Directions: Take notes during the presentations. You will be allowed to use these notes on your quiz so make sure you take good quality notes



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Animal Project Notes

Directions: Take notes during the presentations. You will be allowed to use these notes on your quiz so make sure you take good quality notes.




Sponges




Characteristics:

*most are marine

*covered in pores- small holes that allow water in.

*do not move

*most are filter feeders- getting food from the water

*often have tube shaped bodies with no brains

*tend to live in quiet, clear waters

*no backbone

*simplest of all animals

Subgroups:



  1. Calcarea

  2. Glass Sponges

  3. Demosponges

Examples: Venus Flower Sponge, Hippospongia, Spongia (used to make bath sponges)

Worms

Characteristics:

*have long cylindrical bodies with no legs

*no backbones

*vary in size

*have bristles or hairs that help them move
Subgroups:


  1. Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

  2. Nematoda (threadworms, roundworms and hookworms)

  3. Annelida (earthworms)- segmented worms

Examples: flatworms, earthworms, roundworms, hookworms, threadworms



Mollusks

Characteristics:

*Generally have soft bodies

*many have shells

*has a muscular foot attached to the bottom to help it move

*breathe with gills

Subgroups:



  1. Bivalves (2 shells, like clams)

  2. Gastropods (snails and slugs)

  3. Cephalopod (squid, cuttlefish and octopus)

Examples: Cone snail, Clam, Blue spotted octopus

Echinoderms

Characteristics:

*Marine animals

*Have body parts in 5’s

*use a water vascular system to move their bodies

*name means spiny skinned
Subgroups:


  1. Eleitherozoa (Sea Stars, brittle stars, etc.)

  2. Pelmatazoa (Sea lilies or feather stars)

Examples: Sea Stars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins



Cnidarians

Characteristics:

*have stinging cells that capture food for the animal

*2 basic body types- polyp and medusa

*Mouths are surrounded by tentacles

*Radial symmetry

*Often have tentacles


Subgroups:

  1. Hydrozoa- Hydras

  2. Scyphozoa- Jellyfish

  3. Cubozoa- Box jellyfish

  4. Anthozoa- Sea anemones, corals

Examples: Sea nettle, sea anemones, coral, jellyfish, hydras

Arthropods- Insects

Characteristics:

*Exoskeleton made of chitin

*3 part body composed of a head, thorax and abdomen

*3 pairs of legs (6 altogether)

*Compound eyes

*2 antennae

*Most hatch from eggs

*Largest group


Subgroups:

  1. Apterygota- wingless insects

  2. Pterygota- winged insects

Examples:: bees, ants, termites, moths, butterflies



Arthropods- Non insects

Characteristics:

*invertebrate

*exoskeleton made of chitin

*jointed limbs

*repeated body sections each with a pair of limbs

*compound eye

Subgroups:


  1. Chelicerates- spiders, mites, scorpions and related organisms.

  2. Myriapods- millipedes, centipedes, and related organisms

  3. Crustaceans-include lobsters, crabs, barnacles, crayfish, shrimp and many other.

Examples: Spiders, mites, scorpions, millipedes, centipedes, lobsters and crabs

Fish

Characteristics:

*vertebrate

*Lives in water

*two sets of paired fins

*Cold blooded

*Scales and gills

Subgroups:


  1. Jawless fish- hagfish and lamprey

  2. Cartilaginous fish- shark, skate or ray

  3. Bony fish-Herring, salmon, carp, catfish

Examples: Herring, salmon, carp, catfish, shark, skate or ray, hagfish and lamprey

Birds

Characteristics:

*Have wings

*Lay eggs

*Have 2 feet

*Warm blooded

*Feathers

*Beak with no teeth

Subgroups:



  1. Neognaths- almost all living species of birds

  2. Paleognaths- emus, ostrich, rheas, kiwis

Examples: Robins, penguins, chickens, ostrich

Amphibians

Characteristics:

*Cold blooded

*Transform from a water breathing form as a juvenile to an air breathing adult

*The word amphibian means “both life” meaning life in water and life on land

*Eggs have no shells
Subgroups:


  1. Anura (frogs and toads)

  2. Caudata (salamanders and newts),

  3. Gymnophiona (caecilians, limbless amphibians that resemble snakes).

Examples: Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, caecilians

Reptiles

Characteristics:

*Dry, scaly skin

*Breathes using lungs

*Cold blooded

*Lay eggs (amniotic)
Subgroups:

1. Lizards, amphibanians, and snakes,

2. Turtles

3. Crocodilians

4. Tuataras (look like lizards, but are more like dinosaurs)
Examples: Crocodiles, turtles, alligators,


Mammals- Marsupials

Characteristics:

*give birth to tiny, under developed offspring. Immediately after birth, the babies attach themselves to the mother's nipples until they are more developed

*The nipples of most female marsupials are in a pouch

*Most female marsupials have a pouch.

*All are mammals- have hair, mammary glands, warm blooded, larger and more well developed brain, provide for and protect their young


Subgroups:

1. Didelphimorphia, the American opossums

2. Paucituberculata, the caenolestids

3. Microbiotheria, the monito del monte

4. Dasyuromorphia, the dasyurids

5. Peramelemorphia, the bandicoots

6. Notoryctemorphia, the marsupial moles

7. Diprotodontia, the diprotodonts.


Examples: Kangaroo, koalas, wombats, wallabies, opossums

Mammals- Marine (monotreme)

Characteristics:

*all are mammals- have hair, mammary glands, warm blooded, larger and more well developed brain, provide for and protect their young

*all marine mammals live in the ocean

*Breathe air

*have layers of blubber that keep marine mammals warm in cold water



Subgroups:

  1. Sirenians- manatees and dugong

  2. Cetaceans- Baleen whales and Toothed whales

  3. Pinnipedia- true seals, eared seals , walrus

  4. Mustelidae- sea otters

Examples: Manatees, dugong, baleen whales, toothed whales, seals, sea otters

Mammals- Placental

Characteristics:

*Have a temporary organ called a placenta during pregnancy

*placenta attaches to the uterus and provides food and oxygen to developing fetus

*all are mammals- have hair, mammary glands, warm blooded, larger and more well developed brain, provide for and protect their young
Subgroups:

  1. Boreoeutheria,- humans, badgers, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, dolphins, etc.

  2. Atlantogenata,- sloths, hyraxes, aardvarks, tenrecs, armadillos, anteaters


Examples: humans, badgers, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, dolphins, sloths, hyraxes, aardvarks, tenrecs, armadillos, anteaters


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