A note about these notes. At the basis of my work is the difference between theatre and drama. They share some similarities (most of them technical) but they have totally opposed purposes. Modern theatre’s language and understanding are ultimately those of science. Theatre believes science knows and understands the meaning of reality so theatre is free simply to be entertainment. Theatre is a game played on an already existing gaming board. The players sit round and above the board and manipulate counters according to the rules of the game. Part of theatre’s attraction is that it does not deal with reality. It is an escape from it. There is no society in theatre. Drama is not just about reality, it is based on the structures that reality uses to create and sustain itself, and drama uses them to alter reality. This brings into question imagination, fiction, physical being, the mind, society, politics – the institutions and culture of human reality. These would still change if there was no drama but only theatre because reality always changes. Then the culture and institutions change but the people in them are still in an old, dead reality. This is the cause of human misery and repression. The problem is made worse in a time of rapidly accumulating technology and technical knowledge. The danger is that administration takes the place of democracy. This is already happening. Drama changes people so that they must seek to have control of their lives (these notes will explain the must) and that means they must understand themselves. Drama changes reality and creates understanding of the self and its humanness. That is a large claim.. How is it possible?
You can cut a slice of cake because you are outside the cake. You cannot cut the cake if you are inside it. We cannot get outside reality to change it. Nor can drama. And nor can science. Indeed the premises (not method) of science are based on guesses or superstitions about what people are and reality is. Drama’s subject is reality but it also uses the structures that create reality. Drama cuts the cake from inside. Instead of rules (as in a game) it has logic: the logic is based on the consequences of the changes in the relations between human beings and the rest of reality, the logic of the consequential interconnection of everything. This means that drama is the logic of humanness and that we are the dramatic species.
To understand drama we must understand what a human being is. We now have no philosophy that helps us to sufficiently understand our selves. We have scraps of the past: theology, Freudism, classical Marxism, behaviourism, post-modernism. . . It is as if we were driving a car and one half of the steering wheel was missing – one hand constantly dips into nothingness and we gesture but have no control. As I think we misunderstand ourselves and our humanness I write about the neonate (the new born infant) and how it enters reality. I explain how it subjectively relates to reality to create the foundation of the self. I have to use language and concepts the infant doesn’t yet have. Its assumed that it doesn’t have them because it doesn’t have the experiences they are based on. This is a mistake. Two and two are always four. Suppose absolutely nothing existed, not even emptiness or even nothingness. You wouldn’t exist and so there could be no experience. But two and two would still make four. If they didn’t nothing could ever come into existence, into being. Perhaps this is only an analogy but it is useful. In fact occasionally to help in understanding the neonate’s mind I deliberately use extreme imagery that only an adult can comprehend – but nevertheless the neonate has the experiences the imagery is based on. The neonate is creating reality. It is closer to a more focused reality because he or she is unimpeded by Ideology, is focused on the reality in him or her and in which the self is – and because the neonate is immediately confronted with the ontological, the totality of things, and because it is already (in fact overwhelmingly) sensate and is therefore confronted with the moral problem of being, you can even say it is closer to a purer reality. Adults dont expect this and it has led to modern society’s increasing delusion and mercenary charlatanism. But in the neonate’s reality there is already the origin of the morality (not merely the physical being) of Antigone, Hamlet and Lear.
These notes are a warning. Over the last few decades post-modernism (with its philosophy of the death of humankind) and the neoliberal economy of capitalism have come together and in an eerie way have become one. At its centre is an emptiness that will develop into nihilism that authority can control only through terror. That is the logic of the human situation and of drama. Already one indication of what is to come is the destruction of drama and its replacement with theatre. We are the dramatic species, we need not be the tragic species.
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A colleague said “Success in theatre is a combat with television. Perhaps theatre should turn back to the roots of the archaic world. We have lost romanticism, magic and our shamanic souls -- a return to the ancient classical myths. Our present theatre’s language is sterile.” It is the language of our age, of TV and film. Its thought that cameras record faces (and bodies) so closely that spectators read the thoughts behind the face. But the face is a surface, a screen on a screen. If it presents the language of the age perhaps the actors and the characters (for this purpose they are one, and so are the audience) cant speak to themselves. There is nothing behind the screen. Emotion animates the face’s surface but there is no self-knowledge. The actor becomes an animated object. Immediacy replaces intimacy and certainly profundity. If there were self-knowledge the actor would repress it (on the director’s instructions)to serve the screen’s art and the producers ’profits. In its place there is pathos, as if a corpse cried and dried its eyes on its shroud. Oddly, the cinema cant create horror films – in the place of horror it puts the recollected squeamish nastiness of toilet-training. Contemporary screen art makes all the characters pathetic even when they are supposed to be heroic. The actor demonstrates, usually anecdotally, the character’s feelings and reports on the feelings of others (“How could they do such a thing?”). But except for the anecdotal. if a character attempts to speak from his reality it is self-conscious and embarrassing. The character is screened from reality as if the actor were watching himself on film. Language is reduced to emotive noises, wise-cracks, street-wisdom or the epigrams of skilful know-how. Its poverty is hidden by the emotion of the musical sound-track. But when a laboratory experimenter hums it has nothing to do with the meaning of the experiment. There is no resolution because drama depends on self-insight, and human meaning comes from the way in which human beings create humanness. Really screen language is based on the language of science, the real language of the age. Audiences will respect the character’s incoherence and credit him or her with humanness because science knows – and guarantees -- what a human being is. But the film in cinema or on TV is over before it has begun.
The language of the public media in general purloins the language of science but combines it with ignorance of the meaning of what it says – and screen language adds a superficial but desperate knack of survival. In public life its as if a collection of assorted remarks, observations, accounts and so on were written on a sheet of paper. Later questions are written above these remarks as though they were answers to the questions. This turns the sheet of paper into an authoritative, official form. But the answers are not appropriate to the questions. The questions pursue their own independent purpose – for example, in the case of the screens, what emerges is the distortion of the meaning of the events being shown. The questions’ real purpose is to contrive a reality to be exploited by government and the “art” of the consumer market. Because it combines apparent human meaning with the authority of science it becomes a culture. The formative content is not the event – the play or story shown on the screen – but the spectators’ act of seeing and accepting authority’s (and the market’s) falsification of reality. That is the real event. It will confirm its power by incorporating elements of the audience’s social goodwill. The effect does not even come from the content of the event, whatever that may be, but directly from the act of accepting it. What is accepted as reality makes reality. It is as if the audience walked on stilts but the stilts moved not the audience’s legs. To make this possible – to make it really happen -- the legs do not actually touch the stilts. There is a gap, an absence. It is the presence of the gap that makes society possible and culture necessary. Culture is full of gaps, some of them will appear in these notes. The market screen works through the misleading juxtaposition of questions and answers on the sheet of white paper. They do not relate to each other in terms of human culture. Together they create Ideology. Ideology is a fiction and a corruption of humanness. It enables history but it is also responsible for history’s abominations. Because of the present Ideology of the capitalist-market culture human beings are no longer in control of humanness even as aspiration. This is true not least of the “Leaders.” Ideology becomes the justification of violence.
Science interprets human meaning and in film, TV and now in theatre the character’s function is to feel. But this is two dimensional. It is based on, derived from, the difference between theatre and drama. The two serve different, mutually opposed, purposes. The plot (in film and theatre) falsely imitates depth (even the dizzying depth of science) but from its daily involvement the eye knows this is so and the eye spies on the mind and exposes the duplicity so that the mind does not achieve reality but only fiction. The mind can know any form of reality only through imagination, but when fiction is falsely presented as an image of reality, then the imagination subversively knows this and the mind conceals the truth in boredom or fanaticism. The spectators believe not because they think it is true (they know it isn’t) but only because they want to think it is true and perhaps because the government places a policeman in every cinema – but imagination remains the guardian of reality. In screen fiction imagination is screened off because to achieve reality the imagination must speak, either from itself or, it may be, in the words it reads from images. Culture will contain lies and distortions, but finally the imagination cannot be lied to. This causes great suffering to the perpetrators of lies and to their victims, but imagination is the only hope of humanity. Reality is achieved by relating to the logic of humanness. This is a matter of seeing, but the mind always seeks to express an assessment, or a judgement based on self-knowledge, so for a human to be in human reality (and not fiction) self-knowledge must declare (not just express) itself. You cannot be self-conscious without imagination. Reality is not an objective collection of natural things to which humans add (bring) awareness – they also add a judgement. The judgement comes from either ideology (and then reality is faked) or the perception of imagination, and then reality exists and is human because it has moral meaning since it is seen through human morality. We do not ask the universe to have meaning, it has no language and is blind. It is true that a corpse in a coffin is real but it doesn’t know it. Without imagination we would be a corpse in a dead universe, at the most our limbs animated by the wind and water. If I ask you to think that you have no self-consciousness you have to use your imagination to think it: “and therefore you are.” Without imagination you would not know you existed. The lion does not know it is not the mountain or the desert. When there is imagination, objects necessarily entail action and all human action entails morality. So imagination makes possible the being of humans and morality. Humanness is the logic of their relation, that they do not deprave human consciousness or destroy human beings. All intellectual corruption becomes human depravity. Drama must speak of what it sees so that it can see and we may be conscious. For Kant morality was a consequence of being a conscious human being, but really morality is the cause of all the rest, of our ability to know we are human. He gave morality no basis. The basis is imagination. But Ideology may fictionalise imagination. Ideology claims to be the source of morality yet it has no morality except very distantly through imitation and inevitably becomes immoral. It is like the endless spiral of a steel rod that always passes itself, sees itself but never touches itself. This is the human paradox in drama.
Drama’s function is to rearrange the questions and answers on the sheet of white paper so that they accord to the logic of humanness. The white sheet functions in the administration of society and it also exists in the human self. To create the logic of humanness drama must be radical. It penetrates beyond the surface of the face because the animation on it is created by misaligning the answers and questions and so misinterpreting human experience, there is cultural confusion and panic masquerades as bliss. Then the actor and spectators share their sub-reality. In this respect politicians are actors in power. The screen or theatre event uses its spectators as performing animals in the laboratory. The experimenters observe the performance as though it showed the meaning of human reality and confirms the misplacing of questions because of the reactions the misplacing produces in the spectators. This sub-reality is authenticated by the mangled remains of human reality. It is the general situation in present culture. A supermarket is now an experimental laboratory in which buyers are observed not even by manufacturers but by bankers. Science’s language and cultural observation are distorted. It is a science of technology but an alchemy of people. The screen spectators and the shoppers make the language their own (“personalise” it is the catch-word) by quips, know-how and emotion –it is the diary of their lives. It has now become the language of the stage. The problem is that you can say “Oh! that this too too sordid flesh would melt,” you cannot say “Gosh! that this too too sordid flesh would melt.” “Oh” is more literate than “gosh.”
The problem was anticipated in Romanticism’s reaction to the Enlightenment. It blotted the white sheet with Draculas ghosts ghouls and technological monsters. It invented pathos. Dr Frankenstein didn’t make a monster, he is the monster. His “monster” is the bewildered human of capitalist-culture. The screen is a Frankenstein machine. And as the characters and the spectators are one, the spectators are made monsters fleeing from themselves to the frozen wasteland of ecological ruin. Capitalism uses the ambiguities in endless technology to process its audiences and consumers for the market, to push them out of their natural being.
Drama concerns the meaning of human beings, the human self. Science cannot comprehend the self without distorting it. By “human being” I mean the person as evolved from nature, still with much of animals’ existential being but evolved into a community being, with a social life, social emotions and shared social reason. Into this being is inserted the Being of a self that is conscious of itself. Metaphysically we are in two sites. This is oddly like the earth’s situation: a small planet in an infinite universe. (We do not even know what that means for us – it is a scientific truth Ideology turns into a lie.) The self is in a small head in an infinite reality – but the situation is reversed: the universe is in the small head. Nature enters the head but how does the head (not merely the hands, the body) enter nature? Because we are in it reality is not “real.” It is our version of it. A rock may really fall on us but we may say God threw it at us because he was angry: this changes everything in nature and in the self. How does the head (mind) know what reality is and so enter in? – which also means asking what mind and self are. If we don’t know we cant know where – at this moment – we are, and then Frankenstein would be a ghost. Ideology “knows” what we are and has prisons, churches, temples, banks to prove it. But ideology is fiction. The truism of history is that only by getting it wrong can it be got right. One century doesn’t believe another and churches are built from rubble on the rubbish heap. What is enduring and what is the (painful) debris? The paradox is that only our imagination can enter the non-fiction, know reality, because reality is in us. So to understand reality, ourselves and history, we must understand the logic of imagination. Perhaps in another universe 2 and 2 might not make 4, but then even there the logic of imagination (the process and results) would be the same. It is adamant and unchangeable because it is in the relation of actualities. To reuse the crude example, you can say God threw the rock but not that the rock is not a rock: your actual body and your mind knows it is. Your head will be cracked, a miracle cant mend it. Drama is the logic of imagination: why we act and the consequences of the acts. There is one logic of imagination, reality and drama and it is the logic of humanness. These notes are about how and why this is so. (If there were a God he would be made a God because he was not just trying to act humanly but to be a human – but only humans can be human.) It will help to remember that society is unjust but we live according to the laws it makes. Why do we obey the laws? We are punished if we don’t. So it is not necessarily just for me to obey the laws but it is prudent. Culture and ideology form each other. Culture tells me the good I should do. For instance, help the needy. But why should I do the good because it is good, even if it is good to do it? You cant do the good for prudential reasons. Law and Ideology are answers to “what” questions and technology (of machines and the human limbs) responds to “how” questions. But what answers to “why” questions? Those answers are contentious because Ideology bases its “why” on “what.” The universe is a wound that finally kills us, till then we wander like a spider lost on its own web. Wouldn’t it be prudent not to do good, for the self to serve the self? The murderer and the victim eat at the same table because they are both in being but being is inserted into Being and this is the origin of morality: morality belongs in logic because morality is derived from – not based on – “what.” Ideology reduces “why” to what, “why” raises “what” to itself – that is the logic of drama in humanness. This is the crisis of the crossroads of the modern world. The self is existential but also ontological. Drama answers the question “why should I do what is good?” with the logic of humanness. To understand this we must understand how the self creates itself.
The neonate (the new born infant) creates its self. Elsewhere I have described this creation and I will describe it more fully later in these notes. It involves the ontological and the dependent morality. It also involves a moral way of seeing. A human’s being is in a simple sense clear. The human being reasons, has emotions, relations, reactions, a domicile, a potential Jamesian stream of consciousness – everything that is part of the person’s history. This marks off a person from what is not a person – a chair, a table, a marriage, an accident, the news. Drama concerns events. It seems straightforward to describe the being (in the double sense I have given) of individuals, but not to speak of the Being (in the double sense) of an object or event – the Being (not just the being, the occurrence) of a strike, accident, war, flood. Sufficiently understood, objectivity is also subjectivity. Drama concerns the Being of objects and events. (Ideology creates a fictitious subjective-objective in rituals, when it projects the human into the formal or a super-being (a God) beyond the reality of this world, but this seeming bonding with the supernatural profoundly alienates the human from its own reality.) A bridge collapses. The collapse is due to a structural fault in the science of bridge-building. Was the designer incompetent, tired, a terrorist? Someone was crossing the bridge when it fell. Who, why? In society objective reality always involves the being of the people involved in the event. It also involves their Being because both the object and the people are in the relations of society. No event in any way involving human beings can be isolated from Being. To live in a culture we must insert it into nature, into the whole of natural being. If we change the structure of society, then we change not just the being of nature, we change its Being, we change reality. That is, we infringe on the arrangement of the basic determinants of nature. Drama rearranges the basic (Ideologically distorted) determinants of humanness. If drama is prevented from doing that before society reaches into the basic determinants of nature then the determinants of nature must destroy us. That is the law of nature. This is not the problem of the present ecological crisis in nature, it is directly the problem of human reality. Humanity is formed by logic, nature is ordered by law. Reality can be seen as a globe. An event occurs at a certain place. You can be concerned (caught up, captured) by it in a certain way in which the event occurs. To find the determinants of the event you set out on the globe and pursue the connections till you arrive back at the site of the event. You have not reached the first cause. You set out on an adjacent tangential track to find the event’s determinants – and so on and the determinants are not exhausted. The barest site of an event is space, time and humanness – and therefore drama. If this is not so -- not allowed by authority – we are an adjunct of the atom, and then the space between entertainment and Fascism is small. An obvious event is the performance of a play. This involves the being of the business of staging, the being of the actors and audience. These things come together in their shared Being. When this happens drama is created in the way (to be described and explained later) the neonate, the early human, creates itself. Drama is the pure pattern of all human events. The event has a being just as a person has and we take this as reality. It will include objective things and human beings -- but also Being. If it has Being it must have a reason. Why did the bridge collapse? As it is in being/Being it must also be in imagination, in either Ideology (which is fiction) or in Being. No event of which we are aware can happen outside culture. Ideology may reveal that it collapsed because God was angry with us. It may also say that God allowed the bridge to be built so that later he could destroy it in wrath. This is the philosophy of conservatism, which rigidly strengthens its optimism and justifies its violence by founding itself on pessimism. If the event is a play its own imaginariness, proper to itself, allows us again to see, know, accompany, the process by which we create reality. Ideology fictitiously imitates this, it is like a hole within a hole: the water in the chalice is turned to blood, the teddy bear is stuffed with sawdust but you feed it meat. Even in practical life an accident is dealt with through fiction. The firemen will be socially corporate and serve a practical purpose, but so will the priest who gives the victims the last rites. Significantly you can be the victim of an accident or a crime. As social imagination is Ideological (and therefore fictional) all human societies are in reality and in fiction. You can say that the fiction is part of reality but of course the fiction is in you not in objective reality, it is in the little head in the large universe. Drama concerns objective and ultimately human reality. But in the meantime society is the ownership of objective reality: machines, property, property rights, legal systems – but these latter things, institutions, are also in fiction. To secure its power and possessions authority reifies Ideology as prisons, fortresses, churches, theatres, money and other forms of violence.