History Physical Science

Download 1.14 Mb.
Size1.14 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6

Greek Philosophers

  • Socrates - First of the great Greek Philosophers. He is considered by many to be the founder of Western philosophy.

  • Plato - Student of Socrates. He wrote many dialogues using Socrates as a major character. He also founded the Academy in Athens.

  • Aristotle - Student of Plato. Aristotle was a philosopher and scientist. He was interested in the physical world. He was also teacher to Alexander the Great.

Greek Playwrights

  • Aeschylus - A Greek playwright, he is considered the father of the tragedy.

  • Sophocles - Sophocles was probably the most popular playwright during Greek times. He won many writing competitions and is thought to have written over 100 plays.

  • Euripides - The last of the great Greek tragedy writers, Euripides was unique in that he used strong women characters and intelligent slaves.

  • Aristophanes - A Greek playwright who wrote comedies, he is considered the father of the comedy.

Greek Poets

  • Aesop - Aesop's fables were known for both talking animals as well as teaching a moral. Historians aren't 100% sure if Aesop really existed or was just a fable himself.

  • Hesiod - Hesiod wrote a book that was about Greek rural life called Works and Days. This helped historians to understand what the daily life for the average Greek person was like. He also wrote Theogany, which explained a lot about Greek Mythology.

  • Homer - Homer was the most famous of the Greek epic poets. He wrote the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.

  • Pindar - Pindar is considered the greatest of the nine lyric poets of Ancient Greece. He is most known today for his odes.

  • Sappho - One of the great lyric poets, she wrote romantic poetry that was very popular in her day.

Greek Historians

  • Herodotus - A historian who chronicled the Persian Wars, Herodotus is often called the Father of History.

  • Thucydides - A great Greek historian who was known for the exact science of his research, he wrote about the war between Athens and Sparta.

Greek Scientists

  • Archimedes - He is considered one of the great mathematicians and scientists in history. He made many discoveries both in math and physics including many inventions.

  • Aristarchus - An astronomer and mathematician, Aristarchus was the first to put the sun at the center of the known universe rather than the Earth.

  • Euclid - The Father of Geometry, Euclid wrote a book called Elements, likely the the most famous mathematical textbook in history.

  • Hippocrates - A scientist of medicine, Hippocrates is called the Father of Western Medicine. Doctors still take the Hippocratic Oath today.

  • Pythagoras - A scientist and philosopher, he came up with the Pythagorean Theorem still used today in much of geometry.

Greek Leaders

  • Alexander the Great - Often called the greatest military commander in history, Alexander expanded the Greek empire to its greatest size, never losing a battle.

  • Cleisthenes - Called the Father of Athenian Democracy, Cleisthenes helped to reform the constitution so the democracy could work for all.

  • Demosthenes - A great statesman, Demosthenes was considered the greatest orator (speech giver) of Greek times.

  • Draco - Famous for his Draconian law that made many offences punishable by death.

  • Pericles - A leader and statesman during the golden age of Greece. He helped democracy to flourish and led great building projects in Athens that still survive today.

  • Solon - Solon is usually credited with laying the foundations and ideas for democracy




Goddess of love and beauty, wife of Hephaestus, was said to have been born fully-grown from the sea-foam.


God of the arts, of light and healing (Roman sun god) twin brother of Artemis, son of Zeus.


Hated god of war, son of Zeus and Hera.


Goddess of the hunt, twin sister of Apollo, connected with childbirth and the healing arts.


Warrior goddess of wisdom, patron goddess of the useful arts, daughter of Zeus who sprang fully-grown from her father's head.


Titan sky god, supreme ruler of the titans and father to many Olympians, his reign was referred to as 'the golden age'.


Goddess of the harvest, particularly of grain, sister of Zeus, mother of Persephone.


God of wine and vegetation, patron god of the drama.


Mother goddess of the earth, daughter of Chaos, mother of Uranus.


God of the underworld, ruler of the dead, brother of Zeus, husband of Persephone.


Lame god of the forge, talented blacksmith to the gods, son of Zeus and Hera, husband of Aphrodite.


Goddess of marriage and childbirth, queen of the Olympians, jealous wife and sister of Zeus, mother of Hephaestus, Ares and Hebe.


Quick-witted, clever messenger of the gods, patron god of travelers, thieves and merchants, escort of souls to Hades, son of Zeus.


Peace-loving goddess of the hearth, guardian of the home, sister of Zeus.


Daughter of Zeus and Demeter who was kidnapped by Hades and forced to become his wife; she spends half the year in the underworld with her husband and returns every spring to live with her mother.


God of the sea and earthquakes, brother of Zeus.


Wife of Cronus.


Father of the Titans.


Sky god known as 'the thunderer,' supreme ruler of the Olympians.

Principles and Key Concepts

Key Concepts

  • Culture

  • Heritage

  • Religion

  • Creationism

  • Power

  • Humanity

  • Civilization

  • Justice

  • Fairness

  • Ethics

  • Conflict

  • Afterlife

  • Courage

  • Cause and Effect

  • Tradition

  • Ritual

  • Parable


  • A societies' legacy (art, poetry, literature, architecture, etc.) provides insight into their culture and belief system.

  • Myths can provide insight into how a culture views certain concepts such as religion, power, politics, love, etc.

  • Art is a representation of culture.

  • Historical truths are embedded in all aspects of a society, be it art, myths, songs, etc.

  • Myths are often include a parable, or a hidden truth that isn't explicitly spelled out.

  • Mythology serves as a literary function in which one can analyze characters, cause and effects, and relationships between people, places, and things.

  • Cultures borrow ideas, traditions, and beliefs from those who came before them and adapt them to fit their needs.

  • Examining other societies and cultures allows us to insight into our own.

  • Man always seeks answers to why we are here on Earth and what our existence means.

General and Specific Methodologies

Mythology practitioners, commonly referred to as mythologists, are literary scholars and teachers. They are well versed in many areas of the Humanities as this background knowledge contributes to a complete understanding of mythology's function as a whole. Mythologists need to be

  • Historians- They must be knowledgeable of the history, geography, and culture of a specific place to understand and put myths into perspective. Many myths contain historical truths and a wealth of knowledge about Greek history. Historians must be able to research dates and events to help build timelines.

  • Anthropologists- Comparative Mythologists compare myths across cultures to better understand cultural anthropology. They must be knowledgeable of different cultures to understand the implications of certain myths. This also allows us to understand our own culture.

  • Art historians- Many myths are transmitted artistically via sculptures, statues, architecture, ritual spaces, paintings, vases, etc. They must be able to date works of art and identify common patterns or themes represented from different eras to date works of art and see when myths originated.

  • Literary scholars- To understand mythology, one must be able to analyze literary works. They must be analytical and knowledgeable of a wide range of literature with diverse background knowledge.

Piecing together and deciphering fact from fable can be difficult in mythology. To find the historical truths and patterns many mythologists piece together data by dating works of art and historical accounts together with literature.


Close-reading, ability to think outside of the box, questioning, data-driven, analytical


Inquisitive, empathetic, humanitarian


Hands-on, ability to research, think abstractly, apply themes across multiple myths and cultures to see similarities and differences.

Representative Topics in Greek Mythology

  • Greek Myths

  • Greek Gods, Goddesses, and Heroes

  • Greek History-Trojan War and Olympics

  • Greek Art/Architecture

  • Astronomy-constellations and Greek Myths

  • Ancient Greek culture/history


C2- Tradition

C3- Cause and Effect


Key Principles:
P1-Mythology arose to explain things that couldn't readily be explained at the time or to offer explanations for the unexplainable.

P2-Greek Mythology reflects the cultural ideals and historical truths of the Ancient Greeks, and allows us to better understand their society.

P3-Greek Gods/Goddesses/Heroes have examples of traits the Greeks admired or looked down on.

P4-Greek mythology follows a narrative structure with characters, plot, and generally includes a parable.

P5-Mythology permeates our culture today and several aspects of Greek culture are still relevant.

P6-Art and spaces are an expression of culture.

P7-Culture can be better understood by exploring myths to understand cultural norms and values.

P8- Traditions are borrowed and adopted from other societies and modified to work for different cultures.

P9- Greek Mythology illustrates that there is a chain reaction of cause and effect. Every action has a reaction. A series of events can be set into motion from one action.

P10- Greek Mythology teaches us a fundamental concept of right and wrong, morals, and truths through a series of parables that are applicable today.
Essential Knowledge:

Key Facts

K1-There are several Gods and Goddesses responsible for different domains.

K2-Myths always explain a parable.

K3-The Greeks culture shaped Greek Mythology.

K4-Several constellations are named after people from Greek Mythology and have stories associated with them.

K5-Greek Art represents several Greek myths.

K6-Greek Architecture is a reflection of ritual, religious, and specific spatial use.

K7- The Olympics were first held in Greece and the tradition, albeit adapted, is continued today.

K8-Greek Mythology is represented orally, artistically, linguistically, and structurally.

K9-Greek Mythology, just as other cultures myths, is used a vehicle for explaining some phenomena that has no particular explanation.

K10-Greek Mythology still permeates our society today in avenues such as the Olympics, popular culture, and philosophical ideals via Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates.

K11-Greek Mythology allows us to examine other cultures values, beliefs, etc., to make sense of our own world.

K12-Myths, including Greek Mythology, have been created to help explain the world, individual actions, luck, destiny, origin, etc.


  • Explain how/why mythology originated.

  • Analyze and identify Greek Gods/Goddesses based character traits and domains.

  • Compare and contrast several myths to find common themes and elements

  • Identify traits Greeks valued in individuals.

  • Find the parable or moral in a myth.

  • Identify the constellation Orion and locate it in the sky.

  • Analyze artwork to better understand Greek Mythology

  • Explain how architecture, temples, and ritual spaces functioned.

  • Explain what the rings of the Olympics stand for and their relevance.

  • Perform a Greek myth to emphasis and add to its meaning.

  • Research a myth from a culture of interest to understand that cultures values.

  • Examine a modern day hero and compare to a Greek hero to identify what traits a culture values.

  • Perform close-reading to analyze literature.

  • Identify how Greek Mythology represents the cultural ideas, norms, and beliefs of the society.

  • Compare Ancient Greek myths to myths from other cultures. Identify differences and similarities.

  • Indentify or provide a scientific explanation for a Greek myth.

  • Research how a myth has impacted your family.

  • Create a modern day god who governs a domain to explain an aspect of our culture.

  • Create a myth to help explain a parable or aspect of today's society.

  • How does Greek Mythology represent the cultural ideas, norms, and beliefs of the society?

  • Is Greek Mythology applicable to society today? Is there anything to be learned?

  • Can you compare Ancient Greek myths to myths from other cultures? Identify differences and similarities.

  • What are modern day myths that are prevalent in America? What does this tell us about our society and values?

Databases, References, and Resources

  • Mythweb.com

  • http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Art/

  • http://www.abc.net.au/arts/wingedsandals/

  • http://greece.mrdonn.org/myths.html

  • theoi.com

  • D’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths by D’Aulaire

  • Edith Hamilton's Greek Mythology

Quick Study Academic Greek/Roman Mythology Gods
The Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology by Robert Graves
Myths of the World: Classical Deities and Heroes by Morgan J. Roberts
Titans and Olympians:Greek and Roman Myth Time Life Books
Greek Myths by Geralidine McCaughrean
Treasury of Greek Mythology by Donna Jo Napoli
D’Aulaires’ Book of Greek Myths by D’Aulaire
Edith Hamilton's Greek Mythology






Download 1.14 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6

The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2023
send message

    Main page