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The conflicts between the individuals can arise for the various reasons. First of all it is the contradictions (in a more common case - incongruity) interests of the individuals. In compilation of formal models of turning out here conflicts the mathematical game theory is engaged. Other large group of the reasons of conflicts - misunderstanding between the individuals. To receive a formal model of such conflict it is much more difficult, as 1) it is not connected in any way to the concrete objectives of the individuals and 2) misunderstandings - too difficult object for understanding and learning, let alone it a quantitative estimation.

If to discard the elementary case of misunderstanding between the people called(caused) by distinction in a education level, we shall receive a main interesting situation, when the misunderstanding is called by deep distinctions in character (logic) of thinking of the individuals. These distinctions practically do not depend on derivation, are rather steady in time and result in serious conflicts, both on individual, and at a group level.

Each individual in thinking uses (more often unconsciously) logic theory. Last is divided on two-place and many-valued, which essentially differ. Therefore all individuals as logic of thinking we shall divide on two-place and many-valued meaner. Their distinctions in the following:

1) For two-place meaner any statement can have only two truth values: is true or is false, and the negation gives one another. For many-valued meaner it can have three and more truth values, and the negation of one value can give anyone another, depending on definition of negation. 2) For two-place meaner the returning to any statement is possible by its double negation. For many-valued meaner this returning not always is possible. 3) For two-place meaner is always true or given statement or it negation - the third possibility is eliminated. For many-valued meaner in one cases the given statement, in others - it negation, in third - other statements, distinct from that and from other is true. 4) For two-place meaner the given statement and it negation cannot be simultaneously true; when one is true, another false and on the contrary. For many-valued meaner the simultaneous truth that and other is not eliminated.

Our hypothesis consists in the following. For two-place meaner the many-valued thinking is unintelligible, as it contains unusual, from it the points of view, representations, such as the insufficiency of two truth values (is true or is false) or two estimations of acts (kindly and angry), the impossibility of simplis transition from one values to other on rules of a type " is not true - false", " is no kind - angry " etc. The misunderstanding carries on to suspiciousness and, eventually, to conflicts.


For computer-aided tutoring (CT) the use of a knowledgebase (KB), containing information about investigated data domain (DD) is necessary. Such model of DD (not like in models based on data bases) will «realize» itself and will have a possibility to react on trainee’s action.

Such model takes into account 3 aspects:

  • Reflection of a model of human intelligence;

  • The correspondence to the level of formalization of knowledge concept nowadays;

  • The correspondence to modern technologies of tutoring (technical and structural).

The creation of KB is always connected with knowledge concepts. For systems of CT the principal point is, that KB should correspond to the model of human intelligence. The deepest researches of human intelligence are carried in psychology. The analysis of outcomes, accumulated in psychology, allows to make two basic conclusions:

1) Everyone admits the complexity of intelligence as an object of a research. At the same time, its models are created as simple structures, giving no possibility to reflect the variety intelligence properties realizations.

2) All the mentioned models are psychological models. The models only reflect reality. As applied to education the rational model is necessary, i.e. it’s needed to set a certain ideal, and to be operational - to help trainee in defining the paths for high intellectual level formation.

The model of intelligence intended for a solution of the educational tasks, should integrate and generalize the outcomes, accumulated in psychology, in artificial intelligence and in theory of problem solving. The model should be constructed with complicated structure.

The basic characteristic of intelligence is the ability to be guided and to purposefully operate in a new, problematic situation (PS); intelligence is the ability to set, comprehend and solve problems.

Among the variety of knowledge concept models the most acceptable for KB creation for CT is frame model, as a model always being strictly hierarchical. In the frame model the concretezation comes «from above downwards» - from the level of projection to the level of a realization. From the point of view of logic of construction, the frames reflect a concept of human knowledge very precisely.

For a trainee PS in such model will look like a chain of frames of unknown length, with a known start frame. The solution of PS is the search for all elements of the chain. Due to its interior structure (the presence of large number of connections, sometimes of different types), the frame-based KB will always be able to ask itself questions. The question is a frame with an empty slot. The construction of a model of activity in a problematic situation as a multilevel structure includes four basic procedures: the situation analysis, the synthesis of variants, the analysis of variants, selection of a preferable variant. The procedures are realized at different levels of a generality - from the most common exposition of uncomfortable situation up to detailed exposition of operational plan.

The evaluation of knowledge should be made on the basis of effectiveness of a PS solving. Such mode of monitoring will allow deeper understanding of DD by the trainee, than in case of simply answering the questions.

On this basis we conclude that:

  • It is necessary to develop a model of DD in correspondence with the model of human intelligence;

  • It is necessary to highlight basic cognitive structures of knowledge.

The fundamental likeness of KB, constructed on the above described principles, with one of the modern forms of tutoring - developing - presumes that in both cases the trainee is viewed as a self-determining subject, and not the object of a tutor’s actions.

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