In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to speedy and public trial



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1 [1A]




EXCERPT 1

In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to speedy and public trial.






EXCERPT 2

A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to bear Arms, shall not be infringed.






EXCERPT 3

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated.



Which statement best describes the excerpts above?

  1. They protected the colonists against abuses by the British government.

  2. They established a system of checks and balances in the Constitution.

  3. They were added to the Constitution to protect individual rights.

  4. They were added to the Articles of Confederation to protect states’ rights.


2 [1A] The main purpose for adopting the U.S. Constitution was to—

    1. protect the individual rights of citizens

    2. establish independence from Great Britain

    3. create a stronger central government

    4. provide a method for territories to become states


3 [1A] Which document is correctly paired with its description?

A

Declaration of Independence




Established a stronger central government for the thirteen states













B

Washington’s Farewell Address




General Washington’s final speech to his troops at the end of the American Revolution













C

U.S. Constitution




Announced the reasons for the colonists’ separation from England













D

Bill of Rights




Provided specific guarantees of individual rights




4 [1B]

Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes…. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

—The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776



The right identified in this excerpt was later used by—

  1. Southern states to justify their secession in 1860

  2. slaves threatening to rebel in the South before the Civil War

  3. the Populist Party in favor of adopting a silver-backed money

  4. the Mormons to explain their move to the Utah Territory

5 [9A] Which amendment is correctly paired with its impact on civil rights?

A

13th Amendment




Guaranteed the privileges and immunities of citizenship regardless of race













B

14th Amendment




Guaranteed women the right to vote













C

15th Amendment




Guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race or former enslavement













D

19th Amendment




Abolished slavery


6 [14C]

“… nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

—Fifth Amendment



What was the purpose of this clause?

  1. To enable local governments to obtain land at low prices

  2. To prevent the federal government from taking private land

  3. To enable the federal government to sell its public lands

  4. To protect landowners from losing their land without payment

7 [22C]

What then is the American, this new man? … I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a French woman, and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations. He is an American, who leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds.

—Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, Letters to an American Farmer (1782)



The author of this excerpt would most likely agree that Americans—

  1. have a better system of education than most European nations

  2. come from numerous places but share common beliefs that unite them

  3. are more competitive than Europeans because of their lack of natural resources

  4. need to strengthen the central government in order to control the state governments


8 [22A] In the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville identified five values crucial to America’s success as a constitutional republic. Which value is correctly matched with its definition?

A

Liberty




American citizens consider themselves as equals before the law.













B

Egalitarianism




Americans are free to worship as they please and to speak their opinions openly.













C

Individualism




Americans focus on pursuing their private interests but society as a whole often benefits as a result.













D

Populism




Americans are able to pursue their own economic interests with little government interference.



9 [3B] What was the significance of the Interstate Commerce Act (1887) and the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)?

    1. They prevented shoddy goods from being sold across state lines.

    2. They raised tariffs to encourage the further growth of big business.

    3. They were used to break up labor unions for interfering with free enterprise.

    4. They established the principle that Congress could regulate some business practices.




10 [3B]



This certificate was issued in 1919. What was the main goal of the organization that issued this certificate?

  1. To obtain better pay and conditions for skilled workers

  2. To assist in the transition from a capitalist to a socialist society

  3. To help cigar makers obtain better housing and U.S. citizenship

  4. To replace individual unions with a single national union for all workers



11 [3B]



The drawing shows protesting workers at Haymarket Square, Chicago, where violence occurred in May 1886. Based on the drawing, what is the viewpoint of the artist?

  1. The police were largely responsible for the violence.

  2. The lives of women and children were endangered.

  3. The protestors’ demands were largely justified.

  4. The protestors were prepared to use violence.

12 [3B] How were Americans most influenced by the growth of railroads after the Civil War?

      1. Railroads led to shortages of raw materials for factories and the migration of workers to farms.

      2. Railroads stimulated the construction of steamships to trade up and down America’s inland rivers.

      3. Railroads encouraged the growth of cities, settlement of the West, and creation of a national market.

      4. Railroads caused cotton, rice, and wheat production to move from the Southeast to the West Coast.

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