Major Issues 4 Role of the Courts 4 Which branch authoritative interpreter of the Cx. 4 C/m difficulty 4 The Supreme Court and the Constitution 4



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Major Issues 4

Role of the Courts 4



Which branch authoritative interpreter of the Cx. 4

C/M Difficulty 4



The Supreme Court and the Constitution 4

Introduction 4



History of the Constitution 4

Functions of the Constitution 5

Why Have A Cx? 5

People as Sovereign 5

Constitutional Interpretation 5

Counter Majoritarian Difficulty 5



Alex Bickel (1962) 5

Responses to C/M Difficulty 5

Interpretation 6



Theories 6

Caveats 6

Art. III 6

Creates federal judicial system 6

vests power in Sup. Ct. 6

Lifetime tenure 6

Enforce Powers of Fed Gov't 6

under Cx 6

treaties 6

laws 6

US is a party 6

ambassadors 6

foreign citizens 6

Interstate Umpire 6



states and their citizens 6

two states 6

not state and citizens of different state XI A. 6

Jury trials 6

Treason 6

Framework 6

Judicial Review 6

Review of Presidential Decisions 6

Marbury v. Madison (1803) Marshall 6

Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816) 7

Federal Power 7



McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Marshall 7

Justiciability 8

Advisory Opinions 8



Need Actual Dispute 8

Standing 8



Generally 8

Art. III Requirements 8

Prudential Requirments. 8

Allen v. Wright (1984) (p.87) 8

Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife (1992) (p.92) 8

Political Question 8



Caveats 8

Baker Criteria (p.114) 8

Guarantee Clause 9

Luther v. Borden (1849) 9

Baker v. Carr (1962) 9

Bush v. Gore 9

Federalism 9

Values 9

Limits on Congressional Power 9

Internal Limits 9

External Limits 9

Displacement of State Authority 9

Generally Applicable Law 9

National League of Cities v. Usery (1976) (p233) 9

Garcia v. San Antonio Metro Transit Authority (1985) 9

Garcia Line of Cases effectively overruled by NY, BUT LINES OF CASES ARE SEPERATE 10

Commandeering 10

Reemergence of the Tenth Amendment 10

N.Y. v. U.S. (1992) (p237) 10

Commerce Power (Art. I s. 8 c.3) 10

Generally 10

History 10

Roots 10


Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) 10

Lochner Era 10



U.S. v. E.C. Knight (1895) 10

Champion v. Ames - The Lottery Case (1903) 10

Lochner v. N.Y. (1903) 10

Mueller v. Oregon (1908) 10

Shreveport Rate Cases (1914) 11

Hammer v. Dagenhart - The Child Labor Cases (1918) Day (5-4) Holmes dissent 11

Stafford v. Wallace (1922) 11

Adkins v. Child Hospital (1923) 11

A.L.A. Shechter Poultry v. U.S. (1935) 11

Morehead v. NY ex rel Tipaldo (1936) 11

Carter v. Carter Coal (1936) Sutherland 11

“Modern” Commerce Cases 11



Switch in Time 11

NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. (1937) Hughes 11

West Coast Hotel v. Parrish (1937) 11

U.S. v. Darby (1941) 11

Wickard v. Filburn (1942) Jackson 11

Commerce in Civil Rights 11



Civil Rights Act of 1964 11

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US (1964) 11

Katzenbach v. McClung (1964) 12

Modern Commerce Cases 12



U.S. v. Lopez (1995) (p186) 12

U.S. v. Morrison (2000) 12

Other Powers of Congress 12

Treaty Power 12



Missouri v. Holland (1920) (p203) 12

Reid v Covert (1957) 12

War Power 12



Woods v. Cloyd Miller Co. (1948) (206) 12

Foreign Affairs 12



U.S. v. Curtiss-Wright Corp.(1936) 12

Spending Power 12



U.S. v. Butler (1936) (p209) 12

Conditional Grants To States 12



South Dakota v. Dole (1987) (p217) 12

Limits of Federal Spending Power (Rehnquist) 13

13th A. 13

15th A. 13

14th A. Section 5 13



Theories 13

Lassiter v. Northhampton Election Board (1959) 13

Katzenbach v. Morgan (1966) (p.222) 13

City of Boerne v. Flores (1997) (p226) 13

Presidential Powers 13

Article II 13



Executive power 13

Take Care Clause 13

Commander in Chief 13

No Inherent Powers 13



Youngstown 13

Foreign Affairs Power 13



U.S. v. Curtiss-Wright Corp 13

Limitations 13



Impeachment 13

Two Term Limit 13

Separation of Powers 13

Text 13

Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952) (p336) 13

Formalist Interpretations 14



INS v. Chadha (1983) (p370) 14

Bowsher v. Synar (1986) (p381) 14

Functionalist Interpretation 14



Morrison v. Olson (1988) (p387) 14

Reconstruction 14

Textual Basis For Slavery in the Cx 14



Slaughter House Cases (1873) 14

Strauder v. West Virginia (1879) 14

Civil Rights Cases (1883) 14

Brown 14

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) (p437) 14

Sweatt v. Painter (1950) (p445) 15

McLaurin v. Oklahoma (1950) (p446) 15

Brown v. Board of Ed. (1954) (p446) 15

Bolling v. Sharpe (1954) (p449) 15

Brown II (1955) (p453) 15

Massive Resistance 15

Cooper v. Aaron (1958) (p457) 15

Civil Rights Act of 1964 15



The Fourteenth Amendment 15

Content of Section 1 15



Equal Protection 15

Procedural Due Process 16

Substantive Due Process 16

Equal Protection for Federal Action 16

Classification & Discrimination 16

Criticism of Levels of Scrutiny 16

Reasons for Heightened Scrutiny 16

Generally 16

Problems 16

14th Amendment/Original Understanding 16

Carolene Products FN4 16

Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center - White, J. 16

Frontiero - Brennan, J. 16

Female Political Process Failure 16

Equal Protection Methodology 16

Class 16


Right 16

Class + Right 16



is the class narrowly tailored? 16

Rational Basis 16

Rationally related to a legitimate government purpose. 16

Bulwark against arbitrary and unreasonable gov't action 16

New York City Transit v. Beazer (1979) (p475) 16

Railway Express Agency v. NY (1949) (p484) 17

Williamson v. Lee Optical (1955) 17

Minnesota v. Clover Leaf Creamery Co. (1981) 17

Rational Basis "Plus" 17

Aberrant rational basis. 17

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center (1985) 17

Romer v. Evans (1996) 17

Intermediate Scrutiny 17

Test 17


Substantially related to an important government purpose. 17

Gay discrimination is gender discrimination 17



Baehr v. Lewin 17

Koppelman 17

Subordinate men to women's status. 17

History 17



Slaughter House Cases (1873) 17

Bradwell v. Illinois (1873)(p.596) 17

Minor v. Happersett (1875) 18

Muller v. Oregon (1908) 18

Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923) 18

West Coast Hotel v. Parrish 18

Goesaert v. Cleary (1948) 18

Hoyt v. Florida (1961) 18

Women's Property Acts (1830s-1890s) 18

Reed v. Reed (1971)(p.598) 18

Frontiero v. Richardson (1973) 18

Modern Standard 18



Craig v. Boren (1976)(p.602) 18

U.S. v. Virginia (1996)(p.611) 18

Real Differences 19

Rostker v. Goldberg (1981) (p.620) 19

Michael M. v. Sonoma County (1981) 19

Nguyen v. INS (2001) (suppliment) 19

Strict Scrutiny 19

Impact v. Intent 19



Arlington Hts 19

Feeny 19

Strict Scrutiny Test 19



Necessary to achieve a compelling government purpose. 19

Caveats 19

Origins 19

Facially Discriminatory Law 19

Strauder v. West Virginia (1880) 19

Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) 19

Facially Neutral But Explicitly Racial 19

Loving v. Virginia (1967) (p533) 19

Not Facially Discriminatory 19

Washington v. Davis (1976) (p.514) 19



Gomillion v. Lightfoot (1960) 20

Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886) 20

Arlington Heights v. Metro Housing (1977) (p523) 20

McCleskey v. Kemp (1987) (p.523) 20

Feeney (1977) 20

Incorporation Doctrine 20

Generally 20

Baron v. Baltimore (1830) 20

Slaughter House Cases (1873) 20

Warren court 20

Substantive Due Process 20

Generally 20



Ghost of Lochner 20

Historical 20



Lochner and Freedom of Contract 20

ends with West Coast Hotel 20

Skinner v. OK 20

Modern 20



FN4 20

representation/renforcement (p690) 20

two tier analysis 20

Right of Privacy/Abortion 20



Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) (p811) 20

Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) (p822) 21

Roe v. Wade (1973) (p823) 21

After Roe 21

Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)(p851) 21

Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) (p896) 21

Romer v. Evans (1996) (p638) 21

Lawrence v. Texas (Now) 22

Fundamental Interests Equal Protection 22

Generally 22



procreation, voting, access to courts, and travel 22

Strict-scrutiny test used to violate under EP clause of 14th A. 22

hesitant to expand list 22

Procreation (YES) 22



Buck v. Bell (1927) 22

Skinner v. Oklahoma (1942) (p. 736) 22

Education (NO) 22



San Antonio School Dist. v. Rodriguez (1973) (p.795) 22

Plyer v. Doe (1982) (p. 804) 22

Affirmative Action 22

Battle for Meaning of EP 22



Color Blind 22

Anti-Subordination/Remedial 22

History 22



Regents of U.C. v. Bakke (1978)(p554) 22

Fullilove v. Klutznick (1980) 23

City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co (1989) (p557) 23

Metro Broadcasting v. FCC 23

Adarand Constructors v. Pena (1995) (p574) 23

Before Michigan 23



Standard of Review 23

Compelling Gov't Interest 23

State Action Doctrine 24

Generally 24



Cx applies only to the government. 24

No state action doctrine in 13th A. 24

Private conduct is not reached by the Cx 24

No protection from private wrongs. 24

Civil Rights Cases - CRA 75 un-Cx 24

U.S. v. Morrison (2000) (p199) 24

Reasons 24



Personal Liberty 24

Other Bodies of Law Protect 24

Gov power > Private 24

Entanglement Exceptions 24



Government authorizes, facilitates, or encourages private, un-Cx conduct 24

Generally 24

Enforcement 24

Shelly v. Kramer (1948) 24

Regulation 24

Burton v. Willimington Parking Authority (1961) (p.1527) 24

Subsidy 24

Norwood v. Harrison (1973) (p1530) 24

Rendell-Baker v. Kohn (1982) (p1533) 24

Public Function 24

Marsh v. Alabama (1946) (p1544) 24

Jackson v. Metro Edison (1974) (p1540) 24

Equal Protection Attack Outline 24

Carolene Products Footnote Four 25


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