Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(9)/ Vol.(22): 2014

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Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(9)/ Vol.(22): 2014


Mustafa Abdalrassual Jassim

Civil Dept. Eng. College / University of Muthana


Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android allows multiple tasks (run more than one program at the same time), The research shows how programs are dealing with Android and the method of its installation and application programming and know a lot of advantages of this system, which in turn entered into many of the devices, Applied, Displays clearer information on the home screen, Shopping programs your Bond road best (in terms of the availability of download and install the software in more than one way and out of the store) Allows you to change the settings of your computer more quickly Supports file transfer via Bluetooth. Better support for all languages, including Arabic language as the applications become dealing with languages ​​that read from right to left. Improved browser and improved technical support HTML5.

Keyword: Android, Eclipse, Application framework, Android Packages.

الخلاصة :

الاندرويد هو مجموعة برمجيات تستخدم للأجهزة النقالة والتي تتضمن نظام التشغيل والبرمجيات الوسيطة والتطبيقات الرئيسية الاندرويد يسمح بمهام متعددة ( تشغيل اكثر من برنامج في نفس الوقت ) ويبين البحث كيف يمكن للبرامج التعامل مع الاندرويد وطريقة تركيب وبرمجة التطبيقات وحل بعض الاتصالات ومعرفة الكثير من مزايا هذا النظام وحل مشكلة ربط البرمجيات والتطبيقات على نظام الاندرويد, والتي بدورها دخلت في العديد من الاجهزة التطبيقية , ويعرض معلومات اكثر وضوحاً على الشاشة الرئيسية , ويبين التسوق الخاص بك لأفضل الطرق ( من حيث توفير تحميل وتثبيت البرنامج لأكثر من طريقة ) ويسمح لك بتغيير اعدادات جهاز الكمبيوتر الخاص بك وبدعم اكثر لسرعة نقل الملفات عن طريق البلوتوث . دعم افضل لكافة اللغات بما فيها اللغة العربية كما اصبحت تطبيقات التعامل مع اللغات التي تقرأ من اليمين الى اليسار . ويتلاءم مع الدعم التقني للـ HTML5 .

الكلمات المفتاحية: الروبوت، والكسوف، إطار التطبيق، والحزم الروبوت.


Android is a mobile operating system that is based on a modified version of Linux. It was originally developed by a startup of the same name, Android, Inc. In 2005, as part of its strategy to enter the mobile space, Google purchased Android and took over its development work (as well as its development team).Google wanted Android to be open and free; hence, most of the Android code was released under the open source Apache License, which means that anyone who wants to use Android can do so by downloading the full Android source code. Moreover, vendors (typically hardware manufacturers) can add their own proprietary extensions to Android and customize Android to differentiate their products from others. This simple development model makes Android very attractive and has thus piqued the interest of many vendors. This has been especially true for companies affected by the phenomenon of Apple’s iPhone, a hugely successful product that revolutionized the smartphone industry. Such companies include Motorola and Sony Ericsson, which for many years have been developing their own mobile operating systems. When the iPhone was launched, many of these manufacturers had to scramble to find new ways of revitalizing their products. These manufacturers see Android as a solution — they will continue to design their own hardware and use Android as the operating system that powers it .The main advantage of adopting Android is that it offers a unified approach to application development. Developers need only develop for Android, and their applications should be able to run on numerous different devices, as long as the devices are powered using Android. In the world of smartphones, applications are the most important part of the success chain. Device manufacturers therefore see Android as their best hope to challenge the onslaught of the iPhone, which already commands a large base of applications.

2-Android Versions Android has gone through quite a number of updates since its first release. Table 1-1 shows the various versions of Android and their code names.

TABLE 1-1: A Brief History of Android Versions

In February 2011, Google released Android 3.0, a tablet-only release supporting widescreen devices.

The key changes in Android 3.0 are as follows.

➤ New user interface optimized for tablets.

➤ 3D desktop with new widgets.

➤ Refined multi-tasking.

➤ New web browser features, such as tabbed browsing, form auto-fill, bookmark synchronization, and private browsing.

➤Support for multi-core processors.

Applications written for versions of Android prior to 3.0 are compatible with Android 3.0 devices, and they run without modifications. Android 3.0 tablet applications that make use of the newer features available in 3.0, however, will not be able to run on older devices. To ensure that an Android tablet application can run on all versions of devices, you must programmatically ensure that you only make use of features that are supported in specific versions of Android. In October 2011, Google released Android 4.0, a version that brought all the features introduced in Android 3.0 to smartphones, along with some new features such as facial recognition unlock, data usage monitoring and control, Near Field Communication (NFC), and more.

3-Features Of Android

Because Android is open source and freely available to manufacturers for customization, there are no fixed hardware or software configurations. However, Android itself supports the following features:

➤Storage — Uses SQLite, a lightweight relational database, for data storage

➤ Connectivity — Supports GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth (includes A2DP and AVRCP), Wi-Fi, LTE, and WiMAX.

➤Messaging — supports both SMS and MMS. Web

➤browser — based on the open source WebKit, together with Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine.

➤Media support — Includes support for the following media: H.263, H.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container), MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB (in 3GP container), AAC, HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container), MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, and BMP.

➤Hardware support — Accelerometer Sensor, Camera, Digital Compass, Proximity Sensor, and GPS.

➤Multi-touch — Supports multi-touch screens.

➤Multi-tasking — Supports multi-tasking applications.

➤Flash support — Android 4.0 supports Flash 10.1.

➤Tethering — supports sharing of Internet connections as a wired/wireless hotspot.

4-Architecture Of Android

In order to understand how Android works, take a look at Figure 1-1, which shows the various layers that make up the Android operating system (OS). The Android OS is roughly divided into five sections in four main layers:

Linux kernel — this is the kernel on which Android is based. This layer contains all the low-level device drivers for the various hardware components of an Android device.

Libraries — these contain all the code that provides the main features of an Android OS. For example, the SQLite library provides database support so that an application can use it for data storage. The WebKit library provides functionalities for web browsing.

Android runtime — At the same layer as the libraries, the Android runtime provides a set of core libraries that enable developers to write Android apps using the Java programming language. The Android runtime also includes the Dalvik virtual machine, which enables every Android application to run in its own process; with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine (Android applications are compiled into Dalvik executable). Dalvik is a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU.

Application framework — exposes the various capabilities of the Android OS to application.

- Developers so that they can make use of them in their applications.

Applications — at this top layer, you will find applications that ship with the Android device (such as Phone, Contacts, Browser, etc.), as well as applications that you download and install from the Android Market. Any applications that you write are located at this layer.

Figure (1-1) Architecture Of Android

5-Meet the Android Development Environment

The Android development environment is made up of several parts that seamlessly work together for you to build Android apps. Let’s take a closer look at each one.

5-1- Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE for short) is where you’ll write your code. Eclipse is a generic IDE, not specific to Android development. It’s managed by the Eclipse foundation.

5-2- Android Development Tools (ADT)

The Android Development Tools (ADT) is an Eclipse plugin that adds Android specific functionality to Eclipse.

5-3- Software Development Kit (SDK)

The Android Software Development Kit (SDK) contains all of the lower level tools to build, run and test your Android apps. The ADT is really just a user interface, and the guts of the app building all happens here in the ADT.

You can use Mac,

Windows or Linux to

Build Android apps.
Eclipse is managed

By the eclipse




Tools (ADT)

Everything else is

Managed byGoogle.




Kit (SDK)

3.0 3.1 3.2 4.0

Figure (1-2) Android Development Environment

6- Communication between Service and Activity on Android follow this points

Ways to connect Activity to service:

  1. Broadcasts: easiest way, implement a BroadcastReciever in each to listen to actions of others.

  2. Messengers:Verygood for multiple types of clients,Both service and client have a Messenger,service provides it Messengerinon Bind(),

clients sendsa register/unregister message with its own messenger in reply To () of message. Service saves client messenger.Now both can send/recieve messages.

  1. IBinder: If you need full fledged remote IPC.Define an Interface for service with AIDL and pass Implementations to clients in onBind().

Wi-Fi Keeps Disconnecting Frequently

The most obvious reason for the problem may be with the Wi-Fi Sleep Policy which disconnects your Wi-Fi every time your Android goes to sleep to save your battery’s juice. To Solution the problem To manage Wi-Fi Sleep Policy, open Advance Wi-Fi settings on Android and tap the optionKeep Wi-Fi on during sleep. Here, check the option Always  to enjoy an uninterrupted connectivity, but you will have to compensate it with your battery life.

Obtaining IP Address Infinite Loop

I don’t know the exact reason behind this, but it might be a bug in Android. I have seen many people getting this problem, and it gets kind of annoying when the problem does not gets fixed even after restarting the device.First of all, you must restart your Wi-Fi router and see if that helps. Many people say that resetting the phone to factory state works but that’s not an appropriate solution. Wi-Fi Fixer is an amazing Android app that can help you here. The app resets your Wi-Fi system files (same as when you reinstall the Wi-Fi drivers in Windows, or you disable and enable the Wi-Fi adapter) and services and helps you to connect to the network and obtain the IP address.If you know the range of IP address the router is broadcasting, you may configure your Android to use static IP address while connecting to the network.

  1. The Eclipse IDE should now look like (Figure 1-3) .

Figure (1-3)

  1. In the Package Explorer (located on the left of the Eclipse IDE), expand the Hello World project by clicking on the various arrows displayed to the left of each item in the project (see Figure 1-4). In the res/layout folder, double-click the main.xml fi le.

  2. The main.xml fi le defi nes the user interface (UI) of your application. The default view is the Layout view, which lays out the activity graphically. To modify the UI by hand, click the main.xml tab located at the bottom (see Figure 1-4).

Figure (1-4)

Figure (1-5)

  1. Add the following code in bold to the main.xml fi le:




android:orientation=”vertical” >



android:text=”@string/hello” />



android:text=”This is my first Android Application!” />

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