Long Essay Question answers periods 1 & 2 Question 1



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ANSWER

Thesis: Possible thesis statements addressing continuity and change include the following:

  • The Scientific Revolution fundamentally altered Europeans’ understanding of the world and universe beyond, forever affecting how people interacted with nature and each other.

  • The Scientific Revolution had a profound impact upon some aspects of human understanding but did not fundamentally alter society.

  • The impact of the Scientific Revolution was negligible upon the average European citizen of the period.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing continuity over time includes the following:

  • The primary audience for the ideas and theories of the Scientific Revolution consisted of the academics, scholars, and educated elite of Europe. For the majority of the populace the Scientific Revolution and its ideas did not affect daily life in the short-term, but only through long-term developments that were not directly correlated to the Scientific Revolution in their minds.

  • The Scientific Revolution provided a new layer of understanding to Europeans, but the vast majority continued to believe in the tenets of one form of Christianity or another.

  • The Scientific Revolution did not have a direct or immediate impact upon the functioning of politics or society, leaving the most obvious aspects of European life unchanged.

  • In many cases, the advances of the Scientific Revolution were built upon the work of the Renaissance and its rediscovery of Greek and Roman texts and knowledge.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing change over time includes the following:

  • The advances of the Scientific Revolution reshaped Europeans’ understanding of the Universe.

    • The concepts of Bacon and Descartes would lead to the development of the Scientific Method which would guide research and investigation for centuries to come.

    • The work of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler led to the overturning of the traditional understanding of the order of the Universe as accepted from the works of Ptolemy.

    • The work of Boyle and others refuted Aristotle’s generally accepted concepts of the make-up of matter.

    • The work of Harvey and others refuted the traditional medical practices of Europe, largely based upon the concept of the four humors and the ideas of the ancient Greek physician Galen.

    • Newton’s theory of gravity presented new explanations for many of the phenomena of the Earth and Universe.

  • For some, the Scientific Revolution would call into question the religious explanations of the Universe and lead to an increase in atheism and agnosticism.

  • The Scientific Revolution provided a boost to the burgeoning manufacturing system in Europe and the application of scientific advances would lead to the Industrial Revolution with all the advances and turmoil that entailed.

  • The Scientific Revolution was the force behind the Enlightenment and the social and political changes that the Enlightenment would encourage.

Application of Historical Thinking Skills

Students earn points by using the evidence offered in support of their argument to identify and illustrate continuity and change over time. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following.



  • The Scientific Revolution was one step in a series of academic developments from the Scholasticism of an early period straight through the modern developments in science and industry. In many ways it is the epitome of the positivist belief in progress that continued humankind’s march to modernity in science, technology and understanding.

Synthesis

Students can earn the point for synthesis by crafting a persuasive and coherent essay. This can be accomplished by providing a conclusion that extends or modifies the analysis in the essay or by connecting to another historical period or context. Examples could include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The Scientific Revolution had the same sort of game-changing impact upon knowledge and understanding that the Industrial Revolution would have upon economics and class structure.

Question 12. Evaluate the extent to which the ideological and political movements of the 19th century altered Europeans’ understanding of the world around them and their interactions with the world. Provide specific evidence to justify your answer.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

PP-8 Analyze socialist, communist and fascist efforts to develop response to capitalism and why these efforts gained support during times of economic crisis.

PP-14 Explain how industrialization elicited critiques from artists, socialists, workers’ movements and feminist organizations.

SP-1 Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance, as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individual.

SP-4 Analyze how new political and economic theories from the 17th century and the Enlightenment challenged absolutism and shaped the development of constitutional states, parliamentary governments, and the concept of individual rights.

IS-7 Evaluate how identities such as ethnicity, race, and class have defined the individual in relationship to society.


Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time

Historical Argumentation

Appropriate use of Relevant Historical Evidence


3.3.I

3.3.III



ANSWER

Thesis: Possible thesis statements addressing continuity and change include the following:

  • Emerging ideological and political movements altered the perspectives of Europeans and their approach to government and society.

  • The developing ideological and political movements of the 19th century failed to dramatically change European society.

  • The growing ideological and political movements of the 19th century impacted major parts of European society, but significant portions continued unchanged.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing continuity over time includes the following:

  • The new ideologies of the 19th century were, in reality, a reiteration of the same social, economic, and political grievances that had persisted for centuries.

    • Chartism, socialism and communism were all manifestations of the grievances of the working classes which had previously been expressed in peasant revolts of earlier centuries. The context may have changed, but the underlying factor was the dissatisfaction of the laboring classes with the unequal distribution of wealth and control inherent in the economies of Europe.

    • Conservatism as an ideology was an expression of the already in place notion of preventing dramatic change for the benefit of those elements of society that already enjoyed the privileges of the 19th century economic and political systems.

    • Anarchism was a new ideology, but its anti-government sentiment echoed the ideas of all those who had previously chafed under the weight of taxation and government interference and regulation of the economy and society.

    • The movement for labor organization was the modern equivalent of unrest by past peasants and producers seeking to keep a greater share of the proceeds from their production.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing change over time includes the following:

  • The ideologies of the 19th century were a new formulation of some older ideas and movements; however, they brought a new perspective and inspiration for social change to the late 19th century.

    • Chartism, socialism, and unionization sought to redress the inequities of the modern industrial economy by pursuing a more just distribution of wealth.

    • Communism, as espoused by Marx and Engels, called for the destruction of private property as a means to remove greed and its corrupting influence from society.

    • Anarchism sought the destruction of formal government as the ultimate institution of greed and corruption that hindered society.

    • Concepts such as Social Darwinism and eugenics were new explanations and justifications along evolutionary and genetic grounds for the inequities and injustices which already existed.

  • The reforms inspired by the various ideological groups would have long-lasting impacts upon European society,

    • The tensions between the forces of conservatism, traditional liberalism and the more radical socialists, communists, and anarchists would erupt in violence on numerous occasions through the late 19th into the 20th century.

    • The labor laws enacted at the behest of labor groups and others would gradually lead to immense improvements in working conditions across the continent.

    • Gradual gains by labor and socialist groups would plant the seeds of the welfare state throughout Europe.

  • The conflicting goals of the various ideological groups would result in open and covert warfare as the movements progressed into the 20th century.

    • The Spanish Civil War, World War II, and the Cold War can all be seen as a result of the conflicting ideological groups who had their origins in the late 19th century.

Application of Historical Thinking Skills

Students earn points by using the evidence offered in support of their argument to identify and illustrate continuity and change over time. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The ideologies of the 19th century perpetuated the conflict between the “haves” and “have-nots” of European society, providing a framework and justification for the animosities which had existed for centuries.

  • The ideologies of the 19th century sparked changed in the structure of European societies and reshaped the economic framework of the continent.

Synthesis

Students can earn the point for synthesis by crafting a persuasive and coherent essay. This can be accomplished by providing a conclusion that extends or modifies the analysis in the essay or by connecting to another historical period or context. Examples could include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The Conservatism of the 19th century was the direct predecessor of the ultra-right wing fascism that would spark World War II.

  • The ideological conflicts of the late 19th century can still be seen in the political divisions of Europe today, including prominent socialist parties, resurgent right-wing nationalist groups, and small communist parties in much of Europe.

Periods 2 & 4

Question 13. It can be argued that the wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon were the most pivotal point in reshaping the political and social make-up of Europe. Support, modify, or refute this concept, providing specific evidence to justify your answer.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

PP-10 Explain the role of social inequality in contributing to and affecting the nature of the French Revolution and subsequent revolutions throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.

OS-3 Explain how political revolution and war from the 17th century on altered the role of the church in political and intellectual life and the response of religious authorities and intellectuals to such challenges.

OS-9 Explain how new theories of government and political ideologies attempted to provide a coherent explanation for human behavior and the extent to which they adhered or diverged from traditional explanations based on religious beliefs.

SP-5 Assess the role of colonization, the Industrial Revolution, total warfare and economic depressions in altering the government’s relationship to the economy, both in overseeing economic activity and in addressing its social impact.

SP-17 Explain the role of nationalism in altering the European balance of power, and explain attempts made to limit nationalism as a means to ensure continental stability.


Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time

Historical Argumentation

Appropriate use of Relevant Historical Evidence


2.1.IV

2.1.V



ANSWER

Thesis: Possible thesis statements supporting, modifying, or refuting the interpretation may include the following:

  • The wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon had a pivotal role in reshaping European society.

  • The wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon failed to change the nature of European politics and society.

  • The wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon reshaped some aspects of European society but major portions of society continued unchanged.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing continuity over time includes the following:

  • Despite the decades of turmoil surrounding the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Europe was not fundamentally changed by the start of the 19th century.

    • Following the collapse of the French Republic and the defeat of Napoleon, European states reverted to traditional, conservative, monarchical regimes and did away with many of the liberal reforms that had been imposed by the French.

    • Nobles continued to play a prominent role in the governance and military leadership of European states.

    • Christianity continued to be the dominant ideological framework for the world-view of Europeans.

    • The causes of Republicans and radicals continued to be pursued for the remainder of the 19th century and into the 20th century due to the failure of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars to cause lasting change in the political and social systems of Europe.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing change over time includes the following.

  • The Wars of the French Revolution introduced mass conscription into the military and political policies of Europe, a move that would be repeated in the great wars of the following century.

  • The Napoleonic Wars destroyed the Holy Roman Empire, completely shifting the balance of power and political make-up of central Europe.

    • The end of the Holy Roman Empire opened the window for the unification of Italy as well as the later unification of Germany.

    • The end of the Holy Roman Empire gave rise to the first stirrings of nationalism among the various ethnic groups of its former territories, particularly in Hungary and the Balkans.

  • The wars of the period introduced conflict between large factions of European powers that led to fighting across the length and breadth of the continent in a manner that would be repeated again in the world wars of the 20th century.

  • The misfortunes of the French in the wars led to the end of French colonial hopes in the Americas.

    • The inspiration and turmoil of the French Revolution led to the Haitian revolt against French colonial rule under Toussaint L’Ouverture.

    • The need for cash and the inability of the French to protect overseas territory led to Napoleon’s sale of Louisiana to the United States.

  • The imposition of new governments and rulers by the French Revolutionary governments and, later, by Napoleon, in defeated territories would serve as a model for the imposition of puppet governments by later conquerors such as the Nazis in World War II.

    • Napoleon’s Continental System was an early attempt at economic warfare that would be revisited in both World Wars as a means to defeat the British.

Application of Historical Thinking Skills

Students earn points by using the evidence offered in support of their argument to identify and illustrate continuity and change over time. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars began a shift toward total war that would culminate in the World Wars.

  • The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars continued the trend of national consolidation of power and the continued growth in military power and its implementation in ever more devastating scales such as had begun with the Thirty Years’ War.

Synthesis

Students can earn the point for synthesis by crafting a persuasive and coherent essay. This can be accomplished by providing a conclusion that extends or modifies the analysis in the essay or by connecting to another historical period or context. Examples could include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The Napoleonic Wars and the changes they sparked were key to the later unification of Italy and the unification of Germany.

  • The collapse of French colonial power in the Americas and the ideology of the French Revolution were key first steps in the process of decolonization.

Question 14. It can be argued that World War I was the most pivotal point in reshaping the political and social make-up of Europe. Support, modify, or refute this concept, providing specific evidence to justify your answer.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

SP-6 Explain how new ideas of political authority and the failure of democracy led to world wars, political revolutions, and the establishment of totalitarian regimes in the 20th century.

SP-13 Evaluate how the emergence of new weapons, tactics, and methods of military organization changed the scale and cost of warfare, required the centralization of power, and shifted the balance of power.

SP-14 Analyze the role of warfare in remaking the political map of Europe and in shifting the global balance of power in the 19th and 20 centuries.

SP-18 Evaluate how overseas competition and changes in the alliance system upset the Concert of Europe and set the stage for World War I.

IS-8 Evaluate how the impact of war on civilians has affected loyalty to and respect for the nation-state.


Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time

Historical Argumentation

Appropriate use of Relevant Historical Evidence


4.1.I

4.1.II



ANSWER

Thesis: Possible thesis statements supporting, modifying, or refuting the interpretation may include the following:

  • World War I profoundly altered the make-up of European society, proving critical in the creation of the world that we know today.

  • World War I had a profound impact upon European society and politics, but many underlying aspects of society remained unaltered.

  • World War I failed to reshape Europe significantly.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing continuity over time includes the following:

  • World War I was a continuation of the nationalistic conflicts and imperial rivalries that had begun in the times of the French Revolution and Napoleon.

    • The imperialism and rivalries of the 19th century resulted in the great conflicts of the 20th century, particularly World War I.

  • In the victorious nations of World War I (Britain, France, and the United States), little changed as a result of the War. They continued with much the same political and economic systems that had existed prior to the War.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing change over time includes the following.

  • World War I introduced modern, industrial efficiency to warfare.

    • Modern industry produced enormous quantities of weapons and supplies that allowed the fielding of massive armies for years on end.

    • Both sides developed more efficient means of slaughter and destruction to be employed on the battlefield.

      • The machine gun, zeppelin, airplane, tank, flame thrower, and poison gas were all new, deadly implements of killing that changed warfare forever.

  • The concept of total war was a new development that committed all resources of a nation to the war effort, beyond the simple mass conscription that had been introduced in the previous century.

    • Economic and industrial capacity became a target in warfare for the first time, with zeppelins and airplanes carrying out bombing raids against production and transportation targets.

    • The use of submarines by the Germans was primarily an attempt to hinder the trade and war production of the allies.

  • The death and destruction of the War had a profound impact upon Europe for decades to come.

    • The loss of millions of young men by all the combatant nations led to a gutting of the population and an accompanying labor shortage in many regions.

    • Modernist reactions in art and literature reflected the despair and hopelessness that the war years engendered.

      • Dadaism, surrealism, and the “Lost Generation” writers exemplified the new intellectual movements that were a reaction to the dislocations and destruction of the War.

    • The death and destruction, which many people blamed upon callous ruling elites, led to a search for change in politics and economics.

      • The rise of socialist and communist parties throughout Europe was spurred by the turmoil of World War I.

  • The break-up of the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian Empires created new, weak, nationalistic states throughout Europe and a source of conflict for decades to come.

    • The new states of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia would be hotspots for tensions in the years after World War I.

    • The bitterness over lost territory would lead to a desire for conquest amongst the Germans, Russians, Hungarians, and others.

    • The failure by some states to benefit from the collapse of these empire, notably Italy’s sense of being short-changed by the peace process, would allow the rise of authoritarian, militaristic states.

  • The collapse of the Russian Tsarist regime led to the establishment of the first communist regime in the world and provided decades of tensions over the specter of communist revolution throughout Europe.

  • The dislocations and privations of the War left the world susceptible to the worst pandemic in centuries, the Spanish Flu outbreak that accompanied the end of the War.

    • The employment of colonial troops from around the world allowed the spread of disease more widely when the troops returned home after the war.

  • The distraction of the European powers with war in Europe allowed Japan to establish itself as a major player in the politics and economy of the Pacific.

  • The debts and destruction of the War left the European nations reliant upon American loans and investment for the post-War economic growth.

    • The economic dependence of Europe upon the U.S. resulted in the collapse of the European economy in the wake of the American stock market crash.


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