I. rad 125 – Imaging equipment II. Course hours



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I.RAD 125 – Imaging equipment




II.COURSE HOURS


  • Theory 3 credit hours

  • Lab 0 credit hour

  • Clinical 0 credit hour

  • Total 3 credit hours

  • Total Contact - 3 hours

  1. CLASS MEETING DATES/TIMES/LOCATION



  1. CLINICAL DATES/TIMES/LOCATION (None)


  1. INSTRUCTOR, CONTACT INFORMATION, CONTACT POLICY, OFFICE HOURS/LOCATION



  1. COURSE DESCRIPTION:

This course provides students with knowledge of basic physics and the fundamentals of imaging equipment. Topics include information on x-ray production, beam characteristics, units of measurement, and imaging equipment components. Upon completion, students will be able to identify imaging equipment as well as provide a basic explanation of the principles associated with image production.




  1. PREREQUISITE(S)/CO-REQUISITE(S)


PREREQUISITE COURSES:


CO-REQUISITE COURSES:



  1. TEXTBOOK(S) AND OTHER LEARNING RESOURCES




  1. PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES/OBJECTIVES

MODULE A – Atomic Structure

A1.0 Explain concepts related to atomic structure.



A1.1 This competency is measured cognitively.

A1.1.1 Define the terms related to atomic nomenclature.

A1.1.2 Describe various theories of atomic structure.

A1.1.3 Describe the characteristics and function of a proton, neutron and electron.

A1.1.4 Describe the energy levels of the atom.

A1.1.5 Explain the processes of ionization and excitation.

A1.1.6 List various forms of energy and their uses in x-ray production.
MODULE B – ELECTROMAGNETISM

B1.0 Explain concepts related to electromagnetism.



B1.1 This competency is measured cognitively.

B1.1.1 Define electrification and provide examples.

B1.1.2 Describe the characteristics of direct and alternating currents.

B1.1.3 Define potential difference, current, and resistance.

B1.1.4 List the laws of electrostatics.

B1.1.5 Identify the symbol and function of electric circuit elements.

B1.1.6 Calculate resistance, voltage, and current using Ohm’s Law.

B1.1.7 List the fundamental units associated with electric charge.

B1.1.8 List the four laws of magnetism.

B1.1.9 Identify the interactions between matter and magnetic fields.

B1.1.10 Relate the experiments of Oersted, Lenz and Faradayin defining the relationship between magnetism and electricity.

B1.1.11 Describe the solenoid and the electromagnet.

B1.1.12 Identify the laws of electromagnetic induction.

B1.1.13 Explain the design of an electric generator, electric motor, and transformer.

B1.1.14 Calculate voltage and/or amperage using the transformer law.

B1.1.15 List the fundamental units of magnetism.

B1.1.16 Describe the electromagnetic spectrum.

B1.1.17 Describe wavelength and frequency and how they are related to velocity.

B1.1.18 Explain the relationship of energy and frequency.

B1.1.19 Explain the wave-particle duality phenomena.

B1.1.20 Identify the properties of x-rays.

B1.1.21 Differentiate between charged and uncharged forms of particulate radiation.

B1.1.22 Describe radioactivity and radioactive decay in terms of alpha, beta and gamma emission.

B1.1.23 Define radioactive half-life.



MODULE C – THE X-RAY CIRCUIT

C1.0 Explain the concepts related to x-ray circuitry.



C1.1 Competency is measured cognitively.

C1.1.1 Describe the general components and function of transformers.

C1.1.2 Describe electric protective devices.

C1.1.3 Describe the function of various meters used in imaging equipment.

C1.1.4 Explain rectification.

C1.1.5 Compare single phase, three phase, high frequency, and falling load generators in terms of radiation production and deficiency.

C1.1.6 Describe the properties and function of various timing devices.

C1.1.7 Describe the application of automatic exposure control devices


MODULE D – THE X-RAY TUBE

D1.0 Explain concepts related to the x-ray tube.



D1.1 Competency is measured cognitively.

D1.1.1 Describe the design and function of the cathode.

D1.1.2 Describe the origin and function of filament and cathode currents.

D1.1.3 Describe the design and function of the anode.

D1.1.4 Describe the function of the induction motor.

D1.1.5 Explain the line-focus principle and the heel effect.

D1.1.6 List the external components that house and protect the x-ray tube.

D1.1.7 Identify the purpose of the glass or metal enclosure.

D1.1.8 Interpret x-ray tube rating charts.

D1.1.9 Identify causes of x-ray tube failure.

D1.1.10 Explain the importance of warm up procedures prior to tube use.

D1.1.11 Explain the proper use of the rotor.

D1.1.12 Interpret anode cooling charts.

D1.1.13 Determine heat units for single phase, three phase, and high frequency generators.

D1.1.14 Explain the operation of various types of radiographic equipment in terms of purpose, components, types and applications.
MODULE E – IMAGE INTENSIFIED FLUOROSCOPY

E1.0 Explain concepts related to the image intensified fluoroscopy.



E1.1 Competency is measured cognitively.

E1.1.1 Explain image intensified fluoroscopy and its purpose.

E1.1.2 Explain visual physiology and its relationship to fluoroscopy.

E1.1.3 Describe the design of an image intensification tube.

E1.1.4 Explain gain and conversion factors as related to image intensification.

E1.1.5 Explain fluoroscopic image formation in terms of image size and brightness.

E1.1.6 Calculate brightness gain and identify its units.

E1.1.7 Explain the purpose and use of multifield intensification.

E1.1.8 Describe causes of poor fluoroscopic image quality.

E1.1.9 List the approximate kVp levels for common fluoroscopic examinations.

E1.1.10 Explain mA values for fluoroscopic examinations.

E1.1.11 Explain the use of various types of viewing and recording systems.

E1.1.12 Compare the use of a television camera tube to the charge-coupled device.

E1.1.13 Describe the parts of the digital fluoroscopy system and their functions.

E1.1.14 Explain the path of image formation from digital to analog and analog to digital.
MODULE F – CONVENTIONAL TOMOGRAPHY

F1.0 Explain concepts related to conventional tomography.



F1.1 Competency is measured cognitively.

F1.1.1 Explain the purpose, principles and application of conventional tomography.

F1.1.2 Describe tube-film movement.

F1.1.3 Determine appropriate focal planes.

F1.1.4 Define amplitude, exposure angle and SID as related to conventional tomography.

F1.1.5 Describe the design of conventional tomographic equipment.

F1.1.6 Explain the importance of amplitude, exposure angle and SID to focal plane thickness as related to linear tomography.

F1.1.7 Describe various tube movements and how they relate to focal plane thickness.


MODULE G– COMPUTERS IN RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE

G1.0 Explain concepts related to the use of computers in radiologic science.



G1.1 Competency is measured cognitively.

G1.1.1 Identify various types of computers.

G1.1.2 Explain analog to digital conversion and digital signal processing.

G1.1.3 Identify various terms related to computer fundamentals and computer components.

G1.1.4 Describe major functions of the central processing unit (CPU).

G1.1.5 Differentiate between the various input and output devices.

G1.1.6 Give examples of various types of memory.

G1.1.7 Explain computer operation.

G1.1.8 Give examples of various types of software.

G1.1.9 Describe the use of computers in medical imaging.

G1.1.10 State the purpose of electronic imaging.

G1.1.11 Describe electronic imaging equipment used in radiography and fluoroscopy.

G1.1.12 Describe the impact the Internet has on the distribution of health information.

G1.1.13 Explain computing applications as they relate to radiology: radiologic information systems (RIS), hospital information systems (HIS) and picture archiving communication systems (PACS).



G1.1.14 Explain digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM).
X. OUTLINE OF MODULES
MODULE A – Atomic Structure

  • Nomenclature

  • Theories of atomic structure

  • Components

    • Protons

    • Neutrons

    • Electrons

  • Binding energy

  • Ionization

  • Forms of energy



MODULE B – Electromagnetism


  • Principles of Electricity

  • Principles of Magnetism

  • Spectrum

  • Wave-particle duality

    • Wave theory

    • Particle theory

  • Radioactivity

    • Radioactive decay

      • Alpha emission

      • Beta emission

      • Gamma emission

    • Half-life

MODULE C – X-ray Circuit

  • Components and Functions

    • Transformers

      • Autotransformer

      • Step-up

      • Step-down

    • Timers

    • Protective devices

    • Meters

      • Ammeter

      • Voltmeter

    • Rectification and wave form

      • Single phase

      • Three phase

      • High frequency

      • Falling load



MODULE D – X-Ray Tube

  • Cathode

    • Filament

    • Focusing cup

  • Anode

    • Target

    • support

  • Tube housing

  • Tube current

  • Extending Tube Life

    • Warm up procedures

    • Rotor considerations

    • Heat units

    • Tube rating charts

    • Anode cooling charts

  • Permanent installation

    • Tubes

    • Collimators

    • Tables

    • Control panels

    • Tube stands

    • Wall units

  • Mobile units

    • Types

    • Components

    • Purpose

    • Applications


MODULE E – Image Intensified Fluoroscopy

  • Function

  • Visual physiology

    • Glass housing

    • Input phosphor

    • Photocathode

    • Electrostatic lenses

    • Anode

    • Output phosphor

  • Principles

    • Brightness Gain

      • Flux gain

      • Minification gain

      • Automatic brightness control

    • Resolution

    • Distortion

    • Noise

    • Multifield intensification

    • Magnification

    • Dose

  • Exposure factors

  • Viewing and recording systems

    • Video camera tube

    • Charge-coupled device

    • Television monitor

    • Cassette spot film

    • Film cameras

    • Video recorders

    • Cine radiography

  • Digital fluoroscopy

    • Analog to digital

    • Digital to analog


MODULE F – Conventional Tomography

  • Purpose and Principles

    • Tube-film movement

    • Determining the focal plane

    • Amplitude

    • Exposure angle

    • Source-to-image distance

  • Equipment

    • Table

    • Bucky

    • Tube-film linkage arm

    • Tube carriage assembly

    • Adjustable fulcrum

    • Drive mechanism

  • Tube movements

    • Linear

    • Hypocycloidal

    • Spiral

    • Elliptical

    • Circular

    • Figure eight


MODULE G – Computers in Radiologic Science

  • Fundamentals

    • Types of computers

      • Supercomputers/mainframes

      • Minicomputers

      • microcomputers

    • Digital fundamentals

      • Binary coding

      • Analog-to-digital conversion

      • Digital-to-analog conversion

    • Computer components

      • Central processing unit

      • Input / output devices

      • Storage / memory

    • Computer operations

      • Terminology

      • Languages

      • Software

      • Radiology applications

    • Electronic imaging

  • Flat panel detectors

      • Amorphous silicon

      • Amorphous selenium

      • Charge-coupled device

      • Others

  • Thin film transistors

    • Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)

    • Internet and Intranet

    • Hospital information systems (HIS)

    • Radiology information systems (RIS)

    • Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM)


XI. EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT

XII. ATTENDANCE

    1. Students are expected to attend all classes for which they are registered. Students who are unable to attend class regularly, regardless of the reason or circumstance, should withdraw from that class before poor attendance interferes with the student’s ability to achieve the objectives required in the course. Withdrawal from class can affect eligibility for federal financial aid. Withdrawal from class can prohibit progression in nursing and allied health programs.




    1. Students are expected to attend all clinical rotations required for each course. Only excused absences will be considered for make up. However, due to limited clinical space and time, clinical make up days cannot be guaranteed. Failure to complete clinical rotations will prohibit progression in nursing and allied health programs.


XIII. STATEMENT ON DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT

The College and the Alabama Board of Education are committed to providing both employment and educational environments free of harassment or discrimination related to an individual’s race, color, gender, religion, national origin, age, or disability. Such harassment is a violation of State Board of Education policy. Any practice or behavior that constitutes harassment is a violation of State Board of Education policy. Any practice or behavior that constitutes harassment or discrimination will not be tolerated.


XIV. AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) and the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 state that qualified students with disabilities who meet the essential functions and academic requirements are entitled to reasonable accommodations. It is the student’s responsibility to provide appropriate disability documentation to the College. Please contact the ADA representative.



XV. COURSE CALENDAR


XVI. STUDENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FORM


The Alabama College System

Copyright 2006



All Rights Reserved

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