1780 May Morrisania Another raid on Morrisania, on a larger scale and much more effective was made in May.
…led by Capt Cushing of the Massachusetts line …More than 40 of de Lancey's troopers were killed or made prisoners. …de Lancey… was absent. On this occasion Abraham Dyckman, the guide, …(captured) Captain Ogden, in Emmerick's quarters at the Farmers' Bridge,…"
History of Westchester Co, NY …, Shonnard & Spooner,
NOTE: Captain Ogden was at Farmers' Bridge near Morrisania!
1780 July 30 Long Island Daniel Lamouree (son of Andrew) Married Charity Wetmore in St George Church in
New York Hempstead, Long Island. "Both of Oyster Bay"
[Daniel & Josué Lamoreaux were both in Delancey's corps.]
[Daniel's brother Jesse Lamoreaux married a Wetmore, too.]
Computer printout of Marriage record of St George Church ,
Hempstead, Nassau, NY 1725-1786, film # 1,002,749 item 18
and Family Group from Roland Smith
1780 about New York Josué Lamoreaux's daughter Susanna probably married Mr Waters before they left NY.
She was a widow at time of Joshua's will.
NOTE: [Joshua Lamoreaux had 8 children; Josué's petitions say he has only 7 children to provide a home for. Josué will lists Susanna Waters as his daughter does not mention a son John.] 1780 Oct 9 Dutchess County - “As assessment of the estates of such Persons in Charlottee Precinct who’s sons have
gone of [off] to and joined the Enemy Pursuiant Legislature of the State of New York, passed the 9th of October 1780.
Name sons Value of Estate (9d in pound)
Cornelius Vandike 2 1560 L58 10s 0d
Richable Williams 3 1800 67.10.0
James Lomeree 1 134 5. 0. 6
We the supervisors and Asesors of the precinct aforesaid do hereby certify that the above is a true asesment of the Estates of such Persons in this precinct whose sons have gone of to and joined the Enemy to the best of our knowing according to Law. Jan ye 15 day 1781…
No.3491: Charlotte Precinct’s Tory Assessment.
Public Papers of George Clinton, 1st Gov of NY. (Albany 1902) VI: 576-7
1781 March 4 "In March two successful attacks were made by Americans on de Lancey's camp at Morrisania. The first (March 4) …assaulted the cantonment just before sunrise, …killing and wounding many, and carrying away 20 prisoners." p 518
History of Westchester Co, NY,…, Shonnard & Spooner,
1781 March 26 "In March two successful attacks were made by Americans on de Lancey's camp at Morrisania. On the 26th of March there was a similar attack, …on a smaller scale. …only 13 mounted volunteers …penetrated to the camp of the Rangers and took a number of prisoners… We believe this was the last encounter of the Revolution in Westchester Co. Shortly after the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown…"
"a state of war existed, notwithstanding the complete inactivity on both sides.
History of Westchester Co, NY,…, Shonnard & Spooner, p 518-9
1781 Oct 19 Yorktown, VA The British Army formally surrendered
Cornwallis surrenders. British troops lay down their arms.
Victorious In Defeat, Wallace Brown, 1984 p 33.
1782 May 6 NYC “Sir Henry Clinton was removed from the command of the British forses in America, Sir
Guy Carleton, reaching New York on 6th of May. The next day he sent to Washington… announcing the readiness …to negotiate a peace on the basis of the independence of America. … a state of war still existed, notwithstanding the complete inactivity on both sides.” P 518
[this lasted about a year see 1783 May 14]
History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner
1782 summer New York "News of Britain's decision to concede independence ... reached New York in the summer
of 1782... exile ... the ultimate safeguard against retaliation ..."
Early Loyalist Saint John, D.G. Bell, 1983, p 14
"New York City had remained a British garrison and a Loyalist haven since it's capture in September, 1776. During 1782, as it became clear that the war was lost and that the rebels remained antagonistic, refugees flooded in to camps set up on Long Island, Staten Island, and the Jersey Shore. ... a total of perhaps thirty thousand."
Victorious In Defeat, Wallace Brown, 1984 p 33.
1782 Aug 15 New York Jesse (son of Andrew Lamoreaux) Married Jane Wetmore
Family Group from Roland Smith
[WHERE? Bro, Daniel Lamoreaux, married a Wetmore on Long Island, NY, 2 yrs before. These two went to Canada.] 1783 There is a great deal of small pox in New York in 1783
1783 A Treaty is signed. War Ends. Loyalist must leave.
1783 May 14 NY After a year of truce“…on 14th of May, when… Westchester Co was surrendered to the
State government by the withdrawal of the British garrrison from Morrisannia.” P 525
History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner
“But though the 14th of May was Evacuation Day for Westchester County, it was not until the 25th of November that the British troops in New York City took their farewell. The deportation of the thousands …” P 525
History of Westchester Co, NY, From Early Settlement..., Shonnard & Spooner
"The practical outcome of the conference at Tappan was an agreement by Sir Guy
Carleton to give up the various outlying posts of New York, and finally New York itself, as soon as convenient. The first step in this direction was taken on the 14th of May, when (says Colonel Varick) Westchester County was surrendered to the State government by the withdrawal of the British garrison from Morrisania." "…it was not until 25th of Nov. that the British troops in New York City took their farewell. The deportation of the thousands of Tories …taxed all the shipping facilities of Sir Guy Carlton until that time."
History of Westchester Co, NY…, Shonnard & Spooner,
"New York... 1783... 'The spirit of persecution and violence against the unhappy loyalists does not appear to abate to any degree since the cessation of hostilities. They are not suffered to go into the country even to take a last farewell of their relations."
Less than Glory, Gelb, Norman p 221
"Many a worthy family, exiled by circumstance, sadly packed it's worldly goods and set out for the cooler and less settled lands of Canada.
The Lordly Hudson, Carl Cramer
[This volume has a wonderful, detailed drawing of the Hudson Valley from NY harbor to Albany.] Spring & Summer Fleets leave New York City for Canada
NY to NS “In 1782 Sir Guy Carleton made overtures for refugees to be provided with ships to go to
Nova Scotia, and in the spring of 1783 some forty-four ships were prepared to transport the Loyalists. Among these refugees were some French Huguenots. In two of DeLancey’s companies of soldiers there were three hundred and fifteen men together with women and children. Doubtless many of these were French Huguenots the same as the DeLanceys who after arrival took an active part in locating the emigres.
“Esther Clark Wright, who has given these Loyalists careful study, states that there were about eighty Huguenot families, many from New Rochelle and Staten Island Huguenot settlements. Most of these settled in Queens County. In Sunbury County, Maugerville became a centre. The following names of families have been provided by Mrs. Wright in a personal letter: Allair, Ansley, …Brundage,… Chadeayne,… Crozier, … DeForest, DeLong, …Devoe, Dibble, … Evarts, … Frazee, Guthrie, Haycock, Lamoreaux, … LeRoy, Lesterr, Losee, Mabee, Mercereau, … Secord, … “There were more than thirteen hundred men, women, and childrenwho went by ship toCanada and many more came by their own means. Some, however, returned to the United States after the close of the Revolutionary War and some two hundred left New Brunswick, which in 1784 was separated from Nova Scotia. These moved on to Upper Canada influenced by John Graves Simcoe who, when made Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada in 1792, encouraged officers that had served under him in the Queen’s Rangers to come to Upper Canada and serve as members of his Council.
“…Following the American Revolutionary War, there was a great influx of refugees. Esther Clark Wright estimated that between fourteen and fifteen thousand Loyalists came to New Brunswick which had been separated from Nova Scotia in 1784, but of this number only a small portion were Huguenots, perhaps one hundred families and not all of these remained. P 210
Reaman says: “The Lamerieux Family, pronounced Lumoree or Lamoroo, came first to Acadia [One did; one didn’t. He is mixing two different Lamoreaux families together. akrc] and sometime about 1816 came to Ontario County, in Upper Canada. James Lamerieux is a son of the first ancestor in New Brunswick.” [Son of our Josué]
“Two brothers, Mercereau, of Huguenot stock moved from New York State to New Brunswick, one settling in Fredrericton area and the other farther north…” p 212
“…the greatest number of persons with French Huguenot blood came into Upper Canada in 1784 and settled in and around Kingston and the bay of Quinte. This was…because of the situation that existed in New York City following the close of the War. …a large number of Loyalist who had lost all their property…”
G. Elmore Reaman The Trail of the Huguenots in Europe, the U S, S A &Canada,
P 208, 209, 210, 212
1783 May-Jul NY to NB Spring & Summer Fleets leave NYC for Canada
Joshua's petitions state he was on the Spring Fleet, in New Brunswick by July 1783.
"The June or Summer Fleet of eighteen transports which left in mid-June brought about twenty-five hundred more to Annapolis, Port Roseway, Fort Cumberland, and the Saint John River. By July, the ships of the Spring Fleet had returned and began to sail back north intermittently. These irregular sailings - unremarkable, often unrecorded-increased in August when Carleton, pressured by numbers, decided to hire private vessels, including many belonging to patriots. The voyages continued until November."
Victorious In Defeat, Wallace Brown, 1984. p 38.
"Emigrating to Nova Scotia suddenly became an agreeable prospect in loyalist circles. America had become a land of affliction for them. Canada was the land of the future.
“As the refugees,... reached the wild, lonely, barren shores of Nova Scotia, they were, however, deeply apprehensive. It was nothing like what they had been led to believe. Trees had to be felled and brush had to be cleared before they could even pitch tents to provide immediate shelter. ... At the landing site across the bay, where the city of St John would grow, there was little but woods and swamp.
“One woman said that as she watched the sails of the ship which had brought her to Canada disappear in the distance, 'such a feeling of loneliness came over me that though I had not shed a tear through all the war, I sat down on the damp moss with my baby on my lap and cried bitterly.' Few of the refugees possessed more than the clothes they wore and the fear that they had made a dreadful mistake."
"The British did by then provide them with provisions,... full rations for the first year... one-third rations the third and last year, after which the refugees were expected to provide for themselves." Some had "trouble finding enough food on which to survive" p 215
"The weather was also demoralizing. Nine months of winter each year and the phenomenon of fog that bit right through to the bones were an unsettling novelty… p 216
"It was not an easy way. During the 'starving time,' a shattering famine in the late 1780's, many refugees thought longingly of the farms and towns they had forsaken in the American states years before. People survived by eating wild plants and stripping bark from trees to supplement their meager diets… Stories are still told of how beef bones were passed from home to home for soup and of dozens of acres offered for a bushel of potatoes or wheat." p 217
Less than Glory, Gelb, Norman, 1984
1783 May St. John, NB Daniel & Jesse Lamoureux are on the victualling list. Daniel, unit 7, yeoman,
from NY, wife, 2 children under 10, 1 servant listed in NY none in May at St John.
Jesse, unit 7, farmer, NY WC, came on the ship Montague, with wife, no children,
2 servant in NY & on Ship & arriving, only one servant in May & June.
Unit 7 is Peter Huggelford's unit.
Early Loyalist Saint John, D.G. Bell, 1983, ,p 214-215
Daniel & Jesse Lamoureux are listed on the victualling list in NY. Daniel, unit 7, yeoman, from NY, wife, 2 children under 10, 1 servant. Jesse, unit 7, farmer, NY WC, with wife, no children, 2 servant in NY. Unit 7 is Peter Huggelford's unit.
[Joshua Lamoreaux is not listed on victualling list in New York, only on the Canada lists. See entry for 1784 May & June. Was he in prison? Or what? Where were his family?] [Also, Joshua had 8 children. Petitions in Canada say he is caring for 7 only. Was Susanna md? Joshua's will, written in 1817, lists Suzanna Waters, widow but does not mention son, John Mc Cord Lamoreaux.] 1783 May Simon Losee, wife Margaret Bush; 4 children over 10; 1 under 10 (Abigail),
He was a shoemaker from Long Island, NY, arrive in NB, Canada on the ship
"Union". He settled in Queens.
New Brunswick Loyalist, Sharon Dubeau, Ontario, 1983
Simon "Loser/Losie?" unit "S" spring fleet, Family at New York, 1 adult male
1 adult female, 4 children 10+, 2 children under 10, 0 servants. Family on
arrival is the same. [They are not on list in May, June 1784.]
Early Loyalist St John, David G Bell, 1983: inter library loan 1997
“…the ship ‘Union' which had the honor of leading the whole fleet carrying the Loyalist settlers. After fourteen days at sea, they arrived at Partridge Island.”
“A list completed on April 16, 1783 of the Return of the families who embarked on the ‘Union' gives the names of the signers, their former place of abode, occupation and number of women, children and servants. Some of the signers being: Baker, Bardsley, Bates, Boon, Burdin, Burlock, Carle, Carrington, Caswell, Chick, Comely, Coree, Deforest, Dibblee, Dickermon, Ferris, Fountain, Fowler, Gordon, Hait, Hand, Happie, Hendrickson, Holcomb, Jostlin, Lane, Losee, Lumsden, Lyon, Marvin, Maybee, Nichols, Picket, Raymond, Rothburn, Scribner, Seaman, Seely, Shippy, Slokum, Smith, Squiers, Straight, Sweet, Trecarty, Tucker, Underwood and Wade. In all 65 signers, 35 women, 107 children and 2 servants made the journey on board the Union.”
“Kingston and the Loyalists of the Spring Fleet of 1783 with Reminiscences of Conn.”
"The vindictive treatment of the Loyalist was out of step with contemporary civilized practice by which civil wars were ended by 'generous acts of amnesty and restitution.'"
"... more would be needed than mere land, which would take time to clear and bear crops. ...Whenever possible they sailed away with a year's rations, allocated according to an army scale of 1 lb bread and 12 oz pork or 21 oz beef per day per man; women and children got half-rations. In addition, from army stores came cloth, hose, mittens, shoes, blankets, axes, spades, medicine, and tents. On arrival, articles for husbandry and building were disbursed-ploughs, livestock, lumber, shingles, nails, saws, hammers, knives, files, hoes, stoves, and ultimately equipment for saw and grist mills.
"...'For a time we lead a regular Robinson Cruso life'- ... p 71
"The exiled Loyalists received free transportation, land, rations, and various supplies. Soldiers kept their arms and accoutrements;... p 71
Supplies were issued from army stores. Many Loyalist farmers sold surplus crops to garrisons at Fredericton, St John, Montreal, Kingston, etc. p 72
Lots of "…distress stories about shortages and unfair distribution of supplies which caused everything from inconvenience to starvation." p 72-3
Some people sold their supplies & rations & even their lands for "a trifling sum." "...but supplies and rations ended after three years and so a jolt was felt in 1787 which caused many Loyalists to leave Nova Scotia."[& NB] p 73
"Many Loyalist arrived with nothing more than the clothes on their backs. ...some... The rich who sailed from New York City, often accompanied by servants and slaves, brought... furniture, bedding, livestock, squared lumber, and even dismantled houses." p 74
"...in 1783 more than 95% of the land was tree covered... enshrouded in primeval forest." "... Loyalist ...turned from war against the generals... to war against (the trees) ... with axes & fire ... A few lucky settlers got natural meadowland or cleared land that had been abandoned. But the majority faced a new world of Trees."
Winter... "Many women and children and some men died from the cold and exposure" Survivors resorted to each other's body warmth, to all-night shifts to keep fires going, or the use of heated boards. European visitors found mosquitoes, blackflies, and other bugs a sore trial in summer, and noted the prevalence of ague or malaria in Upper Canada
"On the other hand, the climate, especially bracing winter, was generally regarded as healthy and conductive to longevity. Freeze-up brought easy transportation and much socializing via sleighs or skates... facilitated the hauling of wood. Snow not only provided insulation, it slowed down wild animals, making them easier to kill, and provided a deep-freeze for meat storage. p 75
Hannah Ingraham states, "they made their way to their lot ...in a hired rowboat. At first they lived in a tent. 'We all had rations given us by the Government, flour and butter and pork; and tools were given to the men too.' Sometime during the first winter (we) built a log house, a one room hut, ... There was no floor or window or chimney but there was a roof and a fire... and mother said, 'thank God, we are no longer in dread of having shots fired through our house.
"In the spring of 1784, they planted wheat, rye, and beans, the seeds of which they had brought with them. The virgin soil produced a thirty-fold yield of wheat which was threshed by hand on boards." p 76
Victorious in defeat, W Brown & H Senior
[More details & specifics can be found in this source.]
“At first incoming Refugees and Provincials were sheltered in small, half worn tents donated by the British military, but by the middle of summer they were at work on more substantial housing. A few months later the maze of tents had been largely replaced by 'numerous huts and houses scattered over the hills and rising grounds.' [ie]... wigwams, framed and log houses and wicker cottages."
"...first supply of boards and shingles on 23 June 1783 ...500 feet of boards and a 1000 shingles per household became standard...
"...exiles were dependent on British military for food... Some food and livestock were brought from New York... practically no food stuffs on sale at Saint John... also little game to be had...self sufficiency in food impossible... custodian of the nearly empty fort storehouse... reprehensible & vexatious... p 50-51
"...although they appear to draw in companies, I am obliged to issue rations in small parties, as they have only a few canoes to carry their provisions in, and they lend them to each other..." p 53
"[John] Beardsley & the Revd James Sayre were the only active Anglican ministers at St John during the first two years of the Loyalist era."
“Most forms of government assistance to the Loyalists - clothing, blankets, tools, foods, transportation, monetary compensation - generated some form of adverse reaction, usually over the manner of distribution rather than the nature of the gift. [This was not as bad as]... the indignation aroused in the whole Saint John community by the mal-distribution and non-distribution of their promised land. This profound disappointment dominated Saint John's collective life for three years from the time of arrival of the Spring Fleet. It caused such frustration and heartache that... it became the triumphant rallying cry of the Opposition faction at the general election of 1785. [No wonder Joshua had so much trouble getting land. He wasn't alone. akrc]
Early Loyalist Saint John, DG Bell, p 48-58 New Ireland Press, 1983.
"...To add to the confusion, the three battalions of De Lancey's Brigade had been reorganized into two before leaving New York, and the men themselves did not always set down correctly their new battalion number,
...." Many of the De Lancey 2nd battalion (about 68 people) were killed in the wreck of the "Martha' in the Fall Fleet, Oct 1783
The Loyalists of New Brunswick, E. C. Wright, p 180
[The Loyalist may have boarded their ships as much as a month before departure. Many lived on board the ships for some time before they sailed. Maybe they they had no place else to go, maybe they moved in to claim the best spots? ? They often lived on board the ships as long as was allowed after arrival; there was no where to go, no homes, the army gave many tents. Ship living quarters were better than where they were going.]
1783 Parr Town, " Parish Formations ~ Sunbury County was one of the original eight counties
Sunbury County, formed when New Brunswick became a province, …Sunbury County covered
Nova Scotia, much of New Brunswick, as a Countyin Nova Scotia.”
Canada “Many researchers, when they begin their search for New Brunswick ancestors run into the name