Framework curricula for primary education


Technology and way of living



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Technology and way of living

Years 1 through 4


Objectives and tasks
The aim of this subject is to consistently nurture a systematic way of thinking in pupils which gradually introduces them to the complex system of relationships and links of the technological environment created by humankind living in nature and in society.

The subject ‘Technology and way of living’ teaches knowledge, promotes skills and attitudes which help the pupils to efficiently utilise the achievements of modern technology and economy, while at the same time protecting them from any distorting effects it may have.

Technology has been interpreted in the most diverse way throughout history. For long millennia, it meant the entirety of practical knowledge collected through hands-on activities. Modern technology, however, requires other than only craftsmanship. One of the most significant question of our age concerns how we can coexist with the technical environment which we have for the very purpose of making life easier.

One of the aims of the subjects is to introduce pupils to the ways to prevent environmental damages, the concepts and requirements of sustainable development, and a form if environmental management which works systematically and goes to the roots of problems. No matter what complex scientific education we may envisage, it can only show how to cure symptoms of environmental damages done through technology. Emphasis should be on prevention, and the systematic process of technology teaching is suitable tool to this end.

The subject ‘Technology and way of living’ presents the coexistence of society, ecosystems and technical systems in its complexity. It covers topics such as household economics, the neighbourhood, the home and its immediate surroundings, and garden skills. It also includes appropriate behaviour while on our way, as well as familiarity with traffic regulations. The subject ‘Technology and way of living’ introduces pupils to the complex system of technology through theoretical, practical, manual, design and modelling exercises.
Objectives of the subject through Year 1 to 4
Introducing pupils to the materials found in the natural and man-made world, investigation of the properties of materials through the sensory organs. Recognising correlations between materials and objects made of these materials (raw material, product, product in progress). Basic steps of the processing of materials. Introduction to crafts and professions related to various materials.

Familiarity with traditional household tasks and craft technologies.

The relationship between structure and form, aesthetical requirements of spaces created by man. Introduction to materials and structures used in creating a man-made environment, old and modern structures (buildings, roads, bridges, overpasses, tunnels, skyscrapers and towers). (Structural materials, plastics, glass.) Recognising advantages and disadvantages of residential environments.

Estimation, measurement, alignment, determining equal size. Independent design and execution in building and object forming. Presentation of plans, concepts in drawing in accordance with individual taste. Creating and analysing simple models from a plan. Using tools safely and in accordance with their function.

Familiarity with the history of land, water and air transportation. Understanding the role of in-town, road, rail, water and air transport, familiarity with the relevant vehicles. Cycling in no-traffic areas, introduction to the rules of bicycle traffic.

Executing simple household tasks. Getting used to self-service activities appropriate for the age group. Safe play and leisure activities.

Establishing a lifestyle which is environmentally safe and in which love of nature is important.


Developmental requirements
Tasks and activity forms
Recognising needs and possibilities
Recognising the necessity and possibilities of design and technology-related activities by examining life at home, the school, community, leisure, business, industry and agriculture.
Design
Preparing detailed plans, considering the essential theoretical concepts, and on the basis of this, preparing a realistic, appropriate and executable plan.
Organising and executing work
Creating simple objects and mechanisms after systematic preparation. Familiarity with and adept utilisation of necessary sources and processes.
Evaluation
Understanding and discussing own and others’ plans, technologies and technical systems, assessment of results and effects. Comparison of systems from different cultures or ages, recognising similitude and possible utilisation of similar features in the design phase.
Skill development
Through formulation of the goal and task, the planning of activity and work phases, as well as the common discussion and assessment of the result (product, operation), the subject ‘Technology’ greatly contributes to the development of speaking skills and self-expression of pupils. Systematic thinking promotes logical thinking. Technical representation and communication enhances diagram reading, logical and drawing skills, planning enhances calculation skills, and creating systems and objects enhances manual skills.
Development of capabilities
Recognising needs and possibilities, the design process, the preparation of detailed plans and executing work itself not only enhances the problem-solving, creating, estimating, decision-making, analytic, organising and concentrating skills of the pupils, but also promotes creativity, manual skills and the desire for precise work, and also develops spatial perceptions, the pupils’ ability to orient themselves in two and three dimensions.

Assessment helps self-evaluation and the ability to judge others correctly, and develops a need to check their own work.


Year 1
Number of teaching hours per year: 37


New activities

Contents

Materials

Introduction to materials, e.g. clay, sand, wood, plant fruits, leaves, straw, reed. Organoleptic properties of various materials.


Materials in the natural and man-made environment. Objects in the home, school and playground, and their materials. Natural materials.



Using materials. Crafts.

Recognising correlations between the properties of materials and objects made using these materials. For example, folding, tearing, cutting, rolling and gluing paper and yarn, pressing, kneading, shaping clay, cutting and smoothing metal.

Familiarity with crafts: for example, potter, wickerworker, roper, barrel maker, cartwright.

Processed (transformed) materials.

Crafts and professions associated with various materials. Safe and functional use of scissors, liner, sandpaper and patterning tools.


Measurement

Estimating, measuring, aligning, determining equal size, shaping.

Building and creating objects after a template, photo or possibly a picture.





Traffic skills

Practising participation in traffic, consciousness, cautiousness. Introduction to and practising of behavioural elements related to travelling. Avoiding dangerous situations.


Rules of pedestrian traffic. Safe mass transport.




Concepts
Materials and their processing and application
space, transformation property, ground plan, estimation, length, hardness, plasticity, outline, height, depth, size, softness, smoothness, width, rigidity, distance, natural and artificial materials, plan, fragility.
Traffic skills
pedestrian traffic, sign, signal, traffic lights, traffic, traffic regulations, mass transport

Prerequisites of moving ahead
The framework curriculum does not set out specific prerequisites of moving ahead for the end of the first year, considering Year 1 and 2 a single phase in terms of development.

Year 2
Number of teaching hours per year: 37




New activities

Contents

Man and his environment

Familiarity with and description of seasons and weather phenomena (e.g. sunlight, clear sky, rain, snow, wind). Introduction of the surroundings of the home. Familiarity with the negative effects of the environment and the means of protection (e.g. clothing, hut building, house building). Differentiating between and description of natural and man-made environment.


Protection against negative effects of the environment. Natural and man-made environment. Home and living spaces. The effects of humankind on nature.



Processing and using materials

Splitting, twisting, drawing and compressing materials.

Description of the process of paper production.

Making objects in traditional craft fashion from natural and artificial materials (e.g. bast, wicker, twigs, maize stem).

Observing the rules of material economy.

Examination of materials and their properties.

The processing of materials. Functional and economical use of materials.

The process of paper production.

The concept of raw material, base materials and product.

Correct use of tools.



Planning, building

Designing and making a simple object (bobble, rag doll, paper crown) to individual taste.

Building a model from an aspect drawing from building blocks, e.g. building a house.

Scale models. The function of arrangement, aesthetic qualities and balance.



Measurements

Practising estimation and giving measurements. Drawing outlines.


The function of measuring in technology. Aspect drawing, sketch, size scale symbols. The concept of magnification and reduction.



Traffic skills

Recognising dangerous situations, familiarity with the ways in which they may be avoided.

Familiarity with the rules concerning the use of vehicles; observing these rules.

Safe travel on mass transportation vehicles.


Safe transportation. The role of traffic control in safe traffic. Traffic control signs and signals. Signposts, traffic lights, pedestrian crossings.

Railroad crossing, gate, light barriers. About travel. Travel fees.

Using the travelling staircase. The role of the safety zone in preventing accidents.



Household skills, lifestyle

Comparison of the different functions of home and school with respect to general well-being.

Decoration of the classroom.

Relating pupils’ own role and participation in household tasks. Manual sewing.

Visit to and familiarity with nearby service establishments (e.g. post office, hairdresser’s, shops).

Types of household tasks. The importance of spending money economically.

Clothing. The material of clothes, the origin of these materials. Wool processing. The processing of textile. Services.



Concepts
Man and his environment
place of living, living spaces, man-made environment, natural environment.
Processing and using materials.
base material, transformation of materials, economy in using materials, examination of materials, raw material, product.
Planning, building
shape, ground plan, outline, aspect drawing, size, sketch.
Traffic skills
crossing, safety zone, light barriers, traffic control, traffic lights, signpost, vehicle, travelling stairs, gate.
Household skills, lifestyle
household, clothing, services, economical spending.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Familiarity with the transforming effects of human activities on nature (place of living, living spaces). Familiarity with the properties of materials learnt. Safe, confident use of tools and devices needed to carry out the necessary tasks. Drawing aspect drawings, sketches. Correct application of drawing elements. Simple planning and building. Familiarity with and retelling household habits.
Year 3
Number of teaching hours per year: 37


New activities

Contents

Man and his environment

Familiarity with the materials of objects found in the environment, as well as the origin of these materials.


The living world and inanimate objects. Useful materials in living organisms. Useful non-living materials.



Processing and using materials

Selecting materials to make a household utensil on the basis of their structure, properties and function; for example, making a puppet screen using paper, textile and wood. Preparatory and transformation operations. Creating objects using own ideas, with attention to function, form and aesthetic qualities at the same time.


Examination of materials. Perceivable structural properties of materials. Plasticity and load resistance.

Transformation of materials.

Correlation between structure, properties and function.

The function of old-time and modern household utensils.


Practising cutting, weaving, plaitwork and woodcarving in physical activities.

Safe use of the necessary tools and utensils.






Planning, building

Making scale models of simple buildings after a pre-defined groundplan.


The structure of a house.

Aesthetic qualities of internal spaces created by humans.


Technical drawing

Reading figures from drawings. Correspondence of the drawing and the object.


Elements in specifying measurements. Index number, dimension line.



Measurements

Recording measurements.


Measuring at a precision of 1 cm, measurement results. Ground plan.



Traffic skills

Familiarity with and practising of rules of using transport vehicles. Safe travelling on mass transport vehicles.


The history of travelling, the importance of the wheel. Transportation within the city/town. Railroad travel. Traffic safety.



Household skills, lifestyle

Familiarity with appliances assisting in household tasks, practising their use. Self-service activities appropriate for the pupil’s age.

Recognising and preventing dangerous situations at home.

Correct allocation of money, materials and time. Use of the telephone.


Familiarity with and safety in using household appliances.

Services at the place of living.



Concepts
Man and his environment
place of living, the living world, inanimate environment.
Processing and using materials.
transforming operations, preparatory operations, plasticity, industry, visible structure, folk arts, load resistance.
Planning, building
indoor spaces, index number, dimension line, settlement.


Traffic skills
traffic, traffic safety, means of transportation.
Household skills, lifestyle
household appliances/utensils, daily schedule, economical spending, body care.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Familiarity with the relationships between our living and non-living environment.

Gaining hands-on experience in the links between matter, structure, form, function and aesthetic qualities in the course of making objects. Using tools professionally and safely. Designing and making a simple scale model with guidance. Reading and interpreting simple schematic diagram (measurements on a ground plan). Measuring at a precision of 1 cm.


Year 4
Number of teaching hours per year: 37


New activities

Contents

Man and his environment

Comparison of village and town life, forming an opinion.

Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of city life.

Man-made structures in our environment, modern structures: buildings, roads, tunnels, bridges, overpasses, skyscrapers, towers. Life in a big city.



Processing and using materials

Correct application of technological processes, designing and making objects (e.g. paper box, jewellery) independently from various materials.

Functional selection of materials to be used, trying to make as little waste as possible in the course of the work processes.

Familiarity with and correct application of the techniques of dyeing, weaving and paper-making.


Examination of materials. Structural materials and their function. Glass, plastic.

Transformation (processing) of materials.

The concepts base material, partially finished product, product, waste and by-product.

Replaceability, standards.

Traditional techniques in household tasks and in crafts.



Planning, building

Envisioning the solution, drawing up solution plans. Determining the correlations between form, function and dimensions and using them in the process of planning. Drawing up the order of operations independently, and executing them.


Formulating the goal. Harmony of function, functionality, structure, attributes and form.



Measurements, technical representation

Practising measurements and the use of drawing tools. Description of objects on the basis of ground plan and aspect drawing.


Ground plan and aspects. Aspect representation, aspect drawing.



Structures in our environment

Making simple scale model, comparison of the finished work piece with the plans, e.g. creating the scale model of a room, bridge, overpass, tower.


Aesthetic requirements of spaces created by human. The link between structure and form. Rules of arrangement. Functionality and aesthetic qualities. The effects of colours, forms and harmony on how we feel.



Traffic skills

Travelling on mass transport vehicles. Practising cycling, familiarity with traffic lights, signposts, road marks.


Vehicles used in modern transportation. Land, water and air transportation.

Local and long-distance transportation.


Household skills, lifestyle

Performing simple household tasks. Self-service skills appropriate for the pupil’s age, using essential services, e.g. telephone enquiry services, calling the ambulance, fire guard and police.


Safe leisure activities and playing.

Clothing appropriate for the weather.

The most important services available from home.




Concepts
Man and his environment
structures in our environment, life in a big city.
Processing and using materials.
replaceability, waste, by-product, plastic, partially finished product, standard, structural materials, technology, product.
Planning, building
objective, functionality, aesthetic qualities, task, scale model, order of operations, function, stability, product, plan.
Traffic skills
local transportation, control system, air traffic, land traffic, long-distance traffic, water traffic.
Household skills, lifestyle
health service, household tasks.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Familiarity with the buildings in a big city.

Familiarity with general characteristics of processing. Precise use of the terms ‘waste’ and ‘by-product’.

Economical and functional use of materials. Designing and building/making buildings/objects independently. Presentation of plans, ideas in drawing. Making and analysing simple scale models on the basis of a plan.

Observation of bicycle traffic regulations.

Lifestyle habits associated with weather, season, time of day, occasion.



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