research indicate that trafficking for labour exploitation is widespread and that it occurs mainly in construction, agriculture, the sex sector and domestic services. Women make up the majority of victims as they can be trafficked for labour as well as sexual exploitation.

The studies have been discussed during a series of workshops (April-May 2003) within the four countries with the objective to validate the results and to recommend further action. Recommendations include legal reponses (identification of victims, protection and prosecution) and strategies to improve employment and migration services, to reduce poverty by targeting vulnerable groups and specific communities. Project proposals are currently being developed.

SAP-FL has also recognized the need to complement ILO-IPEC’s work to combat child trafficking in Asia, for example, by focusing on trafficking of young adults who have emerged from childhood but who are particularly vulnerable to exploitation as they seek to enter the labour market. In February 2003, SAP-FL held a programme consultation on the protection of domestic workers against the threats of forced labour and trafficking. This focused on the lack of legislative protection, of government services, and of organization and a voice for local and migrant domestic workers. Some good practices were identified and will be built on as future technical cooperation programmes are developed.

Meticulous research of this kind is now needed on a global basis. SAP-FL has begun to do research on the forced labour outcomes of trafficking for either labour or sexual exploitation in a number of countries to which people are trafficked. A first pilot study was carried out in France. This was followed up in Germany, Hungary, Turkey and Russia. The results of this research will be drafted until the end of August (June for Turkey). At the same time, a major study on forced labour in the Chinese communities of France and Italy is being prepared. An initial paper on the background of trafficking from China to Europe will be published by the end of June. The paper indicated that forms of coercion, especially through debt relationships, play an important role in the “ethnic business” of Chinese communities. The main sectors are small manufacturing, retail and restaurants.

In mid-2003, SAP-FL will embark on a study of forced labour and trafficking in the United States. Forced labour is widely believed to affect irregular migrants in a number of sectors in the US economy -- domestic labour, commercial sex, agriculture, sweatshop factory work and the service and food service industries – but reliable data are scarce. Through careful case research, in collaboration with relevant US Government agencies, this initiative can strengthen the application of the US 2000 law for the protection of trafficking victims.

SAP-FL has developed plans to carry out similar studies in the destination countries of West Africa and South East Asia, and to examine the complex flows that involve many countries, both rich and poor, as origin or destination countries of human trafficking. Once there is a solid knowledge base, then targeted programmes can be designed to address many different points along the trafficking chain.
ILO-SAP-FL :Website:


c) ILO’s International Migration Branch (MIGRANT)
Because so many victims of forced labour and trafficking are migrant workers, research and action should be carried out in different geographical areas, including destination countries of trafficked people. MIGRANT analyses ILO perspective and experience in combating exploitation of migrant workers by organized crime in its broader labour migration and regulatory context. It outlines labour migration demand and push factors, describes incentives for trafficking arising from absence of regular migration channels, offers specific examples of migrant abuse, and presents proposals for comprehensive migration measures to combat trafficking and reduce underlying pressures.

There is a serious gap in research on the area of demand for cheap and malleable labour that constitutes a major ‘pull’ factor in trafficking. The ILO is uniquely placed to fill this knowledge gap, in cooperation with workers’ and employers’ organizations and with research institutes and individual researchers. In particular, more research is needed in countries to which trafficking victims are moved – the destination countries which are more often than not developed, industrialized countries that are rarely the focus of anti-trafficking initiatives.

Understanding the context in which forced labour takes place in destination countries also provides a more solid basis for the development of effective rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration programmes. These must include working with host governments to ensure that trafficked people are identified as such, and not immediately deported as illegal migrants. The ILO will continue to work with member States to provide technical cooperation in the development of policies and frameworks that respect the rights of all workers, regardless of their status.

National Plans of Action against Trafficking, which have been developed in some countries largely in response to calls to combat commercial sexual exploitation of women and children, can be further developed to address broader issues of human trafficking and forced labour. These complement the development of sensible migration policies that allow labour migration to be managed in such a way that the traffickers are, quite literally, put out of business.

ILO’s research work will continue to focus on specific mechanisms that might facilitate trafficking, such as job placement agencies, the transport sector and private migrant worker reception and accommodation services. Specific sectors identified as receivers of trafficked labour will also come under closer scrutiny. Future programmes will strengthen institutional capacities to combat trafficking in all these areas.

At the same time, there is a continuing need to monitor anti-trafficking policies and actions to ensure that they do not restrict legitimate labour migration or close the door to employment for people who need work. The ILO has pointed to both the opportunities and the dangers of using the label ‘trafficking’ without full understanding of the different components that it covers.

Bringing together issues such as coerced recruitment, facilitated regular and irregular migration, forced labour, child labour and debt bondage under the label of ‘trafficking in human beings’ can be used to work against the interests of migrants and the legitimate right of people to move and to seek work. Current debate on trafficking leans heavily on law enforcement, crime prevention and national security. These lead to calls for stricter border controls, sanctions on those who seek to move, and deportation for those who do so outside migration laws. There is now an urgent need for a broader perspective involving a wide range of government and non-governmental agencies. Labour, as well as Interior, ministries should take responsibility for anti-trafficking measures. Law enforcement should include labour regulatory and inspection mechanisms; workers and employers should likewise be included in policy discussions.


d) ILO’s gender promotion programme (GENPROM)
GENPROM focuses on new and emerging areas of gender concern and especially vulnerable groups of women workers, also has programmes in the area of trafficking. GENPROM works through developing the information base and practical tools for action, through awareness raising and advocacy efforts, and through direct action programmes to empower women and reduce their vulnerability.

GENPROM just published the Information Guide on Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant Workers that includes case studies on good practices in eleven member countries (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Italy, Japan, Ethiopia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Philippines Romania, Sri Lanka and UAE). The information guide which is comprised of six individual booklets, aims at assisting and enhancing the efforts of government agencies, workers’ and employers’ organisations, non-governmental organisations and civil society groups in sending, transit and destination countries to protect the human rights of women migrant workers in the different stages of the migration process. The Guide intends :

  • To enhance knowledge and understanding of the vulnerability of women migrant workers to discrimination, exploitation and abuse throughout all stages of the international migration process, including being trafficked;

  • To promote and improve legislation, policies and action to prevent such discrimination, exploitation and abuse and better protect those women migrant workers who are vulnerable, and

  • To emphasize and explain why and how the prevention of discrimination, exploitation and abuse, including trafficking, of women migrant workers should be addressed as a matter of:

    • Upholding basic human rights, including labour rights and migrant rights;

    • Promoting gender equality and ending all forms of discrimination, racism and xenophobia;

    • Promoting decent and productive work for all workers, women and men, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity; and

    • Eradicating poverty and social exclusion


The Department on International Labour Standards and Human Rights, NORMES, is responsible, under the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, for the examination of reports supplied by Governments on the application of ratified Conventions that are relevant to the issue of trafficking. NORMES specialists draw the attention of Governments to these problems and to means of solving them from a labour standards perspective. This contributes to the fuller respect of the human and labour rights of trafficked persons.
ILO-NORMES :Website:,

PANEL DISCUSSION: “The Labour Dimensions of Human Trafficking”-

June 4th, 2003 in ILO’s headquarters
ILO’s Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, the Gender Promotion Programme and the International Migration Programme are jointly organizing a panel discussion as a side event of the International Labour Conference of 2003. The panel discussion aims to highlight the labour dimensions of human trafficking and the ILO’s contribution to combating the problem worldwide.

International Labour Organisation

4 route des Morillons

CH-1211 Geneva 22



Annex 1: The Global Picture


Central to the phenomenon of trafficking in Africa is abuse of the tradition of placing children with extended families or other care-takers when they cannot be cared for by their parents. Conflict has also contributed to the trafficking of children, not only by increasing their vulnerability but also through militia-initiated abduction and exploitation. Children are trafficked for domestic service, in family businesses, commercial sex, on plantations and mine sites and general labour. Children are also trafficked to work with militias in conflict zones


Patterns of trafficking in the Americas and Caribbean are only now beginning to emerge. Much of the trafficking is tourism-driven, pulling children to resort areas to work in tourism-related labour. Criminal operations organized around drugs and contraband are also reported to be getting involved in human trafficking. Children are trafficked as seasonal labour, in service sector jobs, as domestic help, as drug couriers and for commercial sex.


The countries of this region are in general affluent countries with poor neighbours, and trafficking in both adults and children into the region is characterized by pull-driven migration into labour and in particular commercial sex. Parallel to this, semi-commercial transactions such as mail-order bride schemes and the activities of organized crime syndicates also result from the juxtaposition of affluent and impoverished lifestyles. Children are trafficked for unskilled work, into commercial sex, as mail-order brides or ‘sons’.


Trafficking into Western Europe is a variant of the push- and pull-driven pattern, with the

demand for commercial sex, creating a large market for children and young people following promises of income and economic independence. In Northern Europe, there is a clear pattern of trafficking between the poorer Baltic States and the affluent cities of Scandinavia, reflecting historical as well as geographical links, following sea trade and exchange routes and traditional patterns of movement. Children are trafficked into begging, street hawking, unskilled labour and commercial sex.


Trafficking through and out of the countries of this region is characterized by the push of dysfunctional societies in the wake of economic depression and societal dislocation, and the involvement of small-scale crime. Children and especially adolescents are trafficked into service industries and the entertainment sector, for the sex trade and for pornography and as mail-order brides.


Trafficking from Eastern Europe combines a number of push- and pull-patterns. Dysfunctional societies, severe and increasing poverty and unemployment, conflict and expectations of greater opportunities, push children, young people and adults into the clutches of traffickers. Open borders and functioning criminal routes and networks come into play alongside regular migration. Children are trafficked for unskilled labour, work in the entertainment sector and for commercial sex. Some are used for petty crime.


Trafficking in South-East Asia is predominantly from rural to urban areas, from poor to wealthier country. It reflects both the growth in the sex industry and the commoditization of children and women. Children are trafficked into the sex sector but also for a wide range of service, industrial and agricultural work, as well as to beg and hawk on the streets. Young women are also recruited as mail-order brides and for domestic service.


In South Asia, trafficking is an extension of the very serious child labour problem, with poverty, families and ignorance determinant in the vulnerability of children to exploitation. These also characterize the nature of trafficking, which revolves around deception, debt bondage and economic imbalance. Children are trafficked into commercial sex, into carpet and garment factories, for street hawking and begging, on construction projects, tea plantations, in manufacturing or in brick kilns. Young boys are trafficked to work as camel jockeys. In some countries, children are exploited by militia members as servants or combatants.


Trafficking in these conjoined regions is for both labour and commercial sex, with the same gender discrimination-driven supply but different sources of demand. Children are trafficked to work in domestic service and commercial sex. Boys are trafficked into the region as ‘camel kids’ and children also work in general unskilled labour.

Annex 2. ILO-IPEC Regional Programmes

In October 1999 ILO-IPEC launched a major subregional programme in West/Central Africa. Phase I comprised a mapping of the problem and responses in the region and the development of national plans of action and a regional strategy. Phase II, which began in May 2001, sees the implementation of this strategy through awareness-raising campaigns among at-risk groups, community-level protection projects, law-enforcement capacity building, networking among social actors, broad-ranging rehabilitation and reintegration programmes and the provision of alternatives for children at risk and their parents. Support is also given to multi- and bilateral cross-border agreements between countries in the region. Further information:

Mr. Michel Gregoire

Chief Technical Adviser

Combating Trafficking in Children for Labour Exploitation in West and Central Africa

ILO RO Abidjan

01B.P. 3960

Abidjan 01

Côte d’Ivoire
Tel: +

Fax: +

In February 2002, ILO-IPEC launched a three-year programme to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children in seven countries of Central America: Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and the Dominican Republic. The programme aims to create synergies among the national initiatives in the region, to establish and facilitate cross-sectoral cooperation among the countries and to strengthen the capacities of major actors through training, technical support and the sharing of good practice and pilot models for action. Further information:

Ms. Carmen Moreno

Subregional Adviser

Combating Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Central America and Mexico

ILO San José

Apartado 10170-1000

San José

Costa Rica

Tel: +506.280.72.23

Fax: +506.280.69.91



In early 2002, ILO-IPEC developed a programme to combat trafficking of children and young people for labour and sexual exploitation in the Balkans (Albania, Romania, Moldova) and Ukraine. The first phase of this programme seeks to identify a strategy for concerted action against trafficking through situation analysis and appraisal of existing responses in the region. This will include further development of ILO’s Rapid Assessment methodology on the worst forms of child labour, training for national partners in using these research tools, operational reviews, workshops and analysis. On the basis of the lessons drawn from this, a comprehensive action programme will be developed, focusing on prevention and reintegration. For further information:

Mr. Klaus Guenther

Combating child and youth trafficking in the Balkan Countries and Ukraine


International Labour Office

4, routes des Morillons

CH-1211 Geneva 22

Tel: + 41.22.799.8181

Fax: + 41.22.799.8771


In Brazil and Paraguay, ILO-IPEC has been active since January 2001 in mapping the incidence of exploitation in the border areas of the two countries, and in programmes to build institutional capacity, raise awareness and mobilize community-based protection mechanisms, rescue and care for exploited children. Further information:

Ms. Ferreira de Souza

Chief Technical Adviser

Programme on Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents on the Paraguayan and Brazilian Border

Pecheco, 4546

Departamento B

(entre Seravi y Legión Civil Estrangera)

Villa Morra


Tel: +595.21.612.770

Fax : +595.21.612.770

Email :


The subregional project to Combat Trafficking in Children in South Asia began in 1998 with research, consultation and analysis, leading to a two-year regional project, covering Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The project supports local implementing partners in the areas of research, capacity building, policy development and legislation, prevention, recovery and reintegration of trafficked children. Anti-trafficking units have been supported within government structures and surveillance units have been set up with computerized monitoring of rescued victims. Youth groups have been mobilized and supported and a strategy for effective rehabilitation has been developed. Further information:

Tine Staermose

Chief Technical Adviser

Combat the Trafficking of Children for Exploitative Employment (Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka)

ILO Kathmandu


Ring Road



Tel: +977.

Fax: +977.


ILO-IPEC’s Mekong subregional project to combat Trafficking in Children and Women began in 1998 with research, consultation and analysis, leading to a three-year pilot intervention phase, covering Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, China (Yunnan Province). During this phase, national sub-offices worked with local actors in implementing projects in education and skills training, alternative livelihood promotion, legal literacy and awareness raising. A regional strategic framework added to these national actions capacity building, advocacy and cross-border consultation and policy discussion. Further information:

Hervé Berger

Chief Technical Adviser

Subregional project to combat Trafficking in Children and Women in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region

ILO ROAP Bangkok

P. O. Box 2-349

Bangkok - 10200


Tel: +

Fax: +



Mr. Frans Roselaers, Director, IPEC

Tel: + 41-22-799-8181

Fax: + 41-22-799-8771



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