Learn free form Wikipedia’s selection and earn gcl, European Chamber’s world recognized commercial certificate



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Learn free form Wikipedia’s selection and earn GCL, European Chamber’s world recognized commercial certificate

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Introduction

More than 150 scientists from 50 countries all over the world took part in cooperation with the European Economic Chamber of Trade, Commerce and Industry, with the aim of creating exam questions for the GCL - Global Commerce License® as one initial level of commercial academic education.

These thematically and carefully selected unified questionnaire, today in the era of computers, the Internet and the global economy, according to the opinion of many experts of the world, represents a basic need of knowledge for all employees, regardless of their previous qualifications.

The GCL program is very modern, effective and useful for all of those who intend to become entrepreneurs, as well as for all unemployed people, providing great help in finding adequate jobs and business success.

The Commerce is not just a trade like many are used to say; it has always been one of the fundamental academic skills. Now with GCL® it is divided into four interdisciplinary modules:



  • ICT- Information and Communication Technologies

  • Business Ethics and Behavior

  • International Law and Regional Practice

  • Economics and Finance


All these modules require about 800 hours of classic learning, equivalent to one academic semester. By validation of American-European Accreditation Council for Adult Education, dated 5th of May 2012, GCL can be recognized as the step into the academy study if candidates do not hold a university degree.

Authors of GCL are conscious that learning does not need to be expensive, especially today when people are using new technologies and World Wide Web as free scientific information source. Therefore, we have decided to use Wikipedia – a free encyclopedia, as one extremely wide and useful way for collecting information related to GCL topics. We believe that using this interesting way, as a global and multilingual information system, will provide you with all possibilities for learning much faster than classical classroom teaching. In the same time, there are many links leading to additional similar or connected information for those who would like to research more and deeper into the GCL topics and memorize our curriculum easier.

We wish you great success with GCL certificate in your further jobs.

GCL group of Authors



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1.1ict


1.1 3

Personal computer 4

Functions of a computer system 6

Units of measure 7

Computer Memory 9

Random access memory (RAM) 10

Virtual memory 10

RAM disk 11

Read-only memory (ROM) 11

Flash memory 11

CPU cache 12

Input and output devices 12

II SOFTWARE 14

Operating system 15

System software 15

Programming software 16

Application software 16

Commercial Software 17

Free and open-source software 17

Freeware 17

Shareware 18

Retail software 18

Inventory management 19

III Operating Data 20

Computer files 20

Computer folders 23

Word Processing 23

Microsoft Word 25

Spreadsheet 27

Presentation program 34

Notable examples 34

Microsoft PowerPoint 34

Corel Presentations 34

Google Docs 34

Harvard Graphics (obsolete) 34

IBM Lotus Freelance Graphics (obsolete) 34

Kingsoft Presentation 35

Libre Office Impress (open source) 35

OpenOffice.org Impress (open source) 35

SlideRocket 35

Prezi 35

Apple Keynote 35

Microsoft PowerPoint 35

PowerPoint Viewer 35

Databases 36

Keyboard shortcut 37

Access key 39

Table of keyboard shortcuts 40

IV Telecommunications 56

Telecommunication systems 56

Signal 57

Infrared 58

Radio-frequency identification 58

Near field communication 59

Bluetooth 60

Global Positioning System 61

Computer network 62

Communication media 63

Communications protocols and network programming 65

Asymmetric digital subscriber line 69

Integrated Services Digital Network 70

Local area network 71

Ethernet 71

Extranet 71

Intranet 72

Networking cables 72

Twisted pair 73

Optical fiber cable 73

Coaxial cable 73

Patch cable 73

Ethernet crossover cable 73

Router 74

Wireless 74

Applications of wireless technology 76

Categories of wireless implementations, devices and standards 77

WiMAX 78


V Mobile phone 79

Smartphones 81

VI Internet 91

Access 98

Social impact 99

Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) 101

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 101

Internet Protocol (IP) 101

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 102

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 103

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 103

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 104

Post Office Protocol (POP) 104

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) 104

World Wide Web (WWW) 105

Web browser 105

Uniform resource identifier (URI) 106

Uniform resource locator (URL) 107

Domain name 107

Domain Name System (DNS) 108

IP address 109

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) 109

Internet Communication 110

E-mail 110

E-mail address 110

Spamming and computer viruses 111

Instant messaging 112

Mobile instant messaging 112

Online chat 112

Internet vulnerabilities 114

Web threat 114

Computer crime 115

Hacking 115

Cyber spying 116

VII Electronic Business (eBusiness) 117

The principle of e-Business, internet as new and exciting channel for business 117

Classification by provider and consumer 119

Electronic Business Security 119

Digital economy 120

Digital economy in eGovernment 120

The principle of e-Commerce 120

The principle of m-Commerce 123

Different classification of e-Commerce system 126

VIII Information system and management 130

Management information system 131

Overview 131

Types 131

Decision support system 132

Components 133

Executive information system 133

Components 133

Applications 135

Transaction processing system 135

Types 136

Intelligent decision support systems 137

Strategic information system 137

Document management system 139

Data management 139

Data hub 139

Features 139

Knowledge management 140

VIII Security 142

Categorising security 142

Application security 143

Computer security 143

Data security 143

Information security 143

Network security 144

IT security essentials 145

Browser security 146

Firewall 146

Antivirus 148

Anti-spyware programs 150

Encryption software 152

Vulnerability scanner 152

System vulnerability and abuse 153

Defense strategies and safekeeping, ways to defend against potential threats 158

2 162


Presentation 197

Definitions 197

Audience 198

Visuals 198

External links 198

Nonverbal communication 199

Importance 199

Posture 199

Clothing 200

Gestures 201

Engagement 202

Genetics 203

Proxemics: Physical Space in Communication 203

Movement and body position 204

Functions of nonverbal communication 205

Conclusion 207

Body language 207

Understanding body language 208

How prevalent is non-verbal communication in humans? 210

Unintentional gestures 210

Group communication, team work and leadership 211

Team 211


Team size, composition, and formation 211

Types of teams 212

Teamwork 214

Definitions in academic literature 214

Teamwork processes 214

Training to improve teamwork 215

Advantages and disadvantages of teamwork 215

Team building 216

Team composition 219

Antecedents of team composition 220

Outcomes of team composition 221

Ways to measure team composition 224

Future research and implications 224

Styles 226

Contexts 226

Leadership Myths 229

Cross-cultural leadership 231

Leadership Styles across Cultures 231

Codes and practices, conflicts 237

Organizational conflict 237

Personal conflict 238

Organizational conflict theories 239

Conflict within groups 240

Conflict resolution 242

Strategies for Managing Group Conflicts 243

Change 243

Negotiation 251

Approaches to negotiation 251

Emotion in negotiation 255

Team negotiations 258

Barriers to negotiations 258

Negotiation tactics 258

Download free Tactics Manual - 30 High Power Negotiation Tacticshere. 258

Best alternative to a negotiated agreement 259

Examples 259

Getting and keeping job 260

Job hunting 260

Steps 260

Application for employment 262

Purpose of the application 262

Application Sections 263

Curriculum vitae 264

Etymology and spellings 264

Use 264


Cover letter 265

For employment 265

Job interview 266

Role 266


Interview constructs 267

Process 269

Process model 271

Types of questions 272

Interviewee strategies and behaviors 277

Validity and predictive power 281

Legal issues 282

Onboarding 286

Antecedents of success 286

Employee adjustment 292

Outcomes 293

Limits and criticisms of onboarding theory 293

Executive onboarding 294

Recommendations for practitioners 295

International business 295

Intercultural competence 295

Cross-cultural competence 296

Basics 297

Typical examples of cultural differences 297

Requirements 299

Cultural differences 300

Assessment 300

Criticisms 301

Etiquette in Asia 301

Appointments 301

Elders 301

Humility 302

Luck 302


Shoes 302

Etiquette by Region 303

Etiquette in Australia and New Zealand 320

Shared expectations 320

Australia 324

New Zealand 326

Etiquette in North America 328

Principles 328

Basic rules 329

General standards 329

Private life 333

Public interactions 339

Shoes 342

Etiquette in Europe 343

Language and forms of address 343

Flowers 344

Hats and coats 344

Shoes 344

Money 344

Transport 344

Queuing 345

Exposure 345

Eating 345

Bodily functions 345

Etiquette in Latin America 346

Generalizations 346

Specific regions 347

Etiquette in the Middle East 363

Points of etiquette 363

3 366


I Legal Systems of the World 369

Common law 369

II International Organizations, Sources of Law 376

Reservations 383

Major absentees 383

Language, structure, and content 384

Functions 393

Provisions 402

Mechanisms 402

Incoterms 2010 404

Constitutional law 407

Legal effect 410

Notable amendments 412

Free movement of capital 418

Russia 426

IV International Business Law 428

Approval and implementation 429

The accord in operation 431

Organization of central banks 433

V Contract in Business Law 438

Elements 438

Proper law 449

VI Intellectual Property 453

Objectives 454

VII Employment Law 459

Conventions 460

Recommendations 461

Conditions of employment 464

Prohibiting Discrimination 465

VIII Consumer Protection 469

IX Company Law 472

Formation process for private limited companies 479

Types of company 480

Kinds 482

Formation 486

Joint-Stock Companies 490

Main provisions of the statute 492

Corporate law in context 496

In the United States 497

Applications of the term 499

Background 506

Effects on international trade 514

Offshore financial structures 514

X Import and Export 518

Variations 525

Negotiable instruments distinguished from other types of contracts 532

Classes 533

4 538


I Introduction to economic concept and tools 540

Scarcity 540

Scarcity in Economics 540

Planned economy 540

Economic planning versus the command economy 541

Opportunity cost 542

II Microeconomics 543

Assumptions and definitions 544

Supply and Demand 544

Law of supply 545

Law of demand 545

Aggregate supply 547

Demand curve (aggregate demand in microeconomics) 548

Circular flow of income 549

Price discrimination 551

Budget deficit 552

Medium of exchange 552

Division of labour 553

Production possibilities frontier 554

Efficiency 554

Opportunity cost 555

Marginal rate of transformation 556

Shape 556

Position 557

Other applications 558

III Macroeconomics 559

Basic macroeconomic concepts 559

Aggregate demand  560

Macroeconomic policies 560

Fiscal policy 561

Monetary policy 561

Unemployment 561

Inflation and deflation 562

Diminishing returns 562

Gross domestic product (GDP) 563

Gross domestic income (GDI) 563

Gross National Product (GNP)  563

GDP vs. GNP 563

Recession 564

Marginal product 564

Marginal cost 565

Economies of scale 566

Aggregation problem 566

Trade 567

Currency 567

IV Organization of Industries 568

Monopoly 568

Market structures 569

Characteristics 569

Sources of monopoly power 570

Oligopoly 571

Characteristics 572

Duopoly 573

Perfect competition 573

Basic structural characteristics 573

Imperfect competition 573

Monopolistic competition 574

Major characteristics 575

Perfect market 575

General equilibrium theory 576

Marginal product of labour 576

Definition 576

Examples 576

V International Sector 577

Comparative advantage 577

Effect of trade costs 578

Competitive advantage 579

Free trade 580

Features of free trade 580

Terms of trade 580

International trade 581

Trade barriers 581

Examples of free trade areas 582

Public limited company 583

Private company limited by shares 583

Requirements 584

Formation 585

Additional information 586

Privately held company 586

Tariffs 589

Barriers to entry 590

Customs union 591

Import 591

Export 591

Foreign direct investment 592

Stock 592

Bond 592

Multinational Corporation 593

Strategies 593

Globalization 593

OPEC 593

VI Money, Central Bank and Monetary Policy 594

Federal Reserve System 594

Fiscal policy 595

Income 596

Tax 596


Value added tax 596

European Union 596

Economic union 598

Competition Commission 598

The role of the Competition Commission 598

VII World Economy 598

International Monetary Fund 599

World Trade Organization 600

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission 600

National Stock Exchange 600

North American Free Trade Agreement 601

Central European Free Trade Agreement 601

NATO 601

G8 601


History 602

Structure and activities 603

Member facts 605

BRIC 606


VIII Marketing 616

International marketing 617

Marketing research 618

Key components 619

Market segmentations 621

Criteria for Segmenting 621

Basis for segmenting consumer markets 621

The marketing planning process 623

Marketing strategy 623

Developing a marketing strategy 623

Competitor analysis 624

Market environment 624

Micro-Environment (internal environment) 625

Macro-Environment (external environment) 626

Consumer behaviour 627

Buying behaviour 628

Marketing mix 629

Four Ps: the producer-oriented model 629

Elements of the global marketing mix 630

Promotional mix 631

Mission statement 632

Contents 632

Vision statement 633

PEST analysis 633

Composition 634

Applicability of the Factors 635

Use of PEST analysis with other models 636

SWOT analysis 636

Porter five forces analysis 637

Public relations 638

Advertising 639

Brand 639

IX Management 641

Topics 641

Operations management 644

Strategic management 645

Concepts/approaches of strategic management 645

Strategy formation (Classical school) 646

Benchmarking 650

Benefits and use 651

Shareholder 653

Stakeholder (corporate) 654

Stock trader 657

Stock traders and stock Investors 657

Entrepreneurship 659

Characteristics of an entrepreneur 659

Concept 660

Promotion 661

Entrepreneur 661

Leadership attributes 661

Influences, personality traits, and characteristics 662

Types of entrepreneurs 662

Investor 664

Types of investors 664

Investor protection 665

Investment 665

In economics or macroeconomics 665

In finance 666

X Accounting 667

Accountant 668

British Commonwealth 668

Austria 671

Hong Kong 671

Portugal 671

United States 672

Accounting period 673

Bookkeeping 673

Chart of accounts 674

Types of accounts 674

General ledger 675

Asset 677

Asset characteristics 677

Liability (financial accounting) 679

Equity (finance) 680

Equity investments 680

Revenue 681

Business revenue 681

Government revenue 682

Expense 683

Bookkeeping for expenses 683

[edit]Cash flow 683

Gain (finance) 684

Cash flow statement 684

Income statement 690

Usefulness and limitations of income statement 691

Sample income statement 694

Bottom line 697

Requirements of IFRS 698

Balance sheet 699

Public Business Entities balance sheet structure 700

Sample balance sheet 702

Accounting equation 703

Accounts payable 704

Overview 707

Payment terms 707

Accounts Receivable Age Analysis 708



Special uses 708

Computer operation requires both hardware and software. Hardware design specifies a computer’s capability and software instructs the computer on what to do. Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer system. It refers to the physical parts or components of computer such as monitor, keyboard, hard disk, mouse, etc.http://www.desktopreview.com/assets/thumbs/90/4223.jpg




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