Исследовательская работа по английскому языку: «What Is Tourism?»

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«Шахунская гимназия имени А.С. Пушкина»

Исследовательская работа по английскому языку:

«What Is Tourism?»


ученица 7 «А» класса

Смирнова Ульяна

учитель английского языка

Держурина Е.Н.

г. Шахунья

2010-2011 г.г.

Я выбрала данную тему, потому что она мне кажется очень актуальной. Многие жители планеты занимаются туризмом. Но что это значит – «быть туристом»? Какую роль туризм играет в жизни страны, города, конкретного человека? Меня также интересует, как туризм может повлиять на развитие города и какую пользу развитие туристической индустрии может принести государству. Как возник туризм, в каких странах он наиболее популярен, какие виды туризма существуют – чтобы найти ответы на все эти вопросы и удовлетворить любознательность исследователя, я приступила к теме «What Is Tourism?». Думаю, что моё исследование поможет мне в будущем стать грамотным туристом и объехать весь мир.

Я выдвигаю следующую гипотезу. Вероятно, туризм очень важен для людей, увлекающихся им, развитие туризма благоприятно для города. Более того, существует целая отрасль - туристическая индустрия, которая является основой для пополнения бюджета страны. Очевидно, туризм является синонимом слова путешествие, следовательно, имеет множество различных видов.

Итак, цель моего исследования – выяснить, что такое туризм и кто может назвать себя туристом.

Задачи моего исследования:

  1. узнать, как зародился туризм;

  2. выяснить, какие виды туризма существуют сейчас;

  3. найти информацию о том, какое место может стать туристическим центром;

  4. выяснить, может ли Шахунья стать городом с развитым туризмом;

  5. оценить преимущества и отрицательные черты туризма.

What is tourism?

Tourism is an industry that gives work to millions of people, and some people believe that it is the biggest industry in the world today. But what is tourism? And how is it different from other kinds of travel?

Tourism is the business providing things for people to do, places for them to stay while they are on holiday. Tourists travel to places from home and stay there for a short time – a week or two. So, the trip should be to an unusual environment. This is the first criterion. People who commute every day between their home and place of work or study are not tourists. Also, a person visiting a theatre a few blocks away from home is not participating in tourism because this is his (her) usual environment.

People travel because they want to do business, to visit friends or family or to have a holiday. But in the modern world holidays are the most important kind of tourism. The tourist industry gives tourists everything that they want and need during their visits: hotels, restaurants, airports, theatres.

When tourists visit places in their own country, this is called domestic tourism. When they visit other countries, this is international tourism.

Tourism is a very important business for many countries, and it is getting bigger all the time. In 2000, 476 billion dollars came from international tourism, and there were 698 million international visits – 50 million more than in 1999. The most popular countries in 2000 were France (75 million visitors), the United States (53 million), and Spain (49 million).

A tourist is someone who is travelling and visiting a place for pleasure.

Modern life is impossible without travelling. True, we often get tired of the same surroundings and daily routine. That is why the best place of relaxation is the one where you have never been before. And it is means of travelling that you get to that place.

Travelling by train is slower than by plane, but it has its advantages. You can see the country you are travelling through and enjoy the beautiful nature. It may be an express train or a passenger one.

There is no doubt it is much more convenient to travel by an express train, because it does not stop at small stations and it takes you less time to get to your destination.

But if you are in a hurry and want to save time you’d better travel by plane, because it is the fastest way of travelling.

Some people prefer to travel by ship when possible. A sea voyage is very enjoyable, indeed. But some people think the best way of travelling is by car. The advantages of this way of spending your holiday are that you don’t have to buy a ticket; you can stop wherever you wish, where there is something interesting to see.

The history of tourism

Tourism started in Roman times. Rich Romans wanted to visit friends and family who were working in another part of the Roman world. The Romans build roads and travellers stayed in small hotels next to these roads. But when the Roman Empire ended, this kind of tourism stopped.

In the early seventeenth century, the idea of the “Grand Tour” started. Rich young English people went across the English Channel to France, and then visited the most beautiful and important European cities of the time. The tour lasted for two to four years, and the tourists stayed a few weeks or months in each city. They usually visited Paris, Rome, Venice and Florence. The “Grand Tour” was an important part of education-but only for the very rich.

In the eighteenth century, tourism began to change. For example, people started to visit towns like Bath in the UK to “take the waters”. They believed that drinking the water in these towns was good for them. Large, expensive hotels were built in these towns.

I have learned that in the nineteenth century, travel became much easier and faster. When the first railways were built in the 1820s and 1830s, it was easier for people to travel between towns, so they started to go for holidays in towns by the sea. They also started to have holidays in the countryside, because cities became larger, noisier and dirtier! Travelling by sea became faster and safer when the first steamships were built, so people began to travel to more distant countries.

Now I know that during twentieth century there was more and more tourism. People started to have more money and more time. Until 1908, workers did not usually have holidays from work. But by 1951, 66 per cent of British workers had two weeks holiday a year. And by 2000, 92 per cent of workers had four weeks holiday a year.

Travel continued to become cheaper and easier during the twentieth century. More people had cars. Planes became larger and could carry more people, so plane tickets became cheaper.

In 1949, Vladimir Raitz started a company called horizon Holidays, and the package holiday was born. With a package holiday, the company puts everything together- plane ticket, hotel room, even food-and the tourist pays foe it all before she or he leaves home. In the 1960s, many other companies started to sell package holidays from the UK to Spain (especially the Balearic Islands), Greece and Italy. The modern tourist industry was beginning.

Types of tourism

ECOTOURISM, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to fragile and usually protected areas. Many people do not want to take an all-inclusive holiday because they want to learn about other countries and cultures. “Ecotourism” is a modern word: it means travelling to place to learn about different cultures and environments. Enjoying yourself is certainly part of these holidays, but education is important too. Today, ecotourism is becoming more and more popular.

Another way of thinking about ecotourism is this: an ordinary tourist visits a country and asks, “ what has this country got for me?”; an ecotourism visits a country and asks, ‘what can I give to this country?”. For example, some eco-tourists visit other countries (or other parts of their own country) to do conservation work. Their job is help the environment, or to protect places, animals or plants that are in danger.

Learning about life in other countries is another part of ecotourism. SERVAS is an organizatiotion that helps people from different cultures to meet and spend time together. People who belong to the organization travel to different countries and stay at the homes of other SERVAS people. The organization hopes that, in this way, people will begin to understand one another better and the world will be a friendlier place.

SERVAS started in 1948, and today it has more than 14,000 families in 130 different countries. For them, it is a good way to travel the world and make new friends at the same time.

EDUCATIONAL TOURISM developed because of the growing popular of teaching and learning of. In educational tourism , the main focus of thr tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchang Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment.

MEDICAL TOURISM. When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particulary in South Asia, India,Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures , travelling to take advantage of the price is often referred to as “medical toursm”.

PRO-POOR TOURISM. The pro-poor tourism has to help the very poorest in developing countries.

DARK TOURISM. One emerging area of special interest has been identified as “dark” tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to “dark” sities, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps.

CREATIVE TOURISM. Creative tourism has existed as a form of culture tourism. Its European roots date back to the time which saw the sons of aristocratic families travelling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences.

MUSIC TOURISM is one of the newest type of tourism. Music tourism can be categorised under pleasure tourism, as it involves travel of people to watch a music concert. Rock music and hip-hop music are the two main genre of music which create music tourism.

SPACE TOURISM is the phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space. As of 2009, orbital space tourism opportunities are limited and expensive, with only the Russian Space Agency providing transport. The price for a flight brokered by Space Advetures to the International Space Stations aboard a Soyuz spacecraft is US$ 20-35 million.


Many people go on holiday to rest and enjoy themselves. They want to lie on the beach and read books during the day, and eat good food in restaurants in the evening. But these days, more and more people prefer activity holidays-holidays with sports and other exciting things to do.

One of the oldest kinds of activity holidays is skiing, and it is still very popular with millions of people. The most popular countries for skiing holidays in Europe are France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy and Andorra. There are also ski resorts in the USA, Canada, Japan, and South America. In the 1970s a new sport started in these ski resorts- snowboarding. It is now popular with young people.

There are special activity holidays for a lot of different sports, like sailing, scuba-diving and walking. But some people want more than this-they want adventure! Companies like “KE adventure Tours” take groups of people to the Himalayas to go climbing and mountain-biking. Other companies take people to Africa to travel down fast rivers in special boats. Some companies even take tourists up the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest. But this is still very dangerous: for every six people who try to climb Everest, one dies.

Activity holidays are usually more expensive than ordinary package holidays, and families often do not have the money. Most people on activity holidays are single people or married couples without children. For example, only 25 per cent of people on skiing holidays are families.

In the 1950s, Club Med started to sell all-inclusive holidays in the Mediterranean. When you buy an all-inclusive holiday, you get everything you are going to need or do in the resort: all your food and drink, and all the sports and activities too, like windsurfing and water-skiing. It is good way to make new friends and an easy way to have a holiday. But there are disadvantages, too. You do not meet people who are very different from you, and you do not learn about the country that you are visiting.

What place can be called a tourist destination?

The place where there are many tourist attractions can became a tourist destination. Tourist attractions are places that tourists want to visit because they are interesting, beautiful or exciting. There are natural tourist attractions, like wonderful mountains, lakes and rivers. Millions of tourists travel to other countries to enjoy places like these. Then there are man-made attractions: theme parks, castles, and buildings of all kinds.

I tried to find out if Shakhunya can be called a tourist centre. The following questions helped me evaluate the tourist potential of an examined area.

  1. Is the area:

  • close to an international airport or major tourist centre;

  • moderately close;

  • remote.

  1. Is the journey to the area:

  • easy and comfortable;

  • moderately difficult;

  • difficult and dangerous.

  1. Is successful wildlife viewing:

  • guaranteed;

  • usual;

  • only available with luck or highly seasonable.

  1. Does the area offer:

  • several distinctive features of interest;

  • more than one feature of interest;

  • one main feature of interest.

  1. Is the area:

  • unique in its appeal;

  • somewhat different;

  • similar to other visitor reserves.

  1. Does the area have:

  • beach or lakeside recreation facilities;

  • river, falls or swimming pools;

  • no water-related recreation.

  1. Is the area close enough to other sites of tourist interest to be part of a tourist circuit?

  • yes;

  • moderate potential;

  • low or no potential.

  1. Is the surrounding area:

  • of high scenic beauty;

  • moderately attractive;

  • rather ordinary.

  1. What standards of food are available?

  • varied and well-prepared;

  • adequate;

  • basic.

  1. What standards of lodging accommodations are available?

  • varied and comfortable;

  • adequate;

  • primitive.

In my opinion, our town can become a tourist center in future as Shakhunya has the following elements:

  • Attractions and activities – things for tourists to see and do

  • Hospitality facilities and services – places to stay overnight and places to eat

  • Basic community infrastructure – water supply, electricity, telecommunications

  • The journey to Shakhunya is rather easy and comfortable

  • Successful wildlife viewing is guaranteed

  • The area has a swimming pool in the Sport Centre “Atlant”

  • The area is close enough to other sites of tourist interest to be part of a tourist circuit

But we need to develop:

  • Travel arrangements – travel agents, tour guides, interpreters

  • Promotion and information tourist services – informing tourists what to see and do in the community

  • Accommodation (hotels)

I think that Shakhunia can be a tourism centre because it is easy to travel to it, the area is attractive, people can enjoy nature, there are some places of interest in our town.

Tourism – Advantages and Disadvantages

Most countries in the world want more tourists to visit their towns and tourist attractions. This is because there are a lot of advantages to tourism.

Firstly, tourism brings jobs. In the European Union, for example, 22.1 million jobs are because of tourism.

Tourism brings money, too. Tourists go shopping, and they spend money in hotels and restaurants. Sometimes there is a special tax-money that you pay the government-just for tourist.

Tourists also need facilities-hotels, restaurants, shops, theatres and cinemas. They need roads, railways and buses. All of these things help local business, and local people can use the facilities, too.

Some people think that tourism can be good for the environment. Governments often make beautiful parts of the country into national parks. Businesses can’t build new houses or offices in national parks, so they stay beautiful!

But other people think that tourism is bad for the environment. The biggest problem is the number of visitors. The visitors arrive in a beautiful place by car, boat or plane; the cars, boats and planes bring pollution. The visitors also bring rubbish – bags, bottles and paper.

Often, the facilities that a country needs for tourists are not good for people who live there. For example, between 1989 and 1994, companies build 160 golf courses use a lot of water; at the same time, local people do not always have water for their farms.

Governments from different countries are now working together to fight the problems. Tourist companies from richer countries have to make less money today to protect the tourist attractions and environments of tomorrow.


Туризм играет важную роль в жизни людей, потому что он позволяет открыть как новые страны, так и не известные ранее места в родной стране. Туризм помогает развивать способности, и часто является продолжением хобби. Путешествуя, человек может встретиться с новыми людьми, повысить уровень образованности, поправить здоровье, освоить новые виды деятельности, поучаствовать в общественно-полезном труде, развить свои творческие способности.

Основное преимущество туризма состоит в том, что он пополняет бюджет страны. Кроме того, туризм воспитывает людей в духе гостеприимства и гордости за родной край. Из недостатков туристической индустрии я отметила только загрязнение окружающей среды и перенаселенность туристических центров в период отпусков и каникул. Но я считаю, что эту проблему может решить развивающийся сейчас экотуризм. Во-первых, экологические туристы с уважением относятся к природе. Во-вторых, благодаря этому виду туризма часть путешественников вместо больших городов всё больше посещают дикие уголки природы.

Различные виды туризма подходят для людей разных возрастов, с разными увлечениями, предпочтениями и средствами. Туризм формирует человека активного, любознательного, коммуникабельного, толерантного, разностороннего.

Список использованной литературы

  1. Английский язык. Туризм. 10-11 класс.: учеб пособие/ Л.В. Кнодель. – М.: Дрофа, 2006

  2. Tourism, Paul A Davies. Oxford University Press, 2010

  3. www.en.wikipedia.org

  4. www.images.yandex.ru

  5. www.unwto.org

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