Intellectual property: law & the information society cases & Materials Second Edition, 2015 James Boyle



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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY:

LAW & THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

Cases & Materials

Second Edition, 2015

James Boyle

William Neal Reynolds Professor of Law

Duke Law School

Jennifer Jenkins

Director, Center for the Study of the Public Domain

& Senior Lecturing Fellow

Duke Law School


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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ix

Chart: Comparison of the Three Main Forms of Federal Intellectual Property x

Basic Themes: Three Public Goods, Six Perspectives xi

An Open Course Book? xi

Structure and Organization xiv

Chapter One

The Theories Behind Intellectual Property 1

Problem 1-1: Framing 3

James Boyle, The Apple of Forbidden Knowledge 4

Thomas Hazlett, Code Breakers 6

Problem 1-2: Justifying and Limiting 7

John Locke, Of Property, from Two Treatises on Government 8

James Boyle, “Why Intellectual Property,” from The Public Domain 11

John Perry Barlow, Selling Wine Without Bottles: The Economy of Mind on


the Global Net
11

International News Service v. The Associated Press, 248 U.S. 215 (1918) 25

The New York Times, “News Pirating Case in Supreme Court” 35

James Boyle, “Thomas Jefferson Writes a Letter,” from The Public Domain 37



Chapter Two

Intellectual Property & the Constitution 39

U.S. Constitution, Art. I, § 8, cl. 8 39

Introduction 39

Problem 2-1: Constitutional Interpretation 40

1.) Limitations on Congressional Power: Originality 40

The Trade-Mark Cases, 100 U.S. 82 (1879) 40

Feist v. Rural Telephone Service, 499 U.S. 340 (1991) 44

     (The full version of the case is on page 301)

2.) Limitations on Congressional Power: Purpose and Novelty/Non-Obviousness 45

Graham v. John Deere Co., 383 U.S. 1 (1966) 45

     (The full version of the case is on page 748)

3.) Limitations on Congressional Power: Fixation & the Interaction between Clauses 45

Problem 2-2: Constitutional Interpretation 45



U.S. v. Moghadam, 175 F.3d 1269 (11th Cir. 1999) 46

U.S. v. Martignon, 492 F.3d 140 (2d Cir. 2007) 54

4.) Limitations on Congressional Power: Limited Times, Term Extension and


the First Amendment 59

Eldred v. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003) 59

Golan v. Holder, 132 S.Ct. 873 (2012) 77

Problem 2-3: Term Limits 84



Chapter Three

Intellectual Property & the First Amendment 85

San Francisco Arts & Athletics v. U.S. Olympic Committee, 483 U.S. 522 (1987) 85

Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989) 95

H.R. 2723: A Copyright in the Flag of the United States 97

Problem 3-1: Intellectual Property and the First Amendment 99

Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders v. Pussycat Cinema, 604 F.2d 200 (2d Cir. 1979) 99

L.L. Bean, Inc. v. Drake Publishers, Inc., 811 F.2d 26 (1st Cir. 1987) 102

Problem 3-2: Constitutional Interpretation: Review 105



Chapter Four

Trademark: Introduction 107

Felix Cohen, Transcendental Nonsense and the Functional Approach, excerpt 107

Trademark Basics 111

What are the sources of trademark law? 112

Registered Marks 113

Notes: Use-based and Intent-To-Use Applications 115

Notes: International Trademark Protection 116

Problem 4-1 117



Chapter Five

Subject Matter: Requirements for Trademark Protection 119

1.) Use as a Mark in Commerce 119

Use in Commerce 119

Use in Commerce: Free and Open Source Software 120



Planetary Motion, Inc. v. Techsplosion, Inc., 261 F.3d 1188 (11th Cir. 2001) 120

2.) Use as a Mark: Source Identification Function 123

a.) Actions of the Source 123

MicroStrategy, Inc. v. Motorola, Inc., 345 F.3d 335 (4th Cir. 2001) 123

b.) Nature of the Mark: Distinctiveness and Functionality 127



Abercrombie & Fitch Co. v. Hunting World, Inc., 537 F.2d 4 (2d Cir. 1976) 127

Zatarain’s, Inc. v. Oak Grove Smokehouse, Inc., 698 F.2d 786 (5th Cir. 1983) 132

Qualitex Co. v. Jacobson Products Co., Inc., 514 U.S. 159 (1995) 135

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Samara Brothers, Inc., 529 U.S. 205 (2000) 140

Jessica Litman, “The Exclusive Right to Read,” 13 Cardozo Arts &


Ent. L.J. 29 (1994) 144

TrafFix Devices, Inc. v. Marketing Displays, Inc., 532 U.S. 23 (2001) 146

Notes on Distinctiveness & Functionality 151

Problems 5-1–5-4 152

Chapter Six

Grounds for Refusing Registration 153

1.) 1052(a) 153

i.) Disparaging marks 153

Pro-Football, Inc. v. Suzan Shown Harjo, 284 F.Supp.2d 96 (D.D.C. 2003) 154

Amanda Blackhorse v. Pro-Football, Inc., 111 U.S.P.Q.2d 1080 (T.T.A.B. 2014) 160

In re Tam, 2015 WL 1768940 163

Problem 6-1 165

ii.) Marks that falsely suggest a connection to persons 166

iii.) Immoral or scandalous marks 167



In re Marsha Fox, 702 F.3d 633 (Fed. Cir. 2012) 167

In re Hershey, 6 U.S.P.Q.2d 1470 (T.T.A.B. 1988) 168

Problem 6-2 168

iv.) Deceptive marks 169

2.) 1052(b) 169

3.) 1052(c) 170

4.) 1052(d) 170

5.) 1052(e) 171

i.) § 1052(e) “desceptively misdescriptive” v. § 1052(a) “deceptive” 171

ii.) Primarily geographically descriptive, or geographically
deceptively misdescriptive 171

iii.) Primarily merely a surname 173

6.) 1052(f) 173

Problem 6-3 174



Chapter Seven

Trademark Infringement 177

1.) Use in Commerce 177



Rescuecom Corp. v. Google, Inc., 562 F.3d 123 (2d Cir. 2009) 177

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals v. Doughney,
263 F.3d 359 (4th Cir. 2001) 183

2.) Likelihood of Confusion 187



Lois Sportswear, U.S.A., Inc. v. Levi Strauss & Co., 799 F.2d 867 (2d Cir. 1986) 187

3.) Contributory Infringement 195



Tiffany Inc. v. eBay Inc., 600 F.3d 93 (2d Cir. 2010) 196

Problem 7-1 208



Chapter Eight

Defense to Trademark Infringement: Fair & Nominative Use 213

KP Permanent Make-Up, Inc. v. Lasting Impression I, Inc., et al.,
543 U.S. 111 (2004) 214

New Kids on the Block v. New America Pub., Inc., 971 F.2d 302 (9th Cir. 1992) 217

Mattel Inc. v. Walking Mountain Productions, 353 F.3d 792 (9th Cir. 2003) 221

Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Welles, 279 F.3d 796 (9th Cir. 2002) 225

Notes: Background on Search Technology 228



Chapter Nine

False Advertising, Dilution & ‘Cyberpiracy’ 231

1.) False Advertising: False or Misleading Statements of Fact 231



Avon Products, Inc. v. SC Johnson & Son, Inc., 984 F.Supp. 768 (S.D.N.Y. 1997) 231

POM Wonderful, LLC v. The Coca-Cola Co., 134 S.Ct. 2228 (2014) 236

2.) Dilution 240

a.) The Requirement that the Mark be Famous 241

Coach Services, Inc. v. Triumph Learning LLC, 668 F.3d 1356 (Fed. Cir. 2012) 241

b.) The Requirement of “Commercial Speech”; Dilution by Tarnishment 245



Smith v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 537 F.Supp.2d 1302 (N.D. Ga. 2008) 245

c.) Dilution by Blurring 252



Starbucks Corp. v. Wolfe’s Borough Coffee, Inc., 588 F.3d 97 (2d Cir. 2009) 252

Problem 9-1: Dilution of (by) Alcohol 255

3.)  “Cybersquatting” and “Cyberpiracy” 256

Problem 9-2 260



Lamparello v. Falwell, 420 F.3d 309 (4th Cir. 2005) 261

Problem 9-3 269



Chapter Ten

Introduction to Copyright: Theory & History 271

Copyright and the Invention of Authorship 271

James Boyle, Shamans, Software and Spleens: Law and the Construction of
the Information Society
(Harvard Univ. Press 1997), excerpt 271

Three Views of Copyright (and the droits d’auteur) 276

Thomas Babington Macaulay, First Speech to the House of Commons on Copyright 276

Victor Hugo, Speech to the Congress of Literary, Industrial and Artistic Property 282

Samuel Clemens [Mark Twain], Statement before the Committee of Patents of the
Senate and House to discuss amending the Copyright Act
284

Jennifer Jenkins, In Ambiguous Battle: The Promise (and Pathos) of Public


Domain Day, 2014
, 12 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 1 (Dec. 31, 2013), excerpt 289

Copyright’s History 291

The 1976 Copyright Act 292

Copyright Expansions and Policy 294

Copyright Office 295

Chapter Eleven

Copyrightable Subject Matter 297

What does copyright cover? 297

Copyrightable Subject Matter 300

1.) Originality: Independent Creation and a Modicum of Creativity 301



Feist v. Rural Telephone Service, 499 U.S. 340 (1991) 301

Matthew Bender & Co., Inc. v. West Publishing Co., 158 F.3d 674 (2d Cir. 1998) 307

Matthew Bender & Co., Inc. v. West Publishing Co., 158 F.3d 693 (2d Cir. 1998) 311

James Boyle, A Natural Experiment 314

Problem 11-1 318

2.) The Idea-Expression Distinction 319



Baker v. Selden, 101 U.S. 99 (1880) 319

3.) Merger of Idea and Expression 322



Herbert Rosenthal Jewelry Corp. v. Kalpakian, 446 F.2d 738 (9th Cir. 1971) 322

Morrissey v. Proctor & Gamble Co., 379 F.2d 675 (1st Cir. 1967) 325

Kregos v. Associated Press, 937 F.2d 700 (2d Cir. 1991) 327

Problem 11-2 336

4.) Useful Articles 337

Brandir Intern’l, Inc. v. Cascade Pacific Lumber Co., 834 F.2d 1142 (2d Cir. 1987) 337

5.) Methods of Operation: Introduction to Computer Software 343



Lotus Development Corp. v. Borland Intern’l, Inc., 49 F.3d 807 (1st Cir. 1995) 343

Lotus Development Corp. v. Borland Intern’l, Inc., 516 U.S. 233 (1996) 356

Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc., 872 F.Supp.2d 974 (N.D. Cal. 2012) 358

Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc., 750 F.3d 1339 (Fed. Cir. 2014) 360

Problem 11-3 363

6.) Fixation (Copyright Meets Software, continued) 363

MAI Systems Corp. v. Peak Computer, Inc., 991 F.2d 511 (9th Cir. 1993) 363

Religious Technology Center v. Netcom, 907 F.Supp. 1361 (N.D. Cal. 1995) 369

James Boyle, “The Internet Threat,” from The Public Domain 377



Chapter Twelve

Copyright’s “Reach”: Infringement 381

Introduction 381

Problem 12-1 381

Exclusive Rights 383

a.) The Idea/Expression Distinction in Infringement Analysis 384

Nichols v. Universal Pictures Corp. et al., 45 F.2d 119 (2d Cir. 1930) 384

b.) Copyright Meets Computer Software: The Infringement Edition 389

James Boyle, “A Machine that Contains All Other Machines,” from
The Public Domain 389

Computer Associates v. Altai, Inc., 923 F.2d 693 (2d Cir. 1992) 390

c.) Copyright in Characters 407



Anderson v. Stallone, 11 U.S.P.Q.2d. 1161 (C.D. Cal. 1989) 407

d.) A Two-Part Test for Copyright Infringement 411



Arnstein v. Porter, 154 F.2d 464 (2d Cir. 1946) 411

Dawson v. Hinshaw Music, 905 F.2d 731 (4th Cir. 1990) 414

e.) “De minimis” Copying 417



Newton v. Diamond, 388 F.3d 1189 (9th Cir. 2004) 418

Chapter Thirteen

LIMITATIONS ON EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS: FAIR USE 423

Problem 13-1 424

1.) Fair Use, Technology and Contributory Infringement 425

Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984) 425

James Boyle, The Public Domain (excerpt) 439

2.) Unpublished works, “Scoops” and Political Speech 440

Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises, 471 U.S. 539 (1985) 440

3.) Transformative Use, Parody, Commentary and Burdens of Proof Revisited 448



Campbell v. Acuff-Rose, 510 U.S. 569 (1994) 448

SunTrust Bank v. Houghton Mifflin Co., 268 F.3d 1257 (11th Cir. 2001) 459

Problem 13-2 464

4.) Fair Use Meets Technology 465

Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Accolade, Inc., 977 F.2d 1510 (9th Cir. 1992) 465

Problem 13-3 474



Perfect 10 v. Google, 508 F.3d 1146 (9th Cir. 2007) 475

Authors Guild, Inc. v. Google Inc., 954 F.Supp.2d 282 (S.D.N.Y. 2013) 481

Note on Transformative Use 485

5.) A Fair Use Case-Study: Multiple Copies for Classroom Use 486

Princeton Univ. Press v. Mich. Document Serv., Inc., 74 F.3d 1512 (6th Cir. 1996) 486

Princeton Univ. Press v. Mich. Document Serv., Inc., 99 F.3d 1381
(6th Cir. 1996 en banc) 495

Problem 13-4 512

Conclusion 513

Chapter Fourteen

SECONDARY LIABILITY FOR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT &
SAFE HARBORS IN THE DIGITAL AGE
515

Introduction 515



Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984) 515

     (The full version of the case is on page 425)

Problem 14-1: The Napster Case 515

1.) The Stakes of Contributory Infringement 517

2.) Contributory and Vicarious Infringement 519

A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001) 519

3.) Inducement Liability 525



MGM Studios Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., 545 U.S. 913 (2005) 526

Problem 14-2 539

4.) Safe Harbors: Section 512, Direct Infringement and Secondary Liability 540

U.S. Copyright Office Summary of Title II: Online Copyright Infringement


Liability Limitation 542

Problem 14-3 545



Viacom International, Inc. v. YouTube, Inc., 676 F. 3d 19 (2d Cir. 2012) 546

Chapter Fifteen

ANTI-CIRCUMVENTION: A NEW STATUTORY SCHEME 557

Introduction 558

James Boyle, The Public Domain (excerpt) 560

1.) Anti-Circumvention, Fair Use, and the First Amendment 561



Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001) 561

2.) Anti-Circumvention, Competition, and Consumer Choice 576



Chamberlain v. Skylink, 381 F.3d 1178 (Fed. Cir. 2004) 576

Problem 15-1 582

3.) The Interaction between Copyright, Contracts, and the DMCA 583

MDY Industries, LLC v. Blizzard Entertainment, Inc., 629 F.3d 928 (9th Cir. 2010) 583

Problem 15-2 600



Chapter Sixteen

COPYRIGHT & STATE MISAPPROPRIATION LAW: PREEMPTION 603

U.S. Constitution, Article 6, Clause 2 603

Introduction 603

Problem 16-1: Framing and Preemption 606



International News Service v. The Associated Press, 28 U.S. 215 (1918) 608

     (The full version of the case is on page 25)

1.) Subject Matter and General Scope: Extra Elements 608

National Basketball Assoc. v. Motorola, Inc., 105 F.3d 841 (2d Cir. 1997) 608

2.) Preemption, Misappropriation & the Fact/Expression Dichotomy 617



Barclays Capital Inc. v. Theflyonthewall.com, Inc., 650 F.3d 876 (2d Cir. 2011) 617

Chapter Seventeen

PATENTS: HOPES, FEARS, HISTORY & DOCTRINE 631

1.) Hopes and Fears 631

2.) History 637

3.) Patent Basics 639

a.) The America Invents Act 640

b.) The PTO Application Process 641

c.) Reading a Sample Patent 641

d.) International Patent Law 648

e.) Design Patents and Infringement 649

Chapter Eighteen

PATENTABLE SUBJECT MATTER 651

1.) Laws of Nature and Natural Phenomena 651



Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980) 651

James Boyle, Endowed by Their Creator?: The Future of Constitutional


Personhood
(2011) 656

Mayo Collaborative v. Prometheus Labs, 132 S.Ct. 1289 (2012) 660

Ass’n for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., 133 S.Ct. 2107 (2013) 662

2.) Abstract Ideas, Business Methods and Computer Programs 670



James Boyle, The Public Domain (excerpt) 670

Bilski v. Kappos, 561 U.S. 593 (2010) 671

Problem 18-1 688



Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank Intern’l, 134 S.Ct. 2347 (2014) 688

Problem 18-2 695



Chapter Nineteen

REQUIREMENTS FOR PATENT PROTECTION: UTILITY 699

1.) ‘Research Intermediaries’ and Hunting Licenses 699



Brenner v. Manson, 383 U.S. 519 (1966) 699

2.) Genetic Engineering & the Utility Guidelines 705



USPTO Utility Examination Guidelines: Notice (2001) 706

3.) Utility in the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit 711



In re Fisher, 421 F.3d 1365 (Fed. Cir. 2005) 711

Problem 19-1 718



Chapter Twenty

REQUIREMENTS FOR PATENT PROTECTION: NOVELTY 721

Introduction 722

1.) Novelty: Basics 723

Gayler v. Wilder, 51 U.S. 477 (1850) 723

2.) Novelty: Novel to whom? 726

3.) Novelty: Anticipation of Every Element 727

Coffin v. Ogden, 85 U.S. 120 (1873) 727

Verdegaal Brothers, Inc. v. Union Oil Co. of Calif., 814 F.2d 628 (Fed. Cir. 1987) 729

4.) Novelty: Inherency 732



In re Cruciferous Sprout Litigation, 301 F.3d 1343 (Fed. Cir. 2002) 732

5.) Statutory Bar: Public Use 737



Pennock v. Dialogue, 27 U.S. 1 (1829) 737

6.) Statutory Bar: The Experimental Use Exception 741



City of Elizabeth v. Pavement Co., 97 U.S. 126 (1877) 741

Problem 20-1 745



Chapter Twenty-One

NON-OBVIOUSNESS 747

Introduction 747



Graham v. John Deere Co., 383 U.S. 1 (1966) 748

1.) A Four Step Test for Obviousness 754



Stratoflex, Inc. v. Aeroquip Corp., 713 F.2d 1530 (Fed. Cir. 1983) 755

2.) The Scope of Prior Art 763



In re Carl D. Clay, 966 F.2d 656 (Fed. Cir. 1992) 763

3.) Burden of Proof and “Obvious to Try” 766



In re Bell, 991 F.2d 781 (Fed. Cir. 1993) 766

4.) ‘These Are Not the PHOSITA’s you’ve been looking for. . . .’ 769



Kimberly-Clark v. Johnson & Johnson, 745 F.2d 1437 (1984) 769

Dan L. Burk and Mark A. Lemley, Is Patent Law Technology-Specific?


17 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1155 (2002) 770

Problem 21-1 772



Chapter Twenty-Two

TRADE SECRECY & PREEMPTION 775

Introduction 775

The Restatement and the Uniform Trade Secrets Act 775

Restatement (First) of Torts, Section 757 (1939) 776

Uniform Trade Secrets Act (with 1985 Amendments) 777

Preemption 778



Sears, Roebuck & Co. v. Stiffel Co., 376 U.S. 225 (1964) 779

Kewanee Oil Co. v. Bicron Corp., 416 U.S. 470 (1974) 779

Bonito Boats, Inc. v. Thunder Craft Boats, Inc., 489 U.S. 141 (1989) 784

Improper Means 786



E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. v. Christopher, 431 F.2d 1012 (5th Cir. 1970) 786

Reasonable Efforts to Preserve Secrecy 789



Rockwell Graphic Systems, Inc. v. DEV Industries, Inc., 925 F.2d 174 (7th Cir. 1991) 789

“Are Trade Secrets ‘Property’?” Why Do You Ask, Pray Tell? 793



E.I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Co. et al. v. Masland et al., 244 U.S. 100 (1917) 794

Ruckelshaus v. Monsanto Co., 467 U.S. 986 (1984) 795

Problem 22-1: Trade Secrets, Misappropriation & Preemption 797




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