Internet Services (II)

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S.2 Computer Literacy

Internet Services (II) Class: _______ Name: _________ (____)


  • Wiki is a type of web site that allows collaborative creation and edition of interlinked web pages through web browser. Users are allowed to create new pages or edit any existing pages. Therefore, readers can also be author.

  • The most well-known wiki site is Wikipedia (維基百科).

Try to visit the page about our school at:

    • Why Wikipedia allows everyone to edit the pages?

      • People from around the world can make contribution, such that the content will become more accurate and complete.

      • Up-to-date content can be included (e.g. 2012 Lamma Island ferry collision 南丫島撞船事故). It is not possible for traditional encyclopedias (books).

    • Is it very dangerous if EVERYONE can edit the page?

      • There is revision history. All revisions are saved and stored so that it’s possible to revert to an old revision of the page.

      • Pages can be locked for protection. Some important pages can be locked such that only authorized users can edit the page.

      • Problematic pages or wrong information will be removed by administrators.

    • Note that: Because of the openness of Wikipedia, the content may not be reliable.

  • Wiki can be used for community web site, for classroom or for project. If you want to create your own wiki, you may try:




Instant Messaging

  • Instant Messaging (IM) is a real-time text-based communication system.

    • There is a friend list (sometimes called “buddy list”) showing your
      friends who are online now.

    • Online friends can chat with each other. In some system, group
      chat is possible.

  • Comparing with e-mail:

    • Similarity: Message is sent through network (the Internet).

    • Difference: The communication is real-time, and both sides
      should be online for chatting.

  • Examples of instant messaging systems:

____________________ ____________________

____________________ ____________________

  • Instant messaging clients (software):

    • Software-based – Installation is required.

    • Web-based – Running on web browser, no installation of software is needed.

  • Other features:

    • Using emotion icon in chat.

    • Sending files.

    • Voice chat (hardware required: _______________ )

    • Video chat (hardware required: _______________ )

  • Mobile instant messaging:

    • Run on smart phone (or other mobile device)

    • Communication through the Internet

    • Free of charge (?) to send message

    • Examples:

____________________ ____________________

  • Note:

    • Different instant messaging systems may not communicate with each other. For example, ICQ users cannot send message to Yahoo! Messenger users.

    • Some third-party IM programs may connect to different systems at the same time. Examples: Meebo, Miranda IM, Pidgin, Trillian, etc.

Voice over IP (VoIP) and Video Conferencing

  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) refers to the technology that allows voice communication over Internet Protocol (IP) network (e.g. the Internet).

  • VoIP services allow users to make real phone calls (using software to dial to a real phone number). E.g. Skype and Google Voice (US only).

  • There are also VoIP Phone (or simply “IP Phone”) which is a
    phone system running on computer network. It may support
    extra functions, such as video call (within the system).

  • Video Conferencing refers to conducting a meeting with two or more parties at different location over the network.

  • Sometimes video calls are also called video
    conferencing because of the similar nature.

  • What are the hardware devices required?

    • Video Input: ___________________________________

    • Video Output: ___________________________________

    • Audio Input: ___________________________________

    • Audio Output: ___________________________________

Media Sharing

  • When storage is getting cheaper and cheaper, there are more and more media sharing services on the Internet.

  • Basic media hosting service allows any user to upload a photo (or a video), so that other people can see it through a URL.
    An Example is ImageShack:

  • Some media sharing sites may include some “social” features so that users can interact with each other (posting comments or having discussions).

    • Photo sharing: Picasa Web Album, Flickr, etc.

    • Video sharing: YouTube, Vimeo, Nico Video, etc.

Social Networking Site (SNS)

  • A social networking site (or social networking service) is an online service, platform or website focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations among people.

  • SNS is a platform that allows users to interact with others (the “social” nature). A user can publish content and connect with others to share personal interests and/or activities.

    • Micro-blog is also a kind social networking service because it also encourages interaction among users. (Note that blog is less “social” when compared with micro-blog)

    • Some jargons (special terms) in SNS: “follow”, “share”, “like”, “+1”, etc.

  • Examples:





General SNS; Originally for university students and graduates; The most popular one now!

since 2004
based in U.S.


General SNS; Integrated with various Google services.

since 2011

based in U.S.


Aiming at readers; Allowing users to share book review and discuss on books.

since 2006

based in Hong Kong


A social bookmarking web service for storing, sharing, and discovering web bookmarks

since 2003

based in U.S.


A platform for any artist to exhibit and discuss works; Also showcasing user-made artworks.

since 2000

based in U.S.


Photo sharing; People can group and discuss on photography-related issues.

since 2004

based in Canada/U.S.


A social networking and microblogging service; Users send and read text-based posts ("tweets").

since 2006

based in U.S.

Ref: A list of social networking sites on Wikipedia:

  • What can be shared on a general SNS (e.g. Facebook)?

    • _______________________

    • _______________________

    • _______________________

    • _______________________

  • Privacy concern:

    • Unlike discussion forum and other services, social networking sites are more related to you real personal identity. Therefore, privacy is a great concern in SNS.

    • Set the permissions more specifically to protect personal information (e.g. only “friends” can view your phone number, etc.)

    • Do not disclose too much personal information (Think: what’s meant by “too much”?)

    • Choose a safe password to avoid your account being “hacked” by others. Some hints of choosing a safe password can be found at:

Web 2.0

  • “Web 2.0” doesn’t mean a new World Wide Web in technological sense. It isn’t any new technology but new use of existing technologies.

  • It contrasts with the so-called “Web 1.0”. (Note: The term “Web 1.0” came out only after people started to talk about “Web 2.0”.)

    • At the beginning, the World Wide Web emerged as a new media for publishing.

    • There are some “content providers” publishing information or content on the web. The content providers include companies, organizations, or governments.

    • Publishing information on the web requires web design skills.

    • Users, being merely audience (reader), have no control on the content.

    • Example: Online newspapers, School web sites

  • In Web 2.0, the web site acts as a participation platform, rather than content provider.

    • E.g. YouTube don’t create video, but provides a platform for users to share videos.

  • Some characteristics of Web 2.0:

    • Users participate in the creation on content in the web site.

    • Web sites become more social: There is more interaction among users.

    • The web content is dynamic, changing frequently.

    • User-centered design: Web sites are more interactive and user-friendly (easy to use). Users can focus on the content rather than technical skills.

  • Web 2.0 emphasizes on: Openness, Freedom, Collective Intelligence

Legal Issues in Web 2.0 Age

  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) – the name commonly given to a group of separate intangible property rights of creations of mind.

Ref: (Intellectual Property Department)

  • Copyright is a form of intellectual property that gives the author of an original work exclusive right for a certain time period in relation to that work, including its publication, distribution and adaptation, after which time the work is said to enter the public domain.

  • Software license.

    • End User License Agreement (EULA) is a contract between the “licensor” (software company) and purchaser of the right to use software.

    • Infringement (i.e. violation) of software copyright is called “software piracy”. Illegal copies of software are called “pirated software”

    • Types of software license:

Commercial Software

Users have to purchase a single-machine license (or site license) to use the software on one computer (or a group of computers in a site).


Usually trial version (time-limited) or demo version (function-limited) of a software program. It lets users “try-before-buy”.


“Free” means free of charge. Users do not need to pay for using the software. Users may send the program to other people (depending on the EULA).

Open Source Software (OSS)

The source code is open to the public to read, modify and redistribute. They are sometimes referred to as “Free Software”, where “free” means freedom.
For example, the GNU General Public License (GPL) grants users:

  • the freedom to run the program, for any purpose.  Free of charge

  • the freedom to study how the program works, and modify it.  Source code must be open to public

  • the freedom to redistribute copies

  • the freedom to improve the program, and release the improvements to the public.  The modified program must also be published under GNU GPL

  • Copyright issues in Web 2.0 web sites (e.g. YouTube, Facebook, etc.)

    • E.g. In YouTube, Video may be removed if the copyright owner complains.

  • Creative Commons (CC) (共享創意) is a copyright license that defines the spectrum of possibilities between full copyright (all rights reserved) and the public domain (no rights reserved).

    • It encourages sharing of creative works.

    • Four license conditions:

      Attribution (by)

      Share Alike (sa)

      Non-Commercial (nc)

      No Derivative Works (nd)

    • Different licenses can be formed by different combinations of the above conditions:


  • Discussion:

    • Who owns the copyright?

    • Does re-creation (二次創作) violate copyright?


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