Crete was the Mediterranean island that this highly-cultured capital city was located on



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*Knossos

  1. Crete was the Mediterranean island that this highly-cultured capital city was located on

  2. The ancient people who lived there were called Minoans (this was named after their king)

  3. Minotaur was the monster that inhabited the labyrinth

  4. It was the capital city of the Minoans

  5. Sir Arthur Evans excavated here

***Thera

  1. Said to be the legendary lost city of Atlantis

  2. The volcano destroyed this place

  3. The name of the island today is Santorini

  4. There is now a 8 mile wide crater there

  5. Plato wrote about it

**Mycenae

  1. Agamemnon was the legendary king of this citadel/city

  2. H. Schliemann was the archaeologist who excavated there

  3. There are 2 stone lions above the gate leading into the city

  4. They fought Persia with 1,000 ship expedition around 1150 B.C.

  5. Cassandra was brought there by Agamemnon

  6. Clytemnestra was queen while Agamemnon was king

  7. Is the capital of the Mycenaean civilization

**Homer

  1. His 2 most famous works were the Illiad and the Odyssey

  2. He is the historian of the Trojan war

  3. His occupation was a bard or poet

  4. He was blind

  5. He wrote about things a long time after they happened so the facts may have been exaggerated for the sake of the story

***Delphi

  1. Apollo has his major temple site there

  2. Phthia were the priestess/prophetess there otherwise known as the oracle

  3. There was a stone there that was considered to be the naval of the Earth’s anatomy

  4. Dionysus religious festivals were held there

  5. The oldest theater is found there

  6. It is the center of prophesy

  7. King Croessus of Lydia planned on fighting Persia after the oracle told him that a great empire would be defeated, what he didn’t know is that it would be his own

**Athena

  1. She is considered to be the goddess of war and wisdom

  2. She was born from Zeus’ head

  3. She was associated with the owl

  4. The name of her temple literally means “virgin goddess”

Erebos

  1. Was the land of the dead

  2. Charon ferried people across the river Styx into Erebos

  3. Hades was the ruler of Erebos

*Theogony

  1. Hesoid was the author of this work

  2. During the 8th century BC he wrote this

  3. The title translates to mean “birth of the gods”

  4. Gaia was the goddess of land and earth and the very first character to appear in his work, and today she is known as mother earth

***Marathon

  1. The Persian empire was defeated by the Greeks at the battle of Marathon

  2. Athens was the Greek city-state who lead the Greeks to victory

  3. Pericles was the leader of Athens

  4. Darius was the leader of the Persian enemy forces

  5. They sent a messenger who ran 26 miles to tell the results and then he died. This is where the modern marathon race comes from

  6. This was the first of the Persian war battles

***Thermopylae

  1. Sparta was the city-state who lead the Greek resistance there until the last man standing

  2. 300 of them died defending the pass

  3. Leonidas was the Greek king who died heroically with them

  4. 2nd Persian war battle

  5. Xerxes was the leader of the opposing Persian troops

  6. The Persians lost many more men, but they won the battle

Delian League

  1. Defensive alliance

  2. It was created to defend against the Persians

  3. The treasury was kept on the island of Delos

  4. The Peloponnesian league was established in opposition to its self appointed leader

***Pericles

  1. He lead Athens

  2. His era was in the golden age

  3. He ruled during the Persian wars

  4. He built the Parthenon in adoration to Athena

  5. Died from the plague

  6. Ruled for 32 years

*Tragedy

  1. Tragedy means “goat song”

  2. It began as a worship to Dionysus

  3. Thespis introduced the first “actor” to the play by impersonating that god

  4. Three great tragedy writers were Sophocles, Euripides, and Aeschylus

  5. There are 33 tragedies left today

***Thucydides

  1. He is an Athenian historian and general

  2. He wrote about the Athenian plague, he had it so he could write about it

  3. General during the Peloponnesian

  4. Historian of the Peloponnesian wars, he could write about them accurately because he fought in them

***Socrates

  1. His purpose was to be the “gadfly” of Athens “stinging” the people to think

  2. Intellectual midwife is the two word phrased that expressed his teaching and philosophy

  3. Today we have none of his writing

  4. Hemlock killed him

  5. Taught Plato

  6. Sentenced to die because he questioned the gods and he corrupted children and then was arrogant in the courts

*Plato

  1. Plato’s teacher was Socrates

  2. Idealism is what history called his basic philosophy

  3. The academy was the name of the school Plato established in Athens

  4. Plato illustrated his philosophy with his story of the cave

  5. He was the teacher of Aristotle

  6. He wrote down and documented many ideas that were thought to be Socrates

Aristotle

  1. Plato was his teacher

  2. His basic philosophy was realism

  3. His school that he established was Lyceum

  4. Alexander the great was Aristotle’s most famous student

*Alexander the Great (know them all)

  1. Alexander was from the province of Macedonia

  2. Alexander’s favorite hero was Achilles

  3. Alexander conquered the Persian Empire

  4. His general Ptolemy came to rule Egypt after Alexander died

  5. He built Alexandria to be the capital city of Egypt

  6. His most famous teacher was Aristotle

  7. Alexander’s father was Philip of Macedonia

  8. Alexander’s favorite book was the Illaid

  9. Alexander’s horses name was Bucephalus

  10. Darius was the king of the Persian Empire before him

  11. Phalanxes was the tightly knit, long-speared formation that was used by Alexander

*Minoans

  1. Minos was their king

  2. They were a non-militaristic culture

  3. Fun loving and colorful people

  4. Located on the island of Crete

  5. Knossos was their capital city

  6. Sir Arthur Evans excavated Knossos

  7. The minotaur was said to have inhabited the labyrinth there

Troy

  1. Participated in Trojan wars against the Greeks

  2. Paris took Helen there from Sparta and this started the war

  3. The Trojans lost the war

  4. The war lasted 10 years

Parthenon

  1. Built for Athena

  2. Built by Pericles

  3. Built on the acropolis

  4. Built in Athena

Tartaros

  1. Zeus sent the Titans there after he defeated them in cosmic battle

  2. It was a place of punishment after death

  3. Located below Hades

  4. Punishment there fits the crime that was committed

  5. Example-A man is punished and has to push a rock up a hill every day, and as soon as he almost gets to the top it rolls back down and he has to start over

Peloponnesian Wars

  1. War between Sparta and Athens, each with their own alliances

  2. During this time is when the plague hit Athens

  3. Pericles was the ruler of Athens

  4. Sparta made an alliance with the Persians and with their resources the Spartans built a navy to go along with their good land-based army

  5. Building a navy is what was the deciding factor for the Spartans winning

Styx

  1. Achilles mother dipped him in it held by the heel

  2. She did this so he would become invulnerable except for at the heel

  3. Charon ferried the dead across the Styx to Ereba, the land of the dead

  4. It was a magical river

**What Peloponnesian polis was 2/3 helots but had the best army in ancient Greece? -Sparta

**What cosmopolitan polis was located on the isthmus between the Peloponnesus and the mainland, and was a significant city of commerce? - Corinth

***What is the name of the mountain upon which the gods were thought to live? – Mt. Olympus

**What is the specific name of the sea in the midst of Ionia just to the east of Greece? - Aegean

*What did the Greeks call the place of tortures to where the titans were banished? – Tartarous

Who was the Persian king that attacked the Greeks at the pass at Thermopylae? – Xerxes

In what great naval battle did the Athenian-led fleet over the Persian fleet? – Salamis

**What was the name of the defensive alliance formed by the Greeks just after the battles with Persia in case the Persians attacked against? – Delian League

*What books tells us about the (tenth year of the) Trojan War? – The Illaid

**What pre-Socratic Milesian philosopher is often called “The Father of Philosophy”? - Thales

*What “magical” river separated Gaia (earth) from Erebos (the place of the dead)? – Styx

*Who was the god of the underworld? – Hades

***Who was the god of storms on the ocean as well as the earthquakes? – Poseidon

**What philosopher of Idealism established his “academy” in Athens? – Plato

**What philosopher of Realism taught about “essence” and “accidents” at his Lyceum? – Aristotle

Who is often regarded as the “Father of Greek Tragedy,” the man who introduced the first “actor” by playing the part of Dionysus interacting with the chorus? - Thespis

From what area (by name) of Greece was Alexander? – Macedonia

What major ancient empire did Alexander the Great conquer by the age of 25? - Persia

What is the name of the ancient temple that dominates the Acropolis of Athens? – Parthenon

List the three greatest tragedians (that we know of) of ancient Athens – Sophocles, Aeschylus and Euripides

What ancient Athenian comedian has the most plays extant today? – Aristophanes

What race of giants ruled the earth before the gods? – The Titans

***Who was punished for stealing fire from Zeus to give to man? – Prometheus

***Who was the seductive goddess of love and beauty? – Aphrodite

Who was the god of light, knowledge, and music, one of whose temples was at Delphi? – Apollo

***What cursed mythical creature had writhing snakes for hair and a glance that turned men to stone? – Medusa

*Who was the messenger god? (patron of thieves) – Hermes

***Who was the god of wine, frivolity, drunkenness, and ecstacy? – Dionysus

**Who was the “father of history” and author/historian of the Persian Wars? – Herodotus

What was the term referring to Spartan slaves? – Helots

The last ruling titan defeated by Zeus and the gods in cosmic battle – Chronos

The greatest Greek hero in the Trojan war – Achilles

**Goddess of the crops who takes her daughter Persphone’s place with Hades every winter and therefore nothing grows at that time – Demeter

**He was indicated by Athens for sacrilege against Hermes, fled to Sparta where he seduced a Spartan queen, and then fled to Persia before returning to lead Athenian forces in war – Alcibiades

*King of the gods who won a cosmic battle with his lightning bolts – Zeus

*He was the king and father of Alexander the Great – Philip

The visionary who built the Athenian navy (its “wooden walls”) – Themistocles

She was “mother earth” who gave birth to all living creatures – Gaia

The titan who was believed to hold up the Earth on his shoulders – Atlas

Started the quarrel of the 3 goddesses over the golden apple – Eris

Trojan prophetess always right but never believed – Cassandra

What is the name of the Greek archaeologist who has led the excavation at Thera? – Spyridon Marinatos

**Who was the German archaeologist who excavated Troy? – Heinrich Schliemann

Who was the visionary leader that built up the Athenian fleet with a silver mine strike? – Themistocles

*What was the center (marketplace/meeting place) of Athens called? – Agora

**What was the law court called that met to try murder cases on Ares’ (Mars’) hill? – Areopagus

*What 6th century Athenian statesman produced important law reforms there? – Solon

**What was the last of the four major battles of the Persian wars (490-479 BC)? – Plataea

*In early Greek tragedy what was the choral worship ode to Dionysus called? – Dithyramb

Who was the English archaeologist of the palace of Knossos? – Sir Arthur Evans

Who was the 8th century B.C. author of Theogony and Works and Days? – Hesiod

In what great naval battle did the Athenian-led fleet win over the Persian fleet? - Salamis

What ancient Greek comedian wrote such plays (critical of Athenian life) such as The Birds, The Frogs, and the Wasps? – Euripides

What atomistic philosopher’s hedonistic ethic led him to advocate that one should “eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die”? – Epicurus

What is the name of the British archaeologist who has led the excavations at Crete? – Sir Arthur Evans

Who was the greatest Trojan prince and hero of the Trojan war? – Hector

What Greek hero had the idea for the Trojan horse and led the attack once inside the walls? Odysseus

In what straits did the Athenian fleet defeat the Persian fleet in 480 BC? – Artemisium



In Greek tragedy what was the dancing floor called where the chorus recited the dithyramb? – Orchestra

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