MIDDLE NAME(S): Marilyn
2.DEPARTMENT/SCHOOL: Public Administration and Urban Studies, Applied Research Center
3.FACULTY: Andrew Young School of Policy Studies
4.PRESENT RANK: Associate Professor SINCE: August, 1999
University or Institution
Education: Administration, Planning, and Social Policy
University of Hawaii
Public Health Education
University of Minnesota
B.S.N. with distinction
6. EMPLOYMENT RECORD (a) Prior to coming to GSU
University, Company or Organization
University of British Columbia, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Studies, Adult Education Research Center
July, 1997 –Aug 99
July, 1991-June 97
San Francisco State University – School of Health, Physi-
cal Education & Recreation, Dept. of Health Education
Training & Evaluation Strategies – evaluation research with multiple clients including Shell Oil, American Lung Assoc., Corporate Health Management, Pacific Gas & Elec-tric, Health Care Forum, Panhandle Eastern Pipeline, and Texas State Health Department
National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine
Harvard University, Institute for Educational Management
The Pennsylvania State University -Cooperative Extension Service
Nov 1980 - May 1981
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services - Office of Health Information, Health Promotion, Physical Fitness, and Sports Medicine
Tufts University - Office of Continuing Medical Education
New England Institute for Rehabilitation Research and Education, Inc. Long Term Care Education Center, Region I
Sept 1973 – Aug 1978
San Diego Country, Public Health Department
Public Health Nurse
Oct 1969 - July 1971
San Diego County, Mental Health Department
Sept 1968 - Oct 1969
7. LEAVES OF ABSENCE
University, Company or Organization
at which Leave was taken
Type of Leave
University of British Columbia
Sept/98 - Aug/99
8. TEACHING (a) Areas of special interest My teaching interests include program evaluation, community health, and process links among policy, program, and practice. Program evaluation has been an educational and research vehicle for me to explore how the ideas of policy and pedagogy are translated into practice, especially as they relate to health and adult education.
Courses Taught at Georgia State University
Public Policy Process
Prior to coming to GSU I have also taught the following courses at UBC:
Community Health Education
Program and Policy Implementation
Teaching Strategies for Adults
Master's Research Seminar
Issues in Adult Education (contributor)
(c) Graduate Students Supervised I have served as a research supervisor and/or committee member for doctoral and master students in education, evaluation, and health promotion. Collaborative work with students has led to published articles and research funding. My supervising experiences have been enriched by working with a number of international students. In addition to individual supervision, students and I have worked together on projects or in study groups.
(d) Continuing Education Activities
Norway, April, 1999
Planning and Evaluation in Health Promotion, University of Bergen
The Netherlands, 1998
International Workshop -- Family Doctors and Patients: Is Effective Nutrition Interaction Possible?, Discussant. Dutch Dairy Council on Nutrition and Health. Heelsum. December13-15,1998.
The Republic of Korea, 1998
The Theory-Value Connection in Health Promotion Evaluation. Presentation at the 50th Anniversary Symposium of the Gyeong-Sang National University, Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Republic of Korea, November 3, 1998.
United Arab Emirates, 1997
First Gulf States Health Education Conference. Participant, Abu Dhabi, June, 1997,
Linking research and practice in health promotion. Presentation to regional health educators, Reggio Emilia, Italy. October 21, 1996.
Implementing health promotion policy. Presentation to provincial mayors, Reggio Emilia, Italy. October 22, 1996.
Bridging theory and practice in health education. Presentation to regional health educators, Ravenna di Marina, Italy. October 25, 1996.
Post-program application of learning. Presentation to national group of health educators, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia, August 1996.
Health Education. Reactor. International Congress of Health Psychology. Tokyo, Japan: July 28, 1993.
Health education planning, implementation, and evaluation. Week-long workshop with health educators at national and provincial levels. Qufu, China. May 29-June2, 1991
Evaluation in health education. Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai, China. June 4, 1991.
Brazil, 1986, 1987.
Planning, implementing, and evaluating health education programs. Two multi-day workshops sponsored by the Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo for health educators, Sao Paulo, Brazil. November, 1986; May, 1987
Health education planning. Week-long workshop in planning and evaluating health education programs for health educators at national and regional levels. Sponsored by WHO Regional Office for South East Asia. New Delhi, India. December, 1985.
Inter-American Conference on Health Education. Rapporteur, Mexico City: November, 1984.
University of British Columbia, School of Nursing, Fall Institute, Vancouver, BC
Linking Theory and Practice in Program Evaluation, September 26, 1998
Program Evaluation, September 27, 1997
Canadian Society of Extension. Annual conference, Vancouver, BC
Evaluation of Short Term Educational Programs, July 8, 1998
First International Meeting of Continuing Veterinary Education Administrators, Banff, Alberta
Evaluation of Continuing Professional Education. Presentation. June 26, 1997.
Neurological Centre, Vancouver
An Overview of the Issues in Program Evaluation, presentation to board, January 29, 1997
Pacific Association for Continuing Education, Vancouver.
An implementation perspective on the limits of a good idea. Presentation, January 27, 1994
University of Washington, School of Public Health, Seattle.
Post-continuing education application. Presentation, June 26, 1992.
Application experiences with the PRECEDE/PROCEED Model. Presentation, June 25, 1993.
Institute of Health Promotion Research, UBC
Post-program application. Presentation. July 14, 1997
Linking theory to practice. Presentation, June 17, 1996.
Application: Moving ideas from workshops to practice. Presentation, June 13, 1995.
Evaluating health promotion programs. Presentation, June 15&16, 1995.
Process evaluation. Presentation, June 8 & 9, 1994.
Post-workshop Experiences with the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. Presentation, June 22,1993.
Program Evaluation. Presentation, June 24, 1993.
National Dissemination Conference. Moderator, Vancouver, BC
Dissemination and diffusion research. Vancouver: March, 27, 1995.
Enhancing prevention practice in health promotion. Vancouver: March, 28, 1995.
Adult Education Brown Bag Series, UBC
Does adult education make a difference? Presentation, March 9, 1995.
Issues from the 1995 International Evaluation Conference. Presentation, November 22, 1995.
American Society for Training and Development, Houston Chapter.
Evaluating training programs. Presentation, Houston, TX May 2, 1987.
University of Louisville, Division of Allied Health.
Selecting and Implementing Designs for Evaluation. Louisville, Kentucky: April 21 & 22, 1987.
9. SCHOLARLY AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES (a) Areas of special interest and accomplishments My scholarly interests and accomplishments center on two areas: (1) the effects of educational programs and policies; and (2) the links between policies, programs, and effects. In particular, I am interested in the process and effects of educational programs on practice. These interests merged in a five-year, competitive research contract to evaluate a U.S. national training system in substance abuse prevention. As co-PI for the national evaluation, I developed a conceptual framework which laid the foundation for data collection from approximately 10,000 participants over a two-year period in 31 different types of education programs at 249 separate events. This data base served as the major data source for the national evaluation.
Probably my most original contributions have been comparative studies of scattered understandings of process, including application, implementation, diffusion, transfer, and knowledge utilization. These different processes offer different lenses to study how adults engage learning following organized educational programs and where educators and evaluators might look for effects. One of my early publications was a conceptual article about application that subsequently informed an empirical study on the multiple influences on health professionals returning from educational programs to practice contexts. Both articles were published in Adult Education Quarterly, a leading research journal in adult education. An invitation to participate in a summer institute at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences on Linking Research to Policy and Practice provided support for this research agenda and led to an article on program implementation.
The data base constructed from the evaluation research contract has enabled the pursuit of my research agenda in subsequent years. The quantitative data has been mined for influences on post-program application and the qualitative data to understand participant-identified effects of community education programs. I believe that the links between policies, programs, and practice need to be visible and analyzed if the effects of education are to be understood, critiqued, and valued in context.
(b) Research grants or contracts
B.C. Health Research Foundation
Evaluation of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative
UBC HSS Grant
Facilitators and Barriers to the Application of Continuing Education
U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Service, Div. of Community & Prevention Training
Evaluation of U.S. National Training System for Substance Abuse Prevention
PI, UBC Research
Co-PI with B. Kibel for National Research Contract
($5 million), 1992-1996
Keynote Speaker I understood it, but... Keynote presentation to the Midwest Research to Practice Conference, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17, 1996.
Implementing nursing philosophy. Presentation at 10th anniversary, School of Nursing, Western Australian Institute of Technology, Perth, Australia July, 1985.
Papers Presented at Conferences 16th World Conference on Health Promotion and Health Education. The role of contextual variables in the application of community training in substance abuse prevention, San Juan Puerto Rico, June 23, 1998.
Adult Education Research Conference. Are resources and support necessary or just nice in post-program application? Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX. May 16, 1998.
American Evaluation Association. Using Multiple Theories to Evaluation the CSAP Training System. Annual conference, San Diego, CA, November 7, 1997.
Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults. An evaluation
Perspective on program to practice links. Annual conference, Egham, Surrey, England. July 2, 1997.
Adult Education Research Conference. After the program is over: Exploring teams and application. Annual conference, Tampa, FL: May 18, 1996.
American Educational Research Association. Using layered theory to link policy and research. Annual Conference, New York, NY: April 11, 1996.
International Evaluation Conference. Facilitators and barriers to the use of questionnaires in training evaluation. Annual conferences of American Evaluation Association and the Canadian Evaluation Association. Vancouver, BC: November 4, 1995.
National Association of Prevention Professionals and Advocates. Ottoson, J.M., Bowler, S., Thomas, J., Jones, P. and Crowder, A. Enhancing the efficacy of wellness: A new role for evaluation. Annual conference, Atlantic City, N.J: October 11,1995.
American Evaluation Association. Initial results of the CSAP Training System: Participant and policy perspectives. Annual conference. Boston, MA: November 4, 1994.
American Evaluation Association. Extending the process: A critique of multiple perspectives on evaluation of training and continuing education in the community context. Annual conference. Boston, MA: November 5, 1994.
Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education. The multiple understandings of application: Just how do adults bring learning back to home, work or community settings? Annual conference. Vancouver, BC: May 1994.
American Association for Adult and Continuing Education. Approaches to studying the application of learning. Annual conference. Dallas, TX: November 19, 1993.
American Public Health Association. Cargo, M.D., Ottoson, J.M., Livingston, V.H., & Green, L.W. The Use of participatory research to implement the UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Annual conference. San Francisco, CA: October 1993.
Adult Education Research Conference. Implementation research: Understanding the application of learning following continuing professional education. Annual conference. State College, PA: May 21, 1993.
American Evaluation Association. Strategic evaluation of the effects of substance abuse prevention training & technical assistance on organizations and communities. Annual conference. Seattle, WA: November 6, 1992.
Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education. Use of a conceptual framework to analyze application of learning from continuing professional education. Annual conference. Saskatoon, SK: May 15, 1992.
Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education. Day, W., Hommen, L., Johnson, J., Ottoson, J.M., Scheutze, H., and Thomas, A. Adult education and training: Two solitudes? Annual conference. Saskatoon, SK: May 14, 1992.
American Society for Training and Development. How does your inter-active technology measure up? Annual conference. Orlando, FL: May 6, 1990.
American Evaluation Association. Utilizing evaluation results: A case study from a training program in industry. Annual conference. Boston, MA: October 15, 1987.
American Society for Training and Development. Evaluation: The good, the bad, and the road between. Annual conference. St. Louis, MO: May 22, 1986.
Medical Library Association. The role of the medical librarian in health promotion. Annual conference. Houston, TX: June 2, 1982.
National Adult Education Association. Evaluation of innovations in continuing professional education. Annual conference. San Antonio, TX: November 12, 1982.
Department of Health and Human Services. The role of Area Health Education Centers in health promotion and disease prevention. National conference. Washington, DC: August 25, 1980.
American Public Health Association. Patient and family education in long term care. Annual conference. Washington, DC: November, 1977.
New England Health Education Association. Writing educational objectives. Jaffrey, NH: October 13, 1977.
Main Health Care Association. Educating the patient, family, and community. Annual convention. Portland, ME: September 21, 1977.
Poster Sessions American Public Health Association. MacDonald, M., Canitz, B., Green, L.W., Ottoson, J.M., & Mitic, W. School-based Prevention Project: A study on implementation. Annual conference. San Francisco, CA: October, 1993.
Second National Conference on Health Promotion Research. Strengthening community health services through continuing education. Vancouver, BC: March 27, 1993.
Society for Public Health Education. Use of the PROCEED Model to analyze implementation of continuing education. Mid-year conference. Austin, TX: June 18, 1992.
10. SERVICE TO THE UNIVERSITY (Memberships on committees, including offices held and dates) UBC University Program Evaluation Committee, Medical School Curriculum, Member, 1996-97
Centre for Faculty & Instructional Development, Advisory Board Member, 1993-94
McCreery Committee, Member subcommittee on interdisciplinary health professional education, 1993-94
Teacher Improvement Project Systems (TIPS), member of committee to evaluate TIPS program for health care education, 1993-94
UBC Faculty of Education Career and Personal Planning Specialization, committee member, TEO, 1996
Health Education Diploma, committee member, 1992-96
Faculty Reorganization, Social, Organizational and Policy Studies committee member, 1994
Department ofEducational Studies EDST Scholarship Committee, chair,1997-8; member, 1995-7
Graduate Program Advisory Committee, 1996-7
Health Education Theme, Chair, 1998
ADED Position Search Committee, 1997
Social Committee, member, 1996-7
International Committee, member, 1996
Ed.D. Development Committee, member, 1995-6
Emeriti Committee, member, 1995-6
Merit Committee, member, 1995
Department of Administrative, Adult, and Higher Education Strategic Planning Committee, member, 1991-94
11. SERVICE TO THE COMMUNITY (a) Memberships on scholarly societies, including offices held and dates American Association for Adult and Continuing Education
American Evaluation Association
International Evaluation Conference. Vancouver: November 1-5, 1995. Organized conference
program for graduate students and moderated two sessions.
Planning committee for Atlanta area chapter, 1999
American Public Health Association, Health Education and Health Promotion Section
Continuing education committee, chair, 1983-84
Continuing education committee, co-chair, 1984-85
American Society for Training and Development, San Francisco chapter
Special interest group on training evaluation, co-chair, 1989-91
Planner for annual conference, San Francisco: May, 1991. Served on steering Committee for
conference volunteers, International visitors committee, and Conference evaluation committee.
B.C. Directorate of Agencies for School Health
Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education
Canadian Evaluation Association
Organizer, graduate student program for 1995 International conference
Harvard University, Graduate School of Education
Initiated and co-chaired, committee on non-formal education, 1980
International Union for Health Education
Executive Director: U.S. Host Committee for the XIIIth World conference on Health Education. This position involved fund raising, setting up the conference structure, overseeing multiple committees, and supervising conference staff. Houston, TX:1986-89
Pacific Association for Continuing Education
Patient Education Exchange Group
Irrigation Subcommittee of the Capital Preservation fund, chair, 1989
Neighborhood Earthquake Preparedness, committee member, 1990
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Animal Assisted Therapy Program
San Francisco volunteer, 1990-91
Vancouver volunteer, 1992
City of West University Place, Houston, TX
Communication Committee, chair, 1985 - 88
12. AWARDS AND DISTINCTIONS (a) Awards for Scholarship (indicate name of award, awarding organizations, date) Invited to participate in the 1995 Summer Institute at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA on Linking Educational Policy and Practice and to present a manuscript resulting from the Institute in New York, April 1996. My participation was sponsored with stipends ($6500) from the Spencer Foundation.
(b) Awards for Service (indicate name of award, awarding organizations, date) Helen Hill Distinguished Service Award, Texas chapter., Society for Public Health Education, 1988
GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY
SURNAME: Ottoson FIRSTNAME: Judith MIDDLE NAME(S): Marilyn Date: October,1999
1. REFEREED JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS
Ottoson, J.M. & Patterson, I.M. (in press). Contextual influences on learning application in practice: An extended role for process evaluation. Evaluation and the Health Professions.
Hubbard, L., & Ottoson, J.M. (1997). When a bottom-up innovation meets itself as a top-down policy: The AVID untracking program. Science Communication, 19(1), 41-55.
Ottoson, J.M., (1997). After the applause: Exploring multiple influences on application following adult education programs. Adult Education Quarterly, 47(2), 92-107.
Cividen, T., & Ottoson, J.M. (1997). Linking reasons for CPE participation with post-program application. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 17(1), 46-55.
Dodek, P., & Ottoson, J.M. (1996). The implementation link between clinical practice guidelines and continuing medical education. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 16, 82-93.
Ottoson J.M. (1995). Use of a conceptual framework to explore multiple influences in the application of learning following a continuing education program. The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 9 (2), 1-18.
Ottoson, J.M. (1995). Reclaiming the concept of application: From social to technological process and back again. Adult Education Quarterly, 46, 1-30.
Ottoson, J.M., Ford, K.J., Fox, R.D., Sleezer, C.M., Nolan, R.E., Cheek, G.D., Campbell, C., Kiener, M.E., Swanson, R.A., Nijhof, W.J., & Holt, M. (1994). Upfront: Transfer of learning. Adult Learning, 5(4), 21-30.
Green, L.W., Cargo, M., & Ottoson, J.M. (1994). The role of physicians in supporting lifestyle changes. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition and Health ,33, 119-130.
Ottoson, J.M., & Green, L.W. (1987). Reconciling concept and context: A theory of implementation. Advances in Health Education and Promotion, 2, 353-382.
Stearns, N., Ottoson, J.M., & Haitz, C. (1985). Literature to go: Patient care related reading for nurses in hospitals. American Journal of Nursing, 85(10), 1161-1162.
Ottoson, J.M. & Stearns, N. (1985). Is retrospective chart audit a viable basis for continuing education? Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 16(4), 111-113.
Ottoson, J.M. (1983). (Review of), Evaluation in medical education: Past, present, and future. In: T. Samph & B. Templeton (Eds.) Evaluation and Program Planning, 6, 180-181.
2. BOOKS (a) Whole books Green, L.W., & Ottoson, J.M. (1999). Community and population health (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Green, L.W., & Ottoson, J.M. (1999). Instructor's manual for community and population health. (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Green, L.W., & Ottoson, J.M. (1994). Community health (7th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Green, L.W., & Ottoson, J.M. (1994). Instructor's manual for community health. St. Louis: Mosby.
Brooks, A.K., Ottoson, J.M., & Vernon, S. (1992). Bibliography of management development literature. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.
(b) Chapters of books Ottoson, J.M. (in press). Evaluation of continuing professional education: Towards a theory of our own New Directions in Adult and Continuing Education. Ottoson, J.M. (In press). Using evaluation as a teaching strategy. Invited book chapter, Transforming your teching: A guide to helping adults learn. edited by S.Courtney & J. Dirkx. Washington, DC: Association for Adult and Continuing Education.
Ottoson, J.M. (1997) Beyond transfer of training: Using multiple lenses to assess community education programs. In Rose, A.D. & M.A. Leahy (eds.). New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 75, 87-96.
3. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (a) Referred conference proceedings Ottoson, J.M. (1998) Are resources and support necessary or just nice in post-program application? In J. Kimmel (Ed.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Adult Education Research Conference, (pp. 233-237). San Antonio: University of the Incarnate Word, Texas A&M University.
Ottoson, J.M. (1996). After the program: Exploring teams and application. In H. Reno & M. White (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Annual Adult Education Research Conference, (pp. 234-239). Tampa: University of South Florida.
Ottoson, J.M. (1994). The post adult education experience: Multiple understandings of how adults bring back learning to work, home or community settings. In R. Coreau, J. Dawson, & B. Sigaty (Eds.), Proceedings of 13th Annual Conference of CASAE, (pp. 314-319). Vancouver: Simon Fraser University at Harbour Centre.
Ottoson, J.M. (1993). Implementation research: Understanding the application of learning following continuing professional education. In D. Flannery (Ed.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Adult Education Research Conference, (pp. 215-220). Pennsylvania: Penn State University.
Ottoson, J.M. (1992). Use of a conceptual framework to analyze application of learning from continuing professional education. In M. Taylor & R. Bedard (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of CASAE (pp. 262-266). Saskatoon: College of Education, University of Saskatchewan.
Day, W.L., Hommen, L., Johnson, J., Ottoson, J.M., Schuetze, H., & Thomas, A. (1992). Adult education and training: Two solitudes? In: M. Taylor & R. Bedard (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of CASAE, (pp. 104-109). Saskatoon: College of Education, University of Saskatchewan.
(b) Non referred conference proceedings Ottoson, J.M. (1998). The theory-value connection in health promotion evaluation. Proceedings of Building University-community Partnerships for Promoting Community Health. (pp. 130-140). Gyeong-sang National University: Chinju, Korea.
Green, L.W., Cargo, M.D. & Ottoson, J.M. (1993). The role of physicians in supporting lifestyle changes. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Society of Prospective Medicine, (pp. 89-129). Indianapolis: Society of Prospective Medicine.
Ottoson, J.M. (Ed.). (1979). Continuing education for nurses in New England: Coordinating our efforts. Wellesley, MA: New England Board of Higher Education.
4. REPORTS AND OTHER WRITING (a.) Reports Ottoson, J.M. (1996). Training evaluation report of 1994-5 profile, feedback, and follow-up data. (Contract #277-91-2004), Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation and the University of British Columbia, Faculty of Education. Rockville, MD: USHHS, SAMHASA, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Division of Community Prevention and Training, Training and Evaluating Branch.
Ottoson, J.M. (1995). Training evaluation report of 1994 profile, feedback, and follow-up data. (Contract #277-91-2004), Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation and the University of British Columbia, Faculty of Education. Rockville, MD: USHHS, SAMHASA, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Division of Community Prevention and Training, Training and Evaluating Branch.
Ottoson, J.M. (1995). Evaluating training in substance abuse prevention. UBC Education, 5, p.2.
Ottoson, J.M. (1994). Profile, Feedback and Follow-up Findings, 93-94. Mid-study findings and recommendations: Evaluation of CSAP's training system and associated technical assistance services. Bethesda: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation.
Ottoson, J.M. (1981). Educational pathways of nursing: Implications for supply. Six Month Interim Report: Background Facts and Preliminary Analysis. Committee for the Study of Nursing and Nursing Education. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.
Mullen, P., Ottoson, J.M., & Williams, T. (1981). Guidelines for health promotion and disease prevention services in reproductive health care settings. Rockville, MD.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
(b) Other Ottoson, J.M. (1984) Reconciling concept and context: The practitioners dilemma in implementing policy. Analytic paper competed in partial fulfillment of the Ed.D. degree, Harvard University, Graduate School of Education.
Ottoson, J.M. (1981). Qualifying paper completed in partial fulfillment of the Ed.D. degree, Harvard University, Graduate School of Education.
5. WORK SUBMITTED
Ottoson, J.M., Pommier, J., Macdonald, G., Frankish, J. & Dorion, L. Excavating the landscape in health education and health promotion training. International Union for Health Promotion and Education. Submitted September 12, 1999.
Ottoson, J.M. & Bowler, S. Evaluating substance abuse prevention: Effects and lessons from the CSAP training system. Submitted to Journal of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention,