Europe in the 21st Century New York University School of Continuing and Professional Studies



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Europe in the 21st Century
New York University

School of Continuing and Professional Studies

M.S. Program in Global Affairs

Y45.1105.001

Spring 2010

Wednesdays, 6:30-9:10pm

Woolworth 214

January 20 – April 28
Colette Mazzucelli, MALD, PhD

cgm7@nyu.edu

(212) 992-8380 (Global Affairs Program)

Spring Office Hours: Thursdays, 3:15-4:15 pm or by appointment

Office: Woolworth Building Campus, Room 441
Pedagogy, Research and Technology Assistance to Dr. Mazzucelli
Miss Erin Carey (pedagogy)

Miss Laurie Cohen (PDFs)

Mr. Michael Viola (PPTs)

Miss Laura Wicks (research)



SYLLABUS

I. Course Objectives


Europe is a region in transition. The European Union has transformed most of the continent from the source of the world's deadliest wars to its biggest bloc of peaceful democracies. Today Europe still faces ethnic tensions, including the challenge of immigration, unstable new democracies on the Union’s borders and the vexed problem of a revisionist Russia, which is searching for a post-communist identity.
This course analyzes the development of the European project in the postwar context through a focus on the successive enlargements of the European Community/Union and the specific policy areas that were influenced by this historical evolution. Integration theory helps to explain the development and dynamics within the Community/Union from its origins to the present day.
We begin with an analysis of pluralism, functionalism, neo-functionalism and federalism in the historical postwar context of the founding of the Communities by the original Six Member States. The EU institutions and their roles interacting with the Member States to shape negotiations are identified in daily policymaking and intergovernmental conferences to revise the Founding Treaties. The extent of integration in specific policymaking areas, namely, the single European market and Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), are discussed in the present context.
The evolution of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is analyzed in the context of intra-European dynamics and transatlantic relations. The enlargement to the EU 27 is assessed in the context of the newer challenges to the integration process as historically conceived by the Founding Fathers - Monnet, Schuman, Adenauer, Spaak and Hallstein. The changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty are analyzed by practitioners responsible for the Presidency of the European Council in light of the long debate about the European Constitution and the Reform Treaty.
Our attention turns next to a detailed consideration of the post September 11 context and the war in Iraq as these events impact on intra-European relations and the Euro-Atlantic area. Can and should Europe develop “hard power” as a global actor to match its considerable “soft power?” Is an increasingly united Europe to be a partner or rival to the United States? We rely on our knowledge and understanding of integration theory to identify some of the difficulties confronted by what is defined as the transatlantic “security community” in light of the enlargements to come.
The prospect of enlargement aims to encourage democracy and open markets in neighbouring states. Yet, this process must be critically examined in light of the unprecedented challenges presented by two potentially transformative applicants to the Union, Turkey and Ukraine. The mixed successes of democratization in Europe are a testing ground for theories of democratic change. The course ends with a two-week European Council crisis scenario pertaining to Turkish enlargement, emphasizing the use of Blackboard and Skype technology within the learning community.
Students are encouraged to focus on the following goals in the learning process:


  • To acquire and create knowledge about the various theories which define the field of European integration: pluralism; functionalism; neo-functionalism; and federalism in the context of the historical development of the integration process;

  • To grapple with the tensions between the intergovernmentalist and supranationalist perspectives and assess their relevance to our understanding of the European project in the world today;

  • To understand the challenges inherent in European policymaking relying on knowledge about the European institutions and the interests of the Member States;

  • To learn from the case studies analyzing enlargement and the changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, which distinguish the European polity from traditional international organizations;

  • To assess the changes in the internal dynamics within the European Union after the fall of the Berlin Wall, 11/09/1989, as well as the developments in transatlantic relations after the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, 09/11/2001, and their implications for world order.


The course syllabus is a contract between the Professor and each member of our learning community, which each one of us is required to fulfill in a spirit of mutual respect. If you have questions, please contact Professor Mazzucelli as soon as possible. Thank you in advance for your understanding.
II. Required Textbooks
The following volumes are required and available for purchase:

  • Geir Lundestad. “Empire” by Integration The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

  • Fritz Stern. Five Germanys I Have Known. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006.

  • Helen Wallace, William Wallace, and Mark A. Pollack, eds. Policy-Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

  • Philippe de Schoutheete. The Case for Europe. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

  • Jan Zielonka. Europe as Empire. The Nature of the Enlarged European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

  • Dominique Moïsi. The Geopolitics of Emotion. New York: Doubleday, 2009, pp. 1-56.

  • Mark Leonard. Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century. New York, Public Affairs, 2005.

III. Required Subscription


Weekly Reading of Foreign Affairs including online subscription to http://www.foreignaffairs.com/ with Foreign Affairs LIVE You Tube archived program events
N.B. The readings on reserve in Bobst Library, as well as those archived in PDF version on Blackboard, are meant to help you engage in plenary discussions, prepare the crisis scenario and undertake research analysis.
The readings for each module session aim to give you background knowledge about the questions raised in the syllabus. The use of Blackboard allows students flexibility to continue group dialogue beyond the traditional classroom.
IV. Methodology
The class is inspired by the tradition of critical pedagogy, which is an interest of mine in education at Teachers College Columbia University. The method of inquiry in this class is anchored in constructivist principles of learning. Each module includes a lecture to frame the week’s topic and plenary discussion involving the entire learning community. Computers may be used in class for note taking and relevant content-related searches. Please respect your classmates and your learning potential by observing this rule at all times. Through a study of various enlargements of the European Community/Union and specific policies, we explore the different theories of integration and assess their relevance in the 21st century.
V. Course Activities
-‘How I Learn’ Essay (1-2 pages)

-Plenary Class Discussions

-Written Contributions to Atlantic-Community.org

-Oral Presentation (pertaining to a member state’s interests in Turkish accession)

-Crisis Scenario

-Final Paper (15-20 pages)


VI. Course Requirements and Grading



  1. Attendance at lectures, active participation in plenary discussions incorporating the use of Blackboard, and individual contributions to Atlantic-Community.org make up an integral part of the course, including the ‘How I Learn’ essay in which each student discusses an example or two of a prior constructive learning experience. (40%)

  2. The crisis scenario, including a preparatory oral presentation as well as background research throughout the semester, offers students the opportunity to think critically about the role of the European Council evaluating various theories of European integration as these pertain to successive enlargements. Please see the Appendix (Page 5) for an explanation of how the crisis scenario is to be organized. (30%)

  3. The final paper topic is chosen in consultation with me. Please drop by my office or schedule an appointment by mid-semester to discuss your choice. See the Appendix (Page 20) for a range of topic choices. (30%)


N.B. Absence Policy. In accordance with CGA/SCPS/NYU policy, more than three (3) absences during a semester course will impact negatively on the final grade.

N.B. Incomplete Policy. Incompletes are only granted in extreme cases such as illness or other family emergency and only where almost all work for the semester has been successfully completed. A student’s procrastination in completing his/her paper is not a basis for an Incomplete.



A. Attendance and Lateness Policy: All students must attend class regularly. Your contribution to classroom learning is essential to the success of the course. Every student must be in class on time. It is disruptive to classroom learning when someone enters the room after class has started. Attendance and lateness will count in the calculation of final grades. Attendance will be taken at the start of each class session.
B. Technology-Mediated Learning via Blackboard, Atlantic-Community.org: In Blackboard the contributions reflect exchanges each week about the syllabus questions. Each student is requested to contribute 1-2 postings per week that enrich the group’s discussion by the following Monday after each Wednesday class meeting. Please also join Atlantic-Community.org and participate in policy dialogues of relevance to the course.
In our learning community, technology is not intrinsically good or bad. It is the way in which Skype, ITunes and Twitter, in addition to the Blackboard learning system, are used that determines its impact as an educational tool or a brainwashing device for mindless consumers. Our choice in Europe in the 21st Century is to use technology to reaffirm diversity and facilitate inclusiveness rather than to promote homogeneity and perpetuate exclusivity.
We may well ask in this course if technology-mediated learning is destined to remain an academically elitist project for a select group. Years from now it may be one approach to community building from dialogue. Our efforts this spring have the potential to establish a norm that opens possibilities in global communication presently viewed as unattainable. For this reason, our critical exchanges in the Blackboard forum and on Atlantic-Community.org pave the way to a new frontier. The physical borders we redefine in our classroom are those same borders we change in our minds.
C. Course Bibliography: This is a regional course that provides a foundation upon which to build for your thesis research at New York University. Each student is required to develop his/her own course bibliography, the ‘negotiated curriculum, according to personal interests. Please use readings to orient your choices for each theory of European integration and relate the materials to other courses you attend as part of your MSGA Program, particularly the core offerings. Appointments are encouraged for one-on-one mentoring discussions to accomplish our objectives in this context and maximize student learning in the course.
Appendix

Crisis Scenario

A diplomat in one of the Union’s member state Permanent Missions to the United Nations will join us to explain negotiating procedures in the European Council. The learning community participants will make oral presentations about their countries of choice in the crisis scenario, which explores Turkish enlargement as we look ahead to 2017. Blackboard is used to present relevant factual information as well as position briefs prior to the negotiation scenario.

15-20 Page Research Analysis for e-Portfolio

The research analysis will be due on April 28, the last day of class. Select a theory or theories of European integration and assess its/their relevance to explain the dynamics of your topic of choice.
Structure the assignment as follows with headings in the text please: (I) Critique the principles of the theory you choose to frame your analysis, focusing on its strengths and weaknesses to explain the dynamics of European integration; (II) Present the context, historical case or current event, which you have chosen to explore; (III) Assess the relevance of theory to analyze the context of choice. Identify those aspects in context that the theory cannot explain.

Cite the relevant course literature in bibliographic format within your research analysis. The case analysis may eventually be posted online to begin the creation of e-Portfolios for each member of the learning community to profile his/her work for prospective employers. Each participant is required to submit a case analysis outline to me in print form during the week of March 8th. No exceptions please!!

Please do not cite Wikipedia as a source. There are other encyclopedias available, including Britannica Online, which are more appropriate sources.

Please consult ‘Guidelines for Research and Writing,’ a Word document posted to Blackboard, to prepare your research analysis.
COURSE OUTLINE/ASSIGNMENTS


  • Readings for Module Plenary Discussion

  • Foreign Affairs Readings (archived web resources)

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel (archived video clips)

  • YouTube/Perspectives on Europe Videos

  • Independent Readings for Thesis Research


Module 1: The Perils of Nationalism and Foundations of Postwar Reconstruction - Pluralism (January 20)





  • Learning Community Participant Introductions, Course Outline, Explanation of Pedagogy, Presentation of Methodology, “How I Learn” Narrative, Expectations for Class Assignments, Questions


Orientation Questions: Why is nationalism relevant to the experience of European states? What are the characteristics of pluralism as a theory of integration? What role did the United States play in the postwar European context? Identify Jean Monnet and define his goals for France and Europe in the international system. What is the nature of the German problem?


  • E.H. Carr. Nationalism and After. London: Macmillan, 1968.

  • Charles Pentland. International Theory and European Integration. London: Faber and Faber, 1973, pp. 29-63.

  • Geir Lundestad. “Empire” by Integration The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 1-39.

  • Connor Cruise O’Brien, “The Wrath of Ages: Nationalism’s Primordial Roots,” Foreign Affairs November/December 1993 72 (5): 1-5 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/49418/conor-cruise-o-brien/the-wrath-of-ages-nationalism-s-primordial-roots

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Laurent Cohen-Tanugi: It’s A Multipolar World, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EghlN8yV_OE


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Isaiah Berlin. Against the Current Essays in the History of Ideas. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 1955, pp. 333-355.

  • Fritz Stern. Five Germanys I Have Known. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006, pp. 3-193.

  • François Duchêne. Jean Monnet The First Statesman of Interdependence. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994, pp. 147-80.

  • Walt W. Rostow, ‘Marshall Plan Commemorative Sections: Lessons of the Plan: Looking Forward to the Next Century,’ Foreign Affairs May/June 1997 76 (3): 1-4 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/53058/walt-w-rostow/marshall-plan-commemorative-section-lessons-of-the-plan-looking-



Module 2: The European Coal and Steel Community - “How I Learn” Narrative Due (January 27)

Guest Speaker: Dr.Volker Berghahn, Seth Low Professor of History, Columbia University

Use of Skype Technology for Global Outreach in the Learning Community


Orientation Questions: Why is the European Coal and Steel Community significant in the postwar experience of European states? Define the interests of the original Six member states in the initial Community? Discuss the different historical interpretations of the United States role in European integration during this period. Reflect on how the German question has evolved since this early period in light of its experiences and in the words of its leaders, particularly Adenauer, Brandt and Genscher.


  • John Gillingham, “Jean Monnet and the European Coal and Steel Community: A Preliminary Appraisal,” in Douglas Brinkley and Clifford Hackett, eds. Jean Monnet: The Path to European Unity. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991, pp. 129-62.

  • Robert Marjolin, “What Type of Europe?,” in Douglas Brinkley and Clifford Hackett, eds. Jean Monnet: The Path to European Unity. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991, pp. 163-83.

  • Geir Lundestad. “Empire” by Integration The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 126-53.

  • François Duchêne. Jean Monnet The First Statesman of Interdependence. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994, pp. 181-225.

  • Konrad Adenauer, “The German Problem, A World Problem,” Foreign Affairs October 1962 41 (1): 1-3 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23447/ konrad-adenauer/the-german-problem-a-world-problem

  • Willy Brandt Discusses ‘German Unification and World Peace’ at DePauw, http://www.depauw.edu/news/index.asp?id=17907 http://www.depauw.edu/av/ubben/willy-brandt2.mp3

  • Fora.TV, German Unification Twenty Years Later – Hans-Dietrich Genscher, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXPFiWzcEx4


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Fritz Stern. Five Germanys I Have Known. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006, pp. 194-303.

  • Alan S. Milward. with the assistance of George Brennan and Federico Romero. The European Rescue of the Nation-State. Second Edition. London and New York: Routledge, 2000, pp. 1 – 118.

  • François Duchêne, “Jean Monnet’s Methods,” in Douglas Brinkley and Clifford Hackett, eds. Jean Monnet: The Path to European Unity. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991, pp. 185-209.

  • YouTube, Tight Trade Restrictions in Europe Just after WW2, http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=x_cLQKGwmio


Module 3: The Original Six Member States / Defeat of the European Defense Community – Functionalism (February 3)



Orientation Questions: Discuss the origins of the European ambition for a common army? What are the characteristics of functionalism as a theory of integration? How did conflict on the Korean peninsula influence the development of European defense integration? Why was the European Defense Community defeated in the French National Assembly? What is Eurocorps? Why is this joint initiative relevant in the 21st century?


  • Charles Pentland. International Theory and European Integration. London: Faber and Faber, 1973, pp. 64-99.

  • François Duchêne. Jean Monnet The First Statesman of Interdependence. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994, pp. 226-57.

  • Geir Lundestad. “Empire” by Integration The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 40-57.

  • Craig Parsons. A Certain Idea of Europe. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press, 2003, pp. 67-89.

  • Altiero Spinelli, “Atlantic Pact or European Unity?,” Foreign Affairs July 1962 40 (4): 1-5 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23416/altiero-spinelli/atlantic-pact-or-european-unity

  • The reality of Eurocorps not yet fulfilled, http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=1n0fDcVnbWU&feature=related



Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Raymond Aron. Memoirs Fifty Years of Political Reflection. New York and London: Holmes & Meier, 1990, pp. 180-98.

  • Philip Gordon. A Certain Idea of France. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993, pp. 3-52.

  • Raymond Aron and Daniel Lerner, eds. France Defeats EDC. New York: Praeger, 1957.



Module 4: The Institutions in the European Economic Community – Neo-Functionalism (February 10)

Orientation Questions: Why are the Community institutions significant in the history of European integration? What are the characteristics of neo-functionalism as a theory of integration? Discuss the roles of the European Commission, the Council of Ministers, and the European Parliament in the policy making process. Distinguish between the Monnet method and intergovernmental cooperation among states.


  • Charles Pentland. International Theory and European Integration. London: Faber and Faber, 1973, pp. 100-46.

  • Helen Wallace, “The Institutions of the EU: Experience and Experiments” in Helen Wallace and William Wallace. eds. Policy Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 37-68.

  • B. Guy Peters, “Bureaucratic Politics and the Institutions of the European Community,” in Alberta M. Sbragia, ed. Euro-Politics Institutions and Policy Making in the “New” European Community. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1992, pp. 75-122.

  • Paul-Henri Spaak, “The Search for Consensus,” Foreign Affairs January 1965 43 (2): 1-5 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23657/paul-henri-spaak/the-search-for-consensus

  • European Navigator, The Authoritative Multimedia Reference on the History of Europe, The Signing of the Rome Treaties, Interviews with Statesmen (in French, German and English), http://www.ena.lu/


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Helen Wallace, “An Institutional Anatomy and Five Policy Modes,” in Helen Wallace, William Wallace, and Mark A. Pollack, eds. Policy-Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 49-90.

  • Alan S. Milward. with the assistance of George Brennan and Federico Romero. The European Rescue of the Nation-State. Second Edition. London and New York: Routledge, 2000, pp. 318 – 344.

  • Frank Church, “US Policy and the ‘New Europe,’” Foreign Affairs October 1966 45 (1): 1-5 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23832/frank-church/u-s-policy-and-the-new-europe


Module 5: Enlarging From Six to Nine: Difficulties of British Accession and European Political Cooperation – Federalism vs. Intergovernmentalism (February 17)

Orientation Questions: Discuss the differences between Charles De Gaulle and Walter Hallstein in the early years of the European Economic Community. Why did the General veto Britain’s applications to accede to the European Communities? What are the characteristics of federalism as a theory of integration? Define intergovernmentalism with concrete examples of states with this vision of European cooperation. Explain the interests of the states in the first enlargement of the European Community.
Oral Presentations


  • Charles Pentland. International Theory and European Integration. London: Faber and Faber, 1973, pp. 147-86.

  • Geir Lundestad. “Empire” by Integration The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 58-107.

  • Philippe de Schoutheete. The Case for Europe. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 2000, pp. ix-40.

  • Paul-Henri Spaak, “Hold Fast,” Foreign Affairs July 1963 41 (4): 1-4 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23520/paul-henri-spaak/hold-fast

  • European Navigator, The Authoritative Multimedia Reference on the History of Europe, The United Kingdom and its Applications for Accession to the Common Market, Interviews with Statesmen (in French, German and English), http://www.ena.lu/

  • YouTube, Sir Edward Heath signs EEC Treaty of Accession 1 January 1973, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ouLu4Vncqs


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Stanley Hoffmann, “Obstinate or Obsolete? France, European Integration and the Fate of the Nation-State,” in The European Sisyphus. Essays on Europe, 1964-1994. Boulder and Oxford: Westview Press, Inc., 1995, pp. 71-106.

  • Simon J. Nuttall. European Political Cooperation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992, pp. 1-80.

  • J. H. Huizinga, ‘Which Way Europe?,’ Foreign Affairs April 1965 43 (3): 1-7 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23690/j-h-huizinga/which-way-europe

  • Harold van B. Cleveland, “The Common Market After De Gaulle,” Foreign Affairs July 1969 47 (4): 1-7 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/24090 / harold-van-b-cleveland/the-common-market-after-de-gaulle

  • Edward L. Morse, “Why the Malaise?,” Foreign Affairs January 1973 51 (2): 1-6 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/24407/edward-l-morse/why-the-malaise



Module 6: From Nine to Ten to Twelve: The Mediterranean Accession and the Relaunch of Europe via Treaty Reform (February 24)

Orientation Questions: Why was the accession of Greece, Spain, and Portugal to the European Community significant economically, politically, and socially for those countries? Discuss the importance of the Single European Act in the history of European integration? What was the 1992 initiative? What role did European Commission President Jacques Delors play in this period? Explain the purpose of the structural funds as the Community enlarged.
Oral Presentations


  • David R. Cameron, “The 1992 Initiative: Causes and Consequences,” in Alberta M. Sbragia, ed. Euro-Politics Institutions and Policy Making in the “New” European Community. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1992, pp. 23-74.

  • Andrew Moravcsik, “Negotiating the Single European Act: National Interests and Conventional Statecraft in the European Community,” International Organization 45, 1 (1991): 651-88.

  • Gary Marks, “Structural Policy in the European Community,” in Alberta M. Sbragia, ed. Euro-Politics Institutions and Policy Making in the “New” European Community. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1992, pp. 191-224.

  • Philippe de Schoutheete. The Case for Europe. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 2000, pp. 41-69.

  • David Watt, ‘The European Initiative,’ Foreign Affairs America and the World 1978 57 (3): 1-9 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/31966/david-watt/the-european-initiative

  • Stanley Hoffmann, ‘The European Community and 1992,’ Foreign Affairs Fall 1989 68 (4): 1-10 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/44890/stanley-hoffmann/the-european-community-and-1992

  • European Navigator, The Authoritative Multimedia Reference on the History of Europe, 1980-1986 Enlargement to the South and the Single European Act, News Articles, Speeches, Official Documents, Interviews with Statesmen (in French, German and English), http://www.ena.lu/


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Stanley Hoffmann, “Reflections on the Nation-State in Western Europe Today,” in The European Sisyphus. Essays on Europe, 1964-1994. Boulder and Oxford: Westview Press, Inc., 1995, pp. 211-26.

  • John C. Loulis, ‘Papandreou’s Foreign Policy,’ Foreign Affairs Winter 1984/85 63 (2): 1-7 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/39389/john-c-loulis/papandreous-foreign-policy?page=show

  • Helen Wallace and Alasdair Young, “The Single Market,” in Helen Wallace, William Wallace, and Mark A. Pollack, eds. Policy Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 93-112.


Module 7: From Twelve to Fifteen: Analyzing the Dynamics in Europe’s Union: Implications for Transatlantic Relations (March 3)
PUBLIC EVENTS: In Print With James F. Hoge, Jr.

Jack F. Matlock, Jr. Superpower Illusions: How Myths and False Ideologies Led America Astray – And How to Return to Reality
Orientation Questions: Discuss the dynamics of German unification, the end of Europe’s division, and the implications of these changes for European integration. What were the objectives of the Intergovernmental Conferences on Economic and Monetary Union and Political Union? Define the interests of the different member states during the intergovernmental conferences.
Oral Presentations


  • Philippe de Schoutheete. The Case for Europe. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 2000, pp. 71-106.

  • Stanley Hoffmann, “The Case for Leadership,” in The European Sisyphus. Essays on Europe, 1964-1994. Boulder and Oxford: Westview Press, Inc., 1995, pp. 267-79.

  • Geir Lundestad. “Empire” by Integration The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 108-53.

  • Colette Mazzucelli, “A Separate Peace? Economic Stabilization-Development and the New Faultline of European Security,” in Carl Cavanagh Hodge, ed. Redefining European Security. New York and London: Garland, 1999, pp. 73-92.

  • Claude Imbert, “The End of French Exceptionalism,” Foreign Affairs Fall 1989 68 (4): 1-6 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/44892/claude-imbert/the-end-of-french-exceptionalism

  • Charles A. Kupchan, ‘Reviving the West: For an Atlantic Union,’ Foreign Affairs May-June 1996 75 (3): 1-6 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/52041/ charles-a-kupchan/reviving-the-west-for-an-atlantic-union

  • European Navigator, The Authoritative Multimedia Reference on the History of Europe, The Treaty on European Union, News Articles, Speeches, Official Documents, Interviews with Statesmen (in French, German and English), http://www.ena.lu/


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Fritz Stern. Five Germanys I Have Known. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006, pp. 399-520.

  • Stanley Hoffmann, “Balance, Concert, Anarchy, or None of the Above,” in The European Sisyphus. Essays on Europe, 1964-1994. Boulder and Oxford: Westview Press, Inc., 1995, pp. 281-300.

  • Andrew Moravcsik. “Idealism and Interest in the European Community: The Case of the French Referendum” French Politics & Society, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Winter 1993): 45-69.

  • Walter Goldstein, “Europe After Maastricht,” Foreign Affairs Winter 1992/93 71 (5): 1-7 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/48468/walter-goldstein/ europe-after-maastricht

  • Ronald Tiersky, “Mitterrand’s Legacies,” Foreign Affairs January/February 1995 74 (1): 1-4 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50572/ronald-tiersky/ mitterrands-legacies


Module 8: A Federation by Any Other Name… or an Empire? From the Fifteen to the Twenty Five: European Monetary Union (March 10)

Guest Speaker: Mr. Staffan Hemra, Permanent Mission of Sweden to the United Nations
Use of Skype Technology for Global Outreach in the Learning Community
Orientation Questions: Discuss the dynamics of Economic and Monetary Union in the 1990s. Why was EMU so important to the integration process? Define the convergence criteria the member states had to fulfill to join in the first wave? Why did Britain not join EMU?


  • Kathleen R. McNamara. “Economic and Monetary Union,” in Helen Wallace, William Wallace, and Mark A. Pollack eds. Policy Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 141-60.

  • Jan Zielonka. Europe as Empire. The Nature of the Enlarged European Union. Oxford: Oxford Univesity Press, 2007, 1-22.

  • Adam S. Posen, “Who Will Sustain Globalization?,” Current History November 2009, http://www.currenthistory.com/article-category.php?ID=13

  • Peter Sutherland, ‘The Case for EMU: More Than Money,’ Foreign Affairs January/February 1997 76 (1): 1-3 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/ 52635/peter-sutherland/the-case-for-emu-more-than-money

  • YouTube, Thatcher “No! No! No!,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= U2f8nYMCO2I


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Amy Verdun, “An American-European Divide in European Integration Studies,” in Erik Jones and Amy Verdun, eds. The Political Economy of European Integration pp. 11- 24.

  • Michel R. Gueldry. France and European Integration Toward a Transnational Polity? Westport, CT: Prager, 2001, pp. 119-46.

  • Loukas Tsoukalis. “Economic and Monetary Union” in Helen Wallace and William Wallace, eds. Policy Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 149-78.

  • Amy Verdun and Tal Sadeh. ‘Explaining Europe's Monetary Union: A Survey of the Literature,’ International Studies Review, Vol 11 No 2 (June) 2009, pp. 277-301.


Module 9: Enlargements in Historical Perspective: From the Twenty Five to the Twenty Seven – The Impact of Cohesion and Globalization in a Larger Union (March 24)

Guest Speaker (via Skype, Facebook and Twitter): Dr. István Hegedűs, Chairman, (President) Hungarian Europe Society
Orientation Questions: Explain the challenges facing countries in central and eastern Europe to join the European Union considering the Hungarian case. What was the rationale behind the big bang enlargement in 2004? How is the Union responding to the dynamics of globalization? Has the accession to Romania and Bulgaria complicated European decision-making? How does Zielonka define the Union?


  • István Hegedüs, “After the accession talks, facing the referendum,” Central European Political Science Review, 2003, http://www.europatarsasag.hu/index. php?option=com­_content&task=view&id=106& Itemid =32

  • Ulrich Sedelmeier, “Towards a European EU,” in Helen Wallace, William Wallace, and Mark A. Pollack eds. Policy Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 401-28.

  • Jan Zielonka. Europe as Empire. The Nature of the Enlarged European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, 91-115.

  • Dominique Moïsi. The Geopolitics of Emotion. New York: Doubleday, 2009, pp. 90-128.

  • Colette Mazzucelli, “The Future of the European Union and Implications for European-American Cooperation: An Interview with Secretary General Jürgen Trumpf, Parliamentary State Secretary István Szent-Iványi and Ambassador Carlos Westendorp,” ECSA Review IX, 3 (Fall 1996): 14-21

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, George Friedman: Poland as a Great Power, http://www.youtube.com/carnegiecouncil#p/u/275/ETwCBz_kedU


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Tony Judt. Postwar A History of Europe Since 1945. New York: The Penguin Press, 2005, pp. 749-800.

  • Kalypso Nicolaïdis. “We, the Peoples of Europe…” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2006 83 (6): 1-6 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/ articles /60273/kalypso-nicolaidis/we-the-peoples-of-europe

  • YouTube, Alex Romanovich on CNBC, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =I4ymeOjMTKE


Module 10: Questions of Comparative Regional Integration (March 31)
Guest Speaker: Professor Everett Meyers, Center for Global Affairs, New York University
Use of Skype Technology for Global Outreach in the Learning Community
Orientation Questions: Discuss the ways in which European integration may be relevant for Asia. How does Moïsi define the Asian experience in terms of the geopolitics of emotion compared to that of European states? How does Leonard analyze Europe’s role in this century?


  • Dominique Moïsi. The Geopolitics of Emotion. New York: Doubleday, 2009, pp. 1-56.

  • Mark Leonard. Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century. New York, Public Affairs, 2005.

  • Joshua Kurlantzick, “The New Schizophrenia: Asia Between Integration and Isolation,” Current History January 2010, http://www.currenthistory.com/

  • Jan Zielonka. Europe as Empire. The Nature of the Enlarged European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, 117-63.

  • Geir Lundestad. “Empire” by Integration The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 154-69.

  • David P. Calleo, “How to Govern a Multipolar World,” Current History November 2009, http://www.currenthistory.com/article-category.php ?ID=13

  • Adrian Karatnycky and Alexander J. Motyl, “The Key to Kiev,” Foreign Affairs May/June 2009 88 (3): 1-7 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/64953/ adrian-karatnycky-and-alexander-j-motyl/the-key-to-kiev

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Ian Bremmer: G-20 Observations, http://www.youtube.com/user/carnegiecouncil#p/search/1/rqW_q0wNEVM


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Philomena Murray, ed. Europe and Asia: Regions in Flux. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

  • Manuel Lafont Rapnouil, “A European View on the Future of Multilateralism,” The Washington Quarterly July 2009 32 (3): 181-96.

  • Anne-Marie Slaughter, The Real New World Order, Foreign Affairs September/October 1997 76 (5): 1-6 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/ articles/53399/anne-marie-slaughter/the-real-new-world-order

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Anne-Marie Slaughter: Int’l Institutions, http://www.youtube.com/carnegiecouncil#p/u/283/PUHjqv-mSUE

  • Bill Emmott, “Managing the International System over the Next Ten Years,” in Managing the International System over the Next Ten Years: Three Essays A Report to the Trilateral Commission. New York, Paris and Tokyo: The Trilateral Commission, 1997, pp. 1-28.

  • John Edwin Mroz and Oleksandr Pavliuk, ‘Ukraine: Europe’s Lynchpin Preserving Independence,’ Foreign Affairs May-June 1996 75 (3): 1-5 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/52038/john-edwin-mroz-and-oleksandr-pa vliuk/ukraine-europe%C3%82%E2%80%99s-linchpin-preserving-independence

  • Erik Gartzke, “Power Shuffle: Will the Coming Transition Be Peaceful?,” Current History November 2009, http://www.currenthistory.com/article-category.php?ID=13


Module 11: European Treaty Reform: From Maastricht to Lisbon and Beyond (April 7)
Guest Speaker: Mrs. Ceta Noland, Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations
Use of Skype Technology for Global Outreach in the Learning Community
Orientation Questions: Constrast Moravcsik’s liberal intergovernmentalism with the analyses of Parsons and Beach to explain European treaty reform. Situate treaty reforms since Maastricht, particularly in foreign and security policy, in the context of transatlantic relations. Did the Union require a Constitution? Why did France and the Netherlands reject the Constitutional Treaty? Why did Ireland reject the Lisbon Treaty? Identify some of the major innovations of the Lisbon Treaty.


  • Andrew Moravcsik. The Choice for Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998, pp. 379-471.

  • Craig Parsons. A Certain Idea of Europe. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press, 2003, pp. 202-30.

  • Derek Beach. The Dynamics of European Integration. Why and When EU Institutions Matter. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, pp.

  • Colette Mazzucelli. France and Germany at Maastricht Politics and Negotiations to Create the European Union. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc, 1999, second edition, paperback, pp. 174-95.

  • Laurent Cohen-Tanugi, “The End of Europe?,” Foreign Affairs November/December 2005 84 (6): 1- 6 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/ articles/61198/laurent-cohen-tanugi/the-end-of-europe

  • YouTube Channel, EU Ambassador to the US, John Bruton, on the Lisbon Treaty, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVi6PESPopA&feature=related

  • YouTube Channel, Ireland to hold referendum on EU’s Lisbon Treaty, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6GnUL69fjNs&feature=related

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Nikolas Gvosdev: The New Global Order, http://www.youtube.com/carnegiecouncil#p/u/425/JCDqNrOIEZ0


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Colette Mazzucelli, “Drawing Lessons in the Chair: Assessing the Dutch Presidency’s Impact during the Maastricht and Amsterdam Conferences,” in Derek Beach and Colette Mazzucelli, eds. Leadership in the big bangs of European integration. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, pp. 38-57.

  • Simon J. Nuttall. European Foreign Policy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000, pp. 149-275.

  • Stephen F. Szabo. Parting Ways: The Crisis in German-American Relations. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2004.

  • Colette Mazzucelli, “The French Rejection of the European Constitutional Treaty: Two-Level Games Revisited,” in Finn Laursen, ed. The Rise and Fall of the EU’s Constitutional Treaty. Leiden and Boston: Nijhoff/Brill, 2008, pp. 161-79.

  • Derek Beach. The Dynamics of European Integration. Why and When EU Institutions Matter. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, pp. 214-44.

  • Colette Mazzucelli, “Leadership in the European Union: Assessing the Significance of the Trio Council Presidency,” in Joseph Masciulli, Mikhail A. Molchanov, and W. Andy Knight, eds. The Ashgate Research Companion to Political Leadership. Ashgate, 2009, pp. 309-33.


Module 12: The Limits and Strengths of Europe as a Global Actor: Proliferation and E3 Diplomacy with Iran (April 14)
Guest Speaker: Ambassador Richard Butler, Center for Global Affairs, New York University
Use of Skype Technology for Global Outreach in the Learning Community
Orientation Questions: Discuss the challenges of proliferation, as identified by Butler, and the Union’s response, as defined by Leonard. Contrast Kagan’s arguments with those of Nicolaïdis in thinking about America and Europe in the 21st century. How does Wallace explain the evolution of the European Union’s foreign and security policy?



  • Richard Butler. Fatal Choice. Boulder: Westview Press, 2001.

  • Mark Leonard. Can EU diplomacy stop Iran’s nuclear programme? Brussels: Centre for European Reform, 2005.

  • Colette Mazzucelli, “E3 Diplomacy with Iran Reaching the Limits of the European Union as a Global Actor,” in Finn Laursen, ed. The EU in the Global Political Economy. Nijhoff/Brill, 2009, pp. 315-39.

  • Robert Kagan. Of Paradise and Power. America and Europe in the New World Order. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.

  • Kalypso Nicolaïdis, “The Power of the Superpowerless,” in Tod Lindberg, ed. Beyond Paradise and Power: Europe, America, and the Future of a Troubled Partnership, Routledge, 2004.

  • William Wallace, “Foreign and Security Policy The Painful Path from Shadow to Substance,” in Helen Wallace, William Wallace, and Mark A. Pollack, eds. Policy Making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 429-56.

  • Timothy Garten Ash, ‘Europe’s Endangered Liberal Order,’ Foreign Affairs March/April 1998 77 (2): 1-7 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles /53806/timothy-garton-ash/europes-endangered-liberal-order

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Amb. Thomas Pickering: U.S.-Iran Relations, http://www.youtube.com/user/carnegiecouncil#p/search/8/cw5EvbfY3 8Q

  • YouTube Channel, John Bruton, ‘the EU’s man in Washington,’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8EQdrdtLlPY

  • Stephanie Anderson, Interest Section Sponsors Symposium on Transatlantic Relations with Ambassador John Bruton, EUSA Review Summer 2008, http://www.eustudies.org/publications_review_summer08.php#list-3


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Reinhardt Rummel, ed. with the assistance of Colette Mazzucelli. The Evolution of an International Actor: Western Europe's New Assertiveness. Boulder & Oxford: Westview Press, 1990.

  • Elizabeth Pond. Friendly Fire. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2004.

  • Robert Cooper. The Breaking of Nations Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003.

  • Laurent Cohen-Tanugi. An Alliance at Risk. The United States and Europe since September 11. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

  • Colette Mazzucelli, “The Importance of Europe’s Strategic and Diplomatic Cultures,” in Michel Gueldry, ed. How Globalizing Professions Deal with National Languages: Studies in Cultural Conflict and Cooperation. New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2009, not yet released, (as PDF), pp. 1-21.


Module 13: Future Accession Candidates (April 21)

Guest Speaker: Professor Oya Dursun-Özkanca, Elizabethtown College
Use of Skype Technology for Global Outreach in the Learning Community

Orientation Questions: What are the challenges to Turkish accession to the European Union? Assess the options for Turkey in terms of its relations with the Union. Identify other candidates in line to join the Union. Explain the arguments Gordon and Taspinar make to address Turkey’s relations with America and Europe.


  • Oya Dursun-Özkanca, “Turkey: The Potential Impact of EU Membership” in Sven Biscop and Johan Lembke, eds. EU Enlargement & the Transatlantic Alliance. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008, pp. 119 -136.

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Ann Dismorr: Turkey Decoded, http://www.cceia.org/resources/video/data/000220

  • Philip H. Gordon and Omer Taspinar. Winning Turkey. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2008.

  • Jan Zielonka. Europe as Empire. The Nature of the Enlarged European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, 164-91.

  • David L. Phillips, “Turkey’s Dreams of Accession,” Foreign Affairs September/October 2004 83 (5): 1-5 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/ articles/60100/david-l-phillips/turkeys-dreams-of-accession

  • Philip H. Gordon, “Their Own Army?,” Foreign Affairs July/August 2000 79 (4): 1-4 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/56229/philip-h-gordon/ their-own-army

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Russia, Iran, and Turkey (Political Futures Jan 09), http://www.youtube.com/user/carnegiecouncil#p/search/1/TE-DvLWAdX0


Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Kori Schake. The US elections and Europe: The coming crisis of high expectations. Brussels: Centre for European Reform, 2007.

  • Rajan Menon, “Pax Americana and the Rising Powers,” Current History November 2009, http://www.currenthistory.com/article-category.php?ID =13

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Ann Dismorr: Women’s Rights in Turkey, http://www.youtube.com/user/carnegiecouncil#p/search/3/45IL-Qibo4Q

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, France and Burqas, http://www.youtube.com/carnegiecouncil#p/u/143/v5VbiqgGu4c


Module 14: European Council Crisis Scenario – Negotiation Dynamics of Enlargement to Turkey circa 2017 (April 28)
Orientation Questions: Follow up in European Council negotiations on the basis of the oral presentations in earlier module sessions and individual member state papers on Blackboard to address the crisis scenario pertaining to Turkish enlargement.


  • Soner Cagaptay, “Is Turkey Leaving the West?,” Foreign Affairs 2009: 1-2 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65634/soner-cagaptay/is-turkey-leaving-the-west

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Ann Dismorr: Where is Turkey Heading?, http://www.youtube.com/user/carnegiecouncil#p/search/4/FwZwB6R9FIc



Recommended Texts (“negotiated curriculum” to develop questions for thesis research):


  • Michael S. Teitelbaum and Philip L. Martin, “Is Turkey Ready for Europe?” Foreign Affairs May/June 2003 82 (3): 1-6 online, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/58977/michael-s-teitelbaum-and-philip-l-martin/is-turkey-ready-for-europe

  • Carnegie Council YouTube Channel, Ann Dismorr: Turkish Foreign Policy, http://www.youtube.com/user/carnegiecouncil#p/search/2/VAtkuzaLiI4

Potential Research Topics
1. Has the 2007 enlargement to 27 member states, including Romania and Bulgaria, paralyzed the Union’s decision making?
2. Did the European Union require a Constitution? If so, what were the goals of the 2007 German Presidency in this context?
3. How has Germany’s European policy changed in the last decade after the Kohl era?
4. Is NATO still relevant to European security in the aftermath of the demise of the former Soviet Union?
5. How do energy politics impact on the Union’s relationship with Russia? Why is this significant in a post 9/11-11/9 environment?
6. Choose one of the Union’s newer members and assess the impact of enlargement on its economic, political and social evolution.
7. What did the failure of referenda in the France, the Netherlands and Ireland reveal about popular attitudes toward European integration?
8. What are the options for America’s policy toward European integration after the Cold War?
9. Discuss the differences between the US and several of its European allies regarding the Iraq crisis. How should the US and Europe cooperate today in Iraq?
10. Should Turkey be a member of the European Union? Discuss the pros and cons of this question and the likelihood of Turkish enlargement in the near future.
11. How should Europe address its Muslim populations in various member states, i.e. Germany, France, or the Netherlands?
12. What are the perspectives for enlargement to the Balkan states in the medium to long term?
13. Is the French-German relationship still the ‘motor’ of European integration? If not, is there a new ‘engine’ likely to take its place?
14. Discuss the ways in which European integration may be a model for closer regional development in Asia over time.
15. Is there a new ‘great project’ after the Euro to sustain European integration? If so, identify this area and explain its relevance to integration today.




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