True/False - Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. ____ 1. The science of classifying organisms is called taxidermy.
____ 2. Eubacteria and Archaebacteria are the most primitive organisms in the six-kingdom system.
____ 3. Some tests performed at your doctor's office come back indicating that you have "strep throat." This means that the bacteria infecting you occur in clumps.
____ 4. Despite the fact that plants are found throughout the world, they are still classified as lacking mobility.
____ 5. Angiosperms produce seeds enclosed in fruit formed by certain flower parts.
____ 6. The feature that distinguishes an invertebrate from a vertebrate is the absence of a notochord.
____ 7. One of the key features separating the arthropods from all other animals is the strong external skeleton, called the endoskeleton.
____ 8. Phagocytosis is the process by which unicellular organisms excrete waste.
____ 9. Reptiles are the first fully terrestrial vertebrates.
____ 10. A distinguishing feature of amphibians is their dry, scaly skin ____ 11. Birds are believed to have developed from reptiles. ____ 12. The egg-laying mammals are the marsupials.
____ 13. Ferns lack vascular tissue that carries water and minerals from the roots.
Multiple Choice - Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 14. Which of the following does not have its own metabolism?
____ 18. I am prokaryotic, heterotrophic or autotrophic, can live almost anywhere and have peptidoglycan. What am I?
protist b. eubacteria c. fungi d. chordates e. mosses
____ 19. Which of the following statements concerning viruses is correct?
A bacteriophage is spiral-shaped
Viruses, like the one that causes the flu, can be killed with antibiotics
In a lysogenic cycle, the virus does not kill the host cell outright.
A bacteriophage infects a cell through conjugation
The tail fibers of viruses are made of chitin
____ 20. A scientist recently discovered a pond organism that is unicellular, contains chloroplasts and other membrane-bound organelles, and possesses a flagellum. In which Kingdom is this organism classified?
Protista b. Eubacteria c. Fungi d. Plantae e. Archaebacteria
____ 21. Which of the following is not a characteristic of bacterial cells?
may be susceptible to antibiotics
contain no membrane-bound organelles
Reproduce sexually by spores
____ 22. Which label is pointing to a sample of staphylococcus?
A b. B c. C
D e. none
____ 23. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a member of the kingdom protista?
____ 33. What distinguishes Amphibians from Reptiles?
Amphibians have a 3-chambered heart
Reptiles are 4-legged
Amphibians need water to reproduce
Reptiles have smooth, moist skin
Reptiles need water to reproduce
____ 34. Birds
can all fly
lack a notochord
have a placenta
___ 35. What is the most distinctive feature of mammals?
Match each item with the correct statement below.
____ contain peptidoglycan
____ multicellular, heterotrophic, reproduce sexually, live either on land or in water
____ most single-celled, eukaryotic, some heterotrophs, some autotrophs, some both, reproduce sexually or asexually, most live on land
____ a two-part key used to identify living things
____ a method of naming organisms by using two names (genus and species)
____ most multicellular, heterotrophic, reproduce sexually or asexually, most live on land
____ multicellular, autotrophic, reproduce sexually or asexually, most live on land
____ the history of the evolution of a species or a group of organisms
____ a group of organisms that look alike and can interbreed under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring
____ live in extreme environments
Match each item with the correct statement below concerning the mollusca and echinodermata.
____ mosses are an example of this
____ plant-like protists, usually autotrophic and unicellular
____ move using pseudopods
____ a type of vascular plant that reproduces using spores
____ produce "naked" seeds, usually inside cones
____ a unicellular fungus that can tolerate conditions without oxygen
____ forms seeds within an ovary
Written Questions *These questions will be marked using levels.
Information and ideas are communicated with complete and correct answers
Information and ideas are communicated limited clarity and precision
Information and ideas are communicated with some clarity and precision
Information and ideas are communicated with considerable clarity and precision
Information and ideas are communicated clearly and precisely
Choose either 1 or 2
1. Two students were able to identify an organism to differing levels of classification. Student "A" was able to identify the organism to the level of "class." Student "B" was able to identify the organism to the level of "order". Which student has been able to classify the organism more accurately? Explain.
2. From your experiences in this course, you should be aware that dogs are members of the genus Canis. While visiting a zoo, you see the sign Canis lupus on one of the enclosures. You can't believe that they would display a dog, but you are surprised when a wolf appears. Explain why a dog and wolf would be members of the same genus.
Choose TWO questions from 3-14
3. Explain the ecologically important role of the plantlike protists.
4. Members of the phylum sporozoa are exclusively parasitic. Outline some advantages and disadvantages to a parasitic lifestyle.
5. A chemical has been developed to control the growth of mushrooms in lawns. It specifically alters a biochemical pathway inside the mushroom and causes the gills of the mushroom to produce a sticky substance that coats the entire gill surface. What is the likely effect of such a chemical?
6. Why can mosses be described as "pioneer plants"?
7. Among the plants, seed plants are seen as the most advanced. Comment on why this is.
8. Give a summary of the major characteristics of members of the phylum Mollusks or Echinoderms?
9. The news has reported an outbreak of blue-green algae in a nearby lake. What organism is causing the outbreak, what are some reasons for the outbreak and what is concerning about the outbreak?
10. All chordates share some key features. What are some characteristics and features that set them apart from other groups and why might they be considered more advanced?
11. What are the main characteristics that distinguish amphibians other closely related organisms? How are they similar and how are they different?
12. What are the main characteristics that distinguish reptiles from other closely related organisms? How are they similar and how are they different?
13. Most birds fly, which is a unique characteristic of this group. What are features of birds that make them well-suited for flight?
14. What are the major features of the monotremes and marsupials? How are they similar and how are they different?
Choose either 15 or 16
15. A friend was prescribed antibiotics for a cut that became infected. She was given enough mediation for ten days and told to finish it. After five days, she noticed her infection was much better and decided to stop taking the medication. Write a convincing argument to explain (using diagrams if necessary) why she should continue to take her medication despite the obvious improvement in her condition.
**In your explanation, include a diagram that shows how bacteria reproduce.
16. Although viruses are nonliving they cause some severe ailments in humans.
Describe how viruses reproduce.
In your description explain why sometimes we can have a virus but don’t show any symptoms for a long period of time.
What can we do to “fight” or protect against viruses? Explain fully.
Explain using the correct terminology and concepts you learned in class.
68. Two students were able to identify an organism to differing levels of classification. Student "A" was able to identify the organism to the level of "class." Student "B" was able to identify the organism to the level of "order". Which student has been able to classify the organism more accurately? Explain.
69. From your experiences in this course, you should be aware that dogs are members of the genus Canis. While visiting a zoo, you see the sign Canis lupus on one of the enclosures. You can't believe that they would display a dog, but you are surprised when a wolf appears. Explain why a dog and wolf would be members of the same genus.
70. Explain the ecologically important role of the plantlike protists.
71. Members of the phylum sporozoa are exclusively parasitic. Outline some advantages and disadvantages to a parasitic lifestyle.
72. A chemical has been developed to control the growth of mushrooms in lawns. It specifically alters a biochemical pathway inside the mushroom and causes the gills of the mushroom to produce a sticky substance that coats the entire gill surface. What is the likely effect of such a chemical?
73. Why can mosses be described as "pioneer plants"?
74. Among the plants, seed plants are seen as the most advanced. Comment on why this is.
75. Give a summary of the major characteristics of members of the phylum cnidaria.
76. Why do sharks have to keep moving?
77. What is the function of the operculum?
78. Feathers are regarded as a major adaptation for flight. What features to feathers have that make them well-suited for their purpose?
79. What are the major features of the monotremes and marsupials?
Essay 80. A friend was prescribed antibiotics for a cut that became infected. She was given enough mediation for ten days and told to finish it. After five days, she noticed her infection was much better and decided to stop taking the medication. Write a convincing argument to explain why she should continue to take her medication despite the obvious improvement in her condition.
Student "B" was able to classify the organism more accurately. The system of classification used in the six-kingdom system begins with very broad characteristics and becomes increasingly specific (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species). Since Student "B" was able to classify the organism to the level of "order" while "A" classified the organism to the level of "class," Student "B" had been able to classify the organism more accurately. The difference between the two levels of classification may have come down to Student "B" making one observation that "A" had missed. Thus the importance of making careful observations.
PTS: 1 REF: I OBJ: 9.1 STA: DL2.01
The dog and wolf are members of the same genus because they share many characteristics in common. The common dog (Canis rufus) is probably a domesticated version of Canis lupus (though many centuries are thought to have past since this occurred). Despite the behavioural differences, the biological differences remain small, and so both creatures have many similarities that are not separated until you reach the "species" level of classification.
PTS: 1 REF: I OBJ: 9.1 STA: DL2.01
Plantlike protists (especially members of the Chlorophyta) are important as primary food producers in aquatic food chains. In addition, they hold the important job of producing about two-thirds of the worlds oxygen supply. Other plantlike protists are important as a source of food (e.g.,. kelp, dulce) and chemical used in food processing (e.g., carrageenan), while some members of the Phaeophyta that died millions of year ago have become crude oil.
Initially the chemical may be effective. By coating the gills with a sticky substance, it would be difficult for the spores to be released. In effect, they would be stuck inside the cap of the mushroom and would prevent dispersal. However, if the spores were simply stuck to the gills, when the cap eventually decomposed, it is possible the spores may still be viable. Thus, the chemical may delay the release of the spores rather than actually preventing the release.
PTS: 1 REF: MC OBJ: 10.2 STA: DL1.03
Mosses, and other bryophytes, are often the first to establish themselves on exposed rock or soil surfaces where there are no other plants. As the moss plants die and decompose, they create organic matter that acts as soil and nutrients for other types of plants. Indeed, mosses pave the way for other terrestrial plants.
PTS: 1 REF: K/U OBJ: 10.7 STA: DL1.03
Seed plants, such as the gymnosperms and angiosperms, are widespread because of the seed itself. Fertilization can occur in a relatively dry environment and the subsequent formation of the seed protects the embryo. In the seed, the embryo is protected against a wide range of environmental conditions ,and the seed need not germinate until conditions are favourable for it to do so.
PTS: 1 REF: K/U OBJ: 10.9 STA: D1.04
Cnidarians include animals such as hydra, jellyfish, sea anemones, and coral and are found exclusively in aquatic, mostly marine, environments. All members are radially symmetrical, have tentacles, and possess true tissues, but only two germ layers (ectoderm and endoderm). Cnidarians have specialized nerve, muscle, and digestive tissues. The body form is either that of a polyp (sessile) or medusa (motile). They capture food using nematocysts, which is digested in a gastrovascular cavity or gut that has a single opening for both ingestion and egestion. Reproduction can be either sexual or asexual.
PTS: 1 REF: K/U OBJ: 11.2 STA: DL1.03
Sharks are members of the class chondrichthyes and, as a result ,have no swim bladder to maintain their buoyancy at any one particular depth. They simply continue cruising, using their pectoral fins to move them up or down in the water column.
PTS: 1 REF: K/U OBJ: 12.2 STA: DL1.03
The operculum is a hard, bony plate found in members of the osteichthyes. It covers and protects the gills used to breathe, which lie underneath it.
PTS: 1 REF: K/U OBJ: 12.2 STA: DL1.03
The flight (contour) feathers of birds are lightweight with hollow mainshafts (quills). The barbs that branch out from the shaft are held together by hooks, keeping the feathers flat and aerodynamic. Feather attachment in the wings provides the curved surface that is required for lift and flight.
PTS: 1 REF: K/U OBJ: 12.5 STA: DL1.03
Monotremes reproduce by laying eggs that are incubated outside the body, and the young are nourished from mammary glands that secrete milk directly into the fur. An example would be the duck-billed platypus of Australia.
Marsupials are usually born in an extremely immature condition and undergo further development in a pouch on the ventral side of the mother. Examples would include the kangaroos, wallabies, and koala bears of Australia.
PTS: 1 REF: K/U OBJ: 12.6 STA: DL1.03
ESSAY 80. ANS:
By not taking an antibiotic prescription in full, a person is not only putting themselves at risks but also indirectly putting others at risk by adding to the problem of antibiotic resistance among bacteria.
There was a time when antibiotics were unknown and consequently not used in medicine. As a result, many of the diseases that we class as curable today were previously lethal. Since the 1940s, when antibiotics became common, doctors have been able to successfully treat diseases and pathological conditions that might otherwise be fatal. However, the use of antibiotics themselves has led to an increasing and worrisome problem: bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
This resistance probably developed as a result of natural variations in the populations of bacteria. In the early years of antibiotic use, many of the weaker, but more numerous, strains of bacteria were greatly reduced in numbers or eliminated, leaving those bacteria with resistance to the antibiotics to become more numerous. The resistance is probably conferred to the bacteria by genetic elements contained on plasmids.
The problem with not taking a full course of antibiotics is that it enhances the antibiotic-resistance problem. Some resistance is dose-dependent so that ,if enough of the antibiotic is taken, the resistant bacteria can still be overcome. By not taking a full course of treatment, you are increasing the number of bacteria in the population that are resistant to that antibiotic.
In addition, the dosing of antibiotics is designed to eliminate the population of bacteria altogether. By not following the prescribed treatment, you run the risk of a recurring infection, caused by the very same bacteria that you first sought to destroy.
Consequently, there are risks not only to the person who has been given the antibiotic prescription but also to the members of the population at large.