Haemostasis Lecture notes



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Haemostasis Lecture notes

By Paul MK

Lecturer of Haematology and Blood transfusion


Haemostasis refers to physiological mechanisms that are involved in the prevention of excess blood loss following an injury to blood vessels. It has 5 components namely:

  1. Blood vessels

  2. Platelets

  3. Coagulation cascade

  4. Fibrinolytic system

  5. Natural anticoagulants

Blood vessels

There is vasoconstriction of the blood vessels after rapture/ injury. This is brought about by pain, neurogenic substances (substances secreted because of injury) and by smooth muscle. Vasoconstriction as a result of injury to the blood vessel triggers turbulence hence blood flow decreases. It only lasts for few minutes.



Platelets

After rapture/injury to the blood vessel, the collagen gets exposed and platelets adhere to the exposed collagen. After adherence, platelets get activated and secret substances such as ADP, calcium ions, serotonin and thromboxane A2. ADP and thromboxane A2 attracts more platelets to the site of injury. During this process, platelets equally undergo change in shape (physical metamorphosis) to enhance their aggregation. This whole phenomenon results in in the formation of primary haemostatic plug.



Coagulation cascade







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