Improvement and Application of the Game Technology in Virtual Reality and web contents tin2004-07451-C03



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Jornadas de Seguimiento de Proyectos, 2007

Programa Nacional de Tecnologías Informáticas









Improvement and Application of the Game Technology in Virtual Reality and web contents

TIN2004-07451-C03


Mateu Sbert*

Coordinator

Main Researcher UdG subproject


Miguel Chover**

Main Researcher UJI subproject



Francisco Ibáñez

Main Researcher AIJU subproject





Abstract
Cutting-edge technology in the field of Computer Graphics is currently found in 3D engines for computer games. This is due to the successful combination of research conducted by universities with the traditional techniques used in the digital games sector. While this technology was first developed for computer games, it is expanding its scope of application to include other sectors which are less developed as far as realistic rendering is concerned. Virtual Reality and 3D web content are the sectors which show the greatest interest in incorporating the new technologies. Therefore the purpose of this project is twofold: to continue the research on computer games technologies carried out in the project TIC2001-2416 and to apply the new technologies to the fields of Virtual Reality and 3D web content.

Keywords: computer games, virtual reality, web 3D

  1. Project Objectives

Global objectives of the coordinated project:
1. Improvement on game technology in the areas of illumination and geometry
2. Application of game technology to virtual reality and web content
3. To transfer the scientific results to industrial sectors
The research that will be done by the teams at UdG and UJI is complementary, tackling both the two main aspects in virtual reality and web3D, the illumination quality and the possibility of inclusion of complex models. The team at AIJU will state the requirements, will validate the results and will disseminate them in the industrial environment, and will also lead the exploitation of results. We believe that the coordination of the three groups is crucial and gives a very important added value, especially in technology transfer.

Specific objectives of UdG subproject
Subproject MATER-UdG deals with improvements in the area of illumination. To this means we established the following objectives:

UdG1- Improvement of obscurances theory to obtain real-time in its recalculation and its application to complex environments including vegetation.

UdG2- Development of two-phase algorithms to solve the problem of global illumination in non-diffuse environments. The first phase computes and stores the lighting. The second one is the execution in real-time of a module that generates the illumination from the stored parameters.
UdG3- Incorporation of image based rendering techniques and combination of solutions with real images.
UdG4- Acceleration of ray-tracing, i.e. using path coherence, and its inclusion in a game engine for the computation of illumination.
UdG5- Use of new programmable graphics cards to obtain the acceleration of the computation of illumination, with new algorithms or by adapting existing ones.
UdG6- Study and introduction of systematic sampling in the different illumination computations.
UdG7- Application to virtual reality and Web3D systems of the developed technology.
Specific objectives of UJI subproject
The subproject MATER - UJI consists in the improvement of computer games technology in the geometry field. These improvements are applied in the context of virtual reality and Web 3D. In particular the subproject includes the following objectives:
UJI 1- Definition of a new framework for the comparison of multiresolution models.
UJI2- Development of new Level of Detail (LOD) models that exploit connectivity.
UJI3- Development of new LOD models for specific objects (trees, leaves ...).
UJI4- Use of Graphics Hardware to speed up geometry rendering.
UJI5- Application to virtual reality and Web3D systems of the developed technology.


Specific objectives of AIJU subproject

The main aims of subproject MATER-AIJU is to establish the requirements and to validate the research results for the ulterior transfer to the industry. To achieve this purpose we have defined the objectives listed below:


AIJU1- To establish the needs and requirements of the toys and games industries in order to conduct the research work towards applicable results in the industry.
AIJU2- To validate the research results from suprojects MATER-UdG and MATER-UJI in Virtual Reality and 3D Web.
AIJU3- To Transfer the obtained results to industry.

Coordinate Objectives
Research between UdG and UJI:
C1- Application of illumination techniques for our Level of Detail models.
C2- Simplification, compression and progressive transmission of geometry for Web 3D applications.
Research between UdG, UJI and AIJU:
C3- Development of an application for Web3D.
C4- Development of an application for Virtual Reality.


  1. Level of success of the project

We have advanced in the three global objectives:


1. Improvement on game technology in the areas of illumination and geometry
2. Application of game technology to virtual reality and web content
3. To transfer the scientific results to industrial sectors
Next we describe the advancement in the specific objectives of the three subprojects:

Specific objectives of UdG subproject
We have advanced in all the objectives. Next we review them one by one:
UdG1- Improvement of obscurances theory to obtain real-time in its recalculation and its application to complex environments including vegetation.

We have applied obscurances to vegetation, for real time rendering in [Garcia05A] and to ray-tracing in [Mendez06B]. In [Mendez06D, Szecsi06] a new obscurances computation using depth peeling is presented, and real-time recalculation is considered, although it is still in a first stage. In [Feixas06A] a viewpoint based technique is used to obtain obscurances-like illumination that is also applied to vegetation.

UdG2- Development of two-phase algorithms to solve the problem of global illumination in non-diffuse environments. First phase computes and stores the lighting. Second one is the execution in real-time of a module that generates the illumination from the stored parameters.

In [Szirmay05A, Szecsi06, Szirmay06] two phase algorithms are described that allow real time rendering of global illuminated scenes and participating media.


UdG3- Incorporation of image based rendering techniques and combination of solutions with real images.
In [Garcia05A, Garcia05B], image based rendering techniques are used to render trees in real time, and also photographs of leaves are used via indirect texturing to enhance realism.
UdG4- Acceleration of ray-tracing, i.e. using path coherence, and its inclusion in a game engine for the computation of illumination.
In [Mendez06C] the unbiased reuse of camera paths is obtained and in [Mendez06A] a new paradigm, the frame array, is defined by reusing both paths from camera and light source. In [Szecsi06, Szirmay06] precomputed light paths that make extensive use of coherence are used to compute global illumination in real-time. In [Szirmay05A, Szirmay06] paths are obtained for participating media using Illumination Networks, which allow real time rendering. In [Szirmay05B] the “Go with Winners” strategy defined first in Physics is applied to Path-Tracing. Finally, in [Flo06B, Florez06A] interval theory is used to accelerate the raytracing of implicit surfaces.
UdG5- Use of new programmable graphics cards to obtain the acceleration of the computation of illumination, with new algorithms or by adapting existing ones.
In [Mendez06D, Szecsi06] a new obscurances computation using depth peeling with graphics card is presented. In [Szirmay05A, Szirmay06] Illumination Networks are stored in textures and this allows real time rendering using the GPU. In [Szecsi06, Szirmay06] the global illumination is computed in real-time using also the graphics programmable unit. New and efficient algorithms that make use of graphics hardware to compute the obscurances are presented.
UdG6- Study and introduction of systematic sampling in the different illumination computations.
In [Sbert06] the systematic sampling is applied to path-tracing and also demonstrated for obscurances.
UdG7- Application to virtual reality and Web3D systems of the developed technology.
The new techniques developed have been or are in process of being integrated into several game engines, Ogre, Shark, which are at the core of virtual reality engines. They have been also developed as either stand alone techniques or plugins for Maya or 3D studio, which allows their easy integration in the visualization pipeline. See below at section 2, technology transfer, for the industrial application of our results.

Specific objectives of UJI subproject
UJI 1- Definition of a new framework for the comparison of multiresolution models.
Related with the first goal, we have developed a tool to compare multiresolution models. This application loads any model defined in a dynamic library with a standard specification. The tool analyzes the extraction and visualization times of each model, to validate its performance in a real application and gives general information (number of triangles, strips, vertices send to the GPU, etc .....) [Castello05B].
UJI2- Development of new Level of Detail models that exploits connectivity.
The second objective is related with the creation of multiresolution models. We have worked in different techniques related with the construction of LOD models [Ripolles05A, Ripolles05B] including simplification algorithms [Castello05A, Castello06, Castello07, Gonzalez07]. We have developed four variants of a model that has the following characteristics [Belmonte04, Belmonte06, Ramos06A, Ramos06B]: it is a continuous representation, based on the use of triangle strips, which exploits the graphics hardware, which handles objects formed by sub meshes, which considers its textures and attributes and which can be animated by skeletons. Each one of these variants is an evolution of the previous one including new properties like: lower storage cost, higher rendering speed, progressive transmission or variable resolution. Some of these variants are integrated in OGRE, a game engine that can be used to develop Virtual Reality systems.
UJI3- Development of new Level of Detail models for specific objects (trees, leaves ...).
The third objective consists of the definition of new multiresolution models for objects with special features (as for example trees and plants). We have worked in the development of two models for the representation of leaves. The first of them [Rebollo06A, Rebollo07B] maintains a representation of greater quality for the different levels of detail, whereas the second one [Rebollo07A] is designed specially to exploit graphics hardware and allows the instantiation of different species for rendering forest scenes. The two variants are integrated in the OGRE and SANDRA engines respectively.
UJI4- Use of Graphic Hardware to speed up the rendering of geometry.
The fourth objective is based on the exploitation of the graphical hardware; we have proposed some improvements on actual architectures [Gumbau06A]. With respect to this objective all of the models developed in objectives UJI 2 and UJI 3 have been designed specially for the graphics hardware [Ramos06B, Rebollo06B, Rebollo07A, Rebollo07B]. As an extension over the initial objectives, we have developed a library for the management of scenes with a great number of multiresolution objects [Gumbau07]. This library is able to adapt the level of detail of each object, taking into account the capability of the graphics hardware and the application requirements. Finally we have developed a method for normal map generation on the GPU, to enhance our multiresolution models [Gonzalez05, Gumbau06B].
UJI5- Application to virtual reality and Web3D systems of the developed technology.
The last one of the objectives looks for the use of the developed technology in Virtual Reality systems. In order to facilitate the integration of the proposed models, we have created a tool that automates the generation of multiresolution models. From a simple interface it is possible to load any object and to construct its multiresolution representation, as much for general meshes as for trees and plants.
We have worked in the following areas, related with the objectives addressed to the collaboration between subprojects


  • With UdG. We have worked to develop geometric simplification techniques that are used for the construction of the multiresolution models [Castello07]. During this year, we will apply the techniques of illumination developed by the UdG to our models (this task has been postponed 6 months in its execution, due to agenda problems).




  • With AIJU. We have participated in the system specification for the validation of the developed technology. At this moment, we work in the integration of our models in two applications: the first one for the exploration of 3D products in the Web and the other one for natural scene rendering with a Cave. These applications will be finished during this year.



Specific objectives of AIJU subproject
Regarding the objective AIJU1, a questionnaire has been designed and distributed among a sample of European videogames companies. The results have been analysed and according to the requirements, the research has been conducted by the Universities – UdG and UJI.
The libraries developed by UdG and UJI have been integrated in a specific real-time graphic software (e-Studio from Brainstorm multimedia). After a very hard work of integration, toys designs have been used for the validation of the libraries integrated specifically geometry and illumination. So the objective AIJU2 (Validation of research results) and AIJU3 (Transfer of results to industry) have been fulfilled. The toy designs have been displayed in virtual reality environments and in 3D web, checking the enhancements introduced by the integration of the geometry and illumination libraries developed in the project.




  1. Results indicators


Subproject UdG:
Personnel in formation.
At the University of Girona, Jaume Rigau read his dissertation in December 2006 and Alex Méndez’s dissertation is already approved and will be read in April 2007. Nico Sunyer, contracted by the project, has started a PhD on the use of new hardware facilities, like the cell computer or new graphics card, for global illumination. Francisco González and Ismael García are doing this year their Master studies and will start a PhD next year. Their Master thesis subject deals with tree rendering and viewpoint selection, respectively. All of them have participated in research and publications related with the project. Sergi Funtané is collaborating in technology transfer and has also participated in one publication.
Results can be found at the web page of the project http://ima.udg.es/iiia/GGG/TIN2004-07451-C03-01/galeria.html
Publications related with the project
In the context of the project, more than 30 publications have been obtained so far. The list is presented in section 4, references.

Technological transference
The three teams UdG, UJI and AIJU have participated in the technology transfer project “Visual Cad, Desarrollo de un optimizador de diseños modelados en sistemas CAD para su visualización en tiempo real”, from the Spanish Ministery of Industry and led by Brainstorm company. This has allowed the transfer to industry of several of the results of the present project. Also, within the context of European project Gametools (see next section), relationships has been estabished with several Computer Games and virtual reality companies, such as Digital Legends, Gedas, and others that has allowed to estabish an stable framework for technology transfer. Also, a spinoff company that will allow further exploitation of the results of this project is currently under viability study at UdG technology transfer office.
Participation in international projects
We want also to outline that the three groups of this coordinated project, UdG, UJI, AIJU, participate together with Vienna Technical University, MSI laboratory of Limoges University, Technical University of Budapest and several companies of the area of computer games, simulation and virtual reality in the European project of the VIth Framework Gametools www.gametools.org coordinated by Mateu Sbert from UdG, that deals with the creation of highly realistic graphics software libraries for their use in computer games and virtual reality. A follow-up of this project is currently being prepared and will be submitted to the First Call of the VIIth. The three partners will participate and the project will be again coordinated by Mateu Sbert.

There has also been a Joint Action between the Technical University of Budapest and the UdG, led by Laszlo Szirmay and Mateu Sbert, during the period 2005-2006, “Synthesis of Photo-realistic Images in Computer Games and Virtual Reality Systems”, that has allowed to deepen the collaboration between both groups.


Collaborations with other research groups.
About foreign groups working in similar subjects, and with whom there is a relationship, we find:


  • Max Planck Institut of Saarbrucken, with Karol Myszowkski as contact person

  • The Computer Graphics Institute of the Vienna Technical University, led by professor Werner Purgathofer

  • Graphics Group from the Technical University of Budapest, led by professor Laszlo Szirmay

  • MSI laboratory of the Université de Limoges led by professor Dimitri Plemenos, now on leave, and Djamchid Gharzanfapour.

  • Multimedia Centre of Limburg University, with Philippe Bekaert as contact person

  • Graphics Group from the University of Plzen, led by professor Vaclav Skala

  • Computer Graphics Center of Carolus Prague University, with Vlastimil Havran as contact person

  • University of Tianjin, in China, with professor Qing Xu as contact person. Common publications within this period are [Xu06A], [Xu06B].

  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, with professor John Halton as contact person

  • In the USA we have also contacts with, Per Christensen, from Pixar, with Brian Barsky, professor at Berkeley University.

Within the Girona Graphics Group there is a collaboration with project TIN2004-08065-C02-02 “Interfaces avanzadas para la interaccion transparente con modelos altamente complejos en entornos de realidad virtual”, with publications [Bardera05], [Bardera06A], [Bardera06B], [Bardera06C], [Prados06]. A.Bardera and F.Prados are coadvised by Miquel Feixas.


Mateu Sbert coadvises a PhD student, Jorge Flórez, together with Josep Vehí, from Control Engineering and Intelligent Systems (EXIT) group within the Institut d’Informàtica i Aplicacions from the UdG. This has led so far to the publications [Flo06B] and [Florez06A]. There has been also a collaboration with the Broadband Communications and Distributed Systems (BCDS) from the same institute, with result published in the awarded paper [Urra05].
We are keeping in touch with most of the existing Spanish Computer graphics groups that work in areas related to simulation and Virtual Reality, which are:


  • Computer Graphics section of the Technical University of Catalonia, Sección de Informática Gráfica de la Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña. Pere Pau Vázquez, formerly at UdG and whose PhD was advised by Mateu Sbert, is now a member from this group. A common publication within this period is [Vazquez06].

  • Advanced Computer Graphics Group, Grupo de Informática Gráfica Avanzada, from University of Zaragoza.

  • Graphics Group from the University of Granada, with Carlos Ureña. This group participates in a new project application together with UdG, UJI, and AIJU to the Spanish National Research Foundation.

  • Graphics Group from the Technical University of Valencia, Grupo de Gráficos de la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, with Roberto Vivó and Emilio Camahort. This group participates in European project Gametools, www.gametools.org



Subproject UJI:
Personnel in formation.
PhDs related with the subproject MATER-UJI.


  • Inmaculada Remolar. “Real-time rendering of vegetable species”. 2005. Universitat Jaume I. Advisor: Miguel Chover.

  • Cristina Rebollo. “A multiresolution model for leaves rendering”. 2006. Universitat Jaume I. Advisor: Miguel Chover.

In addition three PhD students are finalizing their works in subjects related to the project.




  • Francisco Ramos. “LODStrips: A Level of Detail Model with Triangle Strips”. Universitat Jaume I. Advisor: Miguel Chover.

  • Pascual Castelló. “View-point Based Simplification for Polygonal Meshes”. Universitat Jaume I. Advisors: Mateu Sbert and Miguel Chover.

  • Alejandro Garcés. “Moderately Open Agent-Based Systems for Games”. Universitat Jaume I. Advisors: Ricardo Quirós and Miguel Chover.

Other students starting their PhDs:




  • Oscar Ripollés. “Geometric Modelling for the GPU”.

  • Jesús Gumbau. “Rendering Natural Environments”

  • Carlos Gonzalez. “Geometric Simplification of CAD Models”

  • Anna Puig. “Automatic Scene Creation”


Publications related with the project
In the context of the project, more than 22 publications have been obtained so far. Two of them are journal papers, five are publications in LNCS series, twelve in international conferences indexed by ISI and three are papers published in Spanish conferences. The list is presented in section 4, references.
Technological transference
The UJI team has participated with UdG and AIJU in the technology transfer project “Visual Cad, Desarrollo de un optimizador de diseños modelados en sistemas CAD para su visualización en tiempo real” (FIT-350101-2004-15), from the Spanish Ministry of Industry and led by Brainstorm company. This has allowed the transfer to industry of several of the results of the present project.
As a result of the developed technology and the knowledge acquired in the project, the Centre of Interactive Visualization of the University Jaume I has been created. This centre has born with the mission of transferring technological results in the context of Virtual reality and Web3D content using the new techniques developed in the field of the Computer Games. The first collaboration has been made with INFOGRAF S.L., a company that works in the real state field.
Participation in international projects
We have participated in the European project GameTools as a responsible partner for the geometry modules, in which it is tried to impel the development and transference of algorithms to the industry to facilitate the development of computer games: “GAMETOOLS - Advanced tools for developing highly realistic computer games” IST-2-004363 (www.gametools.org).
Collaborations with other research groups
International groups:


  • The Computer Graphics Institute of the Vienna Technical University, led by Professor Werner Purgathofer

  • Graphics Group from the Technical University of Budapest, led by professor Laszlo Szirmay

  • MSI laboratory of the University of Limoges led by professor Dimitri Plemenos

  • Graphics Group from the University of Plzen, led by professor Vaclav Skala

Spanish Groups:




  • Computer Graphics Section of Polytechnic University of Valencia.

  • Computer Graphics Group from University of Valencia

  • Computer Graphics Group of University of Vigo.

  • Computer Graphics Group of University of illes Balears

  • Advanced Computer Graphics Group of University of Zaragoza.



Subproject AIJU:
Personnel in formation.
One specific person has been contracted by AIJU to support the integration of the resulting libraries in the eStudio application and to test and validate the enhancements obtained with the application of the research results. This specific person has been also in charge of create different applications to validate the results in different virtual reality environments and 3D web.
Publications related with the project
No scientific publications have been produced, but dissemination articles to companies in AIJU’s Magazine have been published.
Technological transference
The resulting results have been transferred to Brainstorm Multimedia. This company has integrated some of the obtained libraries in the real time 3D graphics application e-Studio. Although the integration process has been very hard, the obtained results have been very positive.

Participation in international projects
We are participating in the European project GameTools in charge of create a good communication channel and a technology transfer path between Academia and Industry. “GAMETOOLS - Advanced tools for developing highly realistic computer games” IST-2-004363 (www.gametools.org).
Collaborations with other research groups.
In addition to the collaborations with the partners of the European project, we have established relations with important companies like Brainstorm Multimedia and Eon Reality.
We have set up collaboration agreements with Spanish Groups in different universities:


  • Universitat Politècnica de València

  • Universitat d’Elx




  1. References

[Acebo05] E. Acebo, M. Sbert. Benfords Law for Natural and Synthetic Images, Eurographics Workshop on Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization and Imaging, Girona (Spain), May 2005


[Bardera05] A. Bardera, M. Feixas, I. Boada, M. Sbert. Medical Image Registration Based on Random Line Sampling, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP 2005), Genova (Italy), 2005.
[Bardera06A] A. Bardera, M. Feixas, I. Boada, J.Rigau and M. Sbert. Medical Image Registration based on BSP and Quad-tree partitioning, Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Biomedical Image Registration 2006, Utrecht, Netherlands, July 2006.
[Bardera06B] A. Bardera, M. Feixas, I. Boada and M. Sbert. High-dimensional normalized mutual informacion for image registration using random lines, Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Biomedical Image Registration 2006, Utrecht, Netherlands, July 2006.
[Bardera06C] A. Bardera, M. Feixas, I. Boada and M. Sbert. Compression-based image registration, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, 2006, Seattle, USA, July 2006.
[Belmonte04] O. Belmonte, I. Remolar, J. Ribelles, M. Chover, Marcos Fernández. Efficiently using connectivity information between triangles in a mesh for real-time rendering. Future Generation Computer Systems. Elsevier. ISBN: 0167-739X. 20. 8. pp. 1263-1273. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 2004.
[Belmonte06] O. Belmonte, S. Aguado, S. Sancho. Triangle Strip Multiresolution Modelling using sorted edges. ICCS 2006 (LNCS 3992), University of Reading, UK, May, 2006.
[Castello0A] P. Castelló, M. Chover, M.Sbert, M.Feixas. Técnicas para Calcular la Entropía Dependiente de la Vista de una Escena 3D, XV Congreso Español de Informática Gráfica, ISBN/ISSN 84-9732-431-5, Granada, pp. 277-280, September 2005.
[Castello05B] Pascual Castelló, J. Francisco Ramos, M. Chover. A Comparative Study of Acceleration Techniques for Geometric Visualization. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3515. International Conference on Computational Science (ICCS 2005). Springer-Verlag. ISBN: 3-540-26043-9. 2. pp. 240-247. Atlanta (USA). 2005.
[Castello06] P. Castelló, M. Sbert, M. Chover, M. Feixas. Techniques for Computing Viewpoint Entropy of a 3D Scene, Proceedings of ICCS 2006 (LNCS 3992), Reading, UK, May 2006.
[Castello07] P. Castelló, M. Sbert, M. Chover, M. Feixas. Viewpoint Entropy-Driven Simplification. WSCG2007. Plzen (Czech Republic), February. 2007.

[Feixas06A] Miquel Feixas, Mateu Sbert, Francisco González. A Unified Information-Theoretic Framework for Viewpoint Selection and Mesh Saliency, IIiA-06-06-RR, Institut d'Informàtica i Aplicacions, Universitat de Girona (Girona, Spain), 10-04-2006.


[Florez06A] Jorge Florez, Mateu Sbert, Josep Vehí and Miguel A. Sainz. Parallel implementation of a ray tracing of implicit surfaces using Interval Arithmetic, GAMM - IMACS International Symposion on Scientific Computing, Computer Arithmetic and Validated Numerics, Sep 2006.
[Florez06B] Jorge Florez, Mateu Sbert, Miguel A. Sainz, Josep Vehí. Improving the Interval Ray Tracing of Implicit Surfaces, Proceedings of Computer Graphics International 2006.
[Garces06] A. Garcés, R. Quirós, M. Chover, E. Camahort. Implementing Moderately Open Agent-Based Systems. IADIS International Conference, WWW/Internet. Murcia (Spain). 2006.
[Garces07] A. Garcés, R. Quirós, M. Chover, J. Huerta, E. Camahort. A Development Methodology for Moderately Open Multi-Agent Systems. 25th IASTED International Multi-Conference on Applied Informatics. Innsbruck (Austria). 2007.
[Garcia05A] Ismael García, Laszlo Szirmay-Kalos and Mateu Sbert. Tree rendering with billboard clouds, Third Hungarian Conference on Computer Graphics and Geometry, Budapest, 2005.
[Garcia05B] I. Garcia, M. Sbert, L. Szirmay-Kalos. Leaf Cluster Impostors for Tree Rendering with Parallax, Eurographics05, Dublin (Ireland), 2005.
[Gonzalez05] C. González, J. Gumbau, M. Chover. Generación por Hardware de Mapas de normales. Congreso Español de Informática (CEDI). (CEIG 2005). 2005.
[Gonzalez07] C. González, P. Castelló, M. Chover. A Texture-Based Metric Extension for Simplification Methods. GRAPP 2007. Barcelona (Spain). 2007.
[Gumbau06AJ. Gumbau, M. Chover. Conceptual design of a programmable geometry generator. Winter School of Computer Graphics (WSCG 2006) (Short paper). 2006.
[Gumbau06B] J. Gumbau, C. González, M. Chover. Fast GPU-based normal map generation for simplified models. Winter School of Computer Graphics (WSCG 2006) (Short paper). 2006.
[Gumbau07] J. Gumbau, O. Ripolles, M. Chover. LODManager: A Framework for Rendering Multiresolution Models in Real-time Applications. WSCG2007 (short paper). Plzen (Czech Republic), February. 2007.
[Mendez06A] Alex Méndez Feliu, Mateu Sbert. Efficient rendering of light and camera animation for navigating a frame array, Computer Animation and Social Agents CASA 2006 Geneve, Switzerland, July 2006.
[Mendez06B] Alex Méndez Feliu, Mateu Sbert. Obscurances in General Environments, Graphicon 2006, Novosibirsk, Russia, July 2006.
[Mendez06C] Alex Méndez Feliu, Mateu Sbert, Laszlo Szirmay-Kalos. Reusing Frames in Camera Animation, Journal of WSCG, ISSN 1231-6972, Vol. 14, 2006.
[Mendez06D] Alex Méndez Feliu, Mateu Sbert, J. Catàr, N. Sunyer, S. Funtané. Real-time Obscurances with Color Bleeding, SHADERX4 Sebastian St-Laurent and Wolfrang Engel (Eds.) Charles River Media, Hingham, MA, USA. January 2006.
[Prados06] F.Prados, A. Bardera, M. Feixas, I. Boada and M. Sbert. A Monte Carlo-based Fiber Tracking Algorithm using Diffusion Tensor MRI, Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems 2006, Salt Lake City, USA, June 2006.
[Puig07] A. Puig-Centelles, O. Ripolles, M. Chover. Reviewing P2P Network Community Detection, EuroIMSA 2007 (IASTED). Chamonix, France. March, 2007.
[Ramos06A] F. Ramos, M. Chover, O. Ripolles and C. Granell. Efficient Implementation of LodStrips. Proceedings of the Sixth IASTED International Conference on. Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing, ISBN 0-88986-598-1, ISSN. 1482-7921, pp. 365-370. 2006.
[Ramos06B] F. Ramos, M. Chover, O. Ripolles and C. Granell. Continuous Level of Detail on Graphics Hardware. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 4245.Proceedings of the. 13th International Conference on Discrete Geometry for Computer Imagery. ISBN: 3-540-47651-2. 2006.
[Rebollo06A] C. Rebollo, I. Remolar, M. Chover, O. Ripollés. An Efficient Continuous Level of Detail Model for Foliage. Winter School of Computer Graphics (WSCG 2006). ISBN: 80-86943-03-8. 2006.
[Rebollo06B] C. Rebollo, I. Remolar, M. Chover, and J. Gumbau. Hardware-Oriented Visualisation of Trees. ISCIS 2006, LNCS 4263 proceedings.
[Rebollo07A] C. Rebollo, J. Gumbau, O. Ripolles, M. Chover, and I. Remolar. Fast Rendering of Leaves. The Ninth IASTED International Conference on Computer Graphics and Imaging CGIM 2007. February, 2007. Innsbruck (Austria). 2007.
[Rebollo07B] C. Rebollo, J. Gumbau, O. Ripolles, M. Chover, and I. Remolar. REVISTA
[Rigau05A] J. Rigau, M. Feixas, M. Sbert. Shape Complexity Based on Mutual Information, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications, MIT, Cambridge (USA), June 2005.
[Rigau05B] J. Rigau, M. Feixas, M. Sbert. An Information Theoretic Framework for Image Complexity, Eurographics Workshop on Computacional Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization and Imaging, Girona (Spain), May 2005.
[Rigau06] J.Rigau, M.Feixas, M.Sbert. An Information-Theoretic Approach to Shape Complexity, Computer Graphics & Geometry Internet Journal (Vol. 8, No. 1), 2006.
[Ripolles05A] O. Ripollés, M. Chover. Búsqueda de tiras para modelos multirresolución estáticos. Congreso Español de Informática (CEDI). (CEIG 2005). 2005.
[Ripolles05B] O. Ripollés, M. Chover, F. Ramos. Quality Strips for Models with Level of Detail. Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing (VIIP 2005). ACTA Press. ISBN: 0-88986-528-0. pp. 268-273. Benidorm (Spain). 2005.
[Rovira05] J. Rovira, P. Wonka, F. Castro, M. Sbert. Point Sampling with Uniformly Distributed Lines Symposium on Point-Based, Graphics (PBG05), June 2005, Stony Brook (USA).
[Sbert05] M. Sbert, D. Plemenos, M. Feixas, F. González. Viewpoint Quality: Measures and Applications, Eurographics Workshop on Computacional Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization and Imaging, Girona (Spain), May 2005.
[Sbert06] M. Sbert, J. Rigau, M. Feixas and Laszlo Neumann. Systematic Sampling in Image-Synthesis, Proceedings of ICCSA 2006 (LNCS 3980), Glasgow, UK, May 2006.
[Szecsi06] Laszlo Szecsi, Laszlo Szirmay-Kalos, and Mateu Sbert. Light Animation with Precomputed Light Paths on the GPU, Proceedings of Graphics Interface, 2006.
[Szirmay05A] Laszlo Szirmay-Kalos, Mateu Sbert, Tamas Ummenhoffer. Real-Time Multiple Scattering in Participating Media with Illumination Networks, Rendering Techniques'05, ACM Siggraph Press, 2005.
[Szirmay05B] Laszlo Szirmay-Kalos, Gyorgy Antal, Mateu Sbert. Go with Winners Strategy in Path-Tracing, Journal of WSCG, Vol.13, No.2, pp.49-56, 2005.
[Szirmay06] Laszlo Szirmay-Kalos, Laszlo Szecsi and Mateu Sbert. GPUGI: Global Illumination Effects on the GPU, Eurographics 2006, Tutorial.
[Urra05] A. Urra, J.L. Marzo, M. Sbert, E. Calle. Estimation of the Probability of Congestion using Monte Carlo method in OPS Networks, IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC 2005), Cartagena (Spain), June 2005.
[Vazquez06] Pere-Pau Vazquez, Miquel Feixas, Mateu Sbert and Antoni Llobet. Real-time automatic selection of good molecular views, Computers & Graphics, Vol. 30, Issue 1, Pages 98-110, February 2006.
[Viola06] Ivan Viola, Miquel Feixas, Mateu Sbert and Meister Eduard Groeller. Importance-Driven Focus of Attention, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol 12, No 5, September/October 2006.
[Xu06A]Qing Xu, Mateu Sbert. Adaptive Sampling Based on Fuzzy Inference, GRAPHITE 2006.
[Xu06B] Qing Xu, Mateu Sbert, Wei Wang and Lianping Xing. Fuzziness Driven Adaptive Sampling for Monte Carlo Global Illuminated Rendering, Proceedings of Computer Graphics International 2006.

* Email: mateu@ima.udg.es

** Email: chover@lsi.uji.es

*** Email: fibanyez@aiju.info


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