Music and Science Fiction



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Music and Science Fiction
MUHl 588, Spring Semester 2014

F 11:00 am – 12:50 pm, MUS 102B

2.0 Units
Instructor: Dr. Sean Nye

Email: seannye@usc.edu

Office Hours: 2-4 p.m. Thursday. 310 MUS.

Description: This course will revolve around a basic question: how has musical culture transformed through encounters with science fiction? Following the Second World War, science fiction and popular music entered an extraordinary period of interaction, such that a number of music genres are inconceivable without a science fiction context: these include, among others, progressive rock, post-punk, filk, space rock, industrial music, and various forms of electronic dance music (techno, electro, psychedelic trance, etc.). Numerous composers and popular musicians have incorporated science fiction themes into their work (Kraftwerk, George Clinton, David Bowie, Rush, Janelle Monáe, Daft Punk, etc). In addition, the intersections of music and science fiction include general cultural facets, such as the following: major popular music writers and journalists were science fiction fans (Paul Williams, Lester Bangs, Kodwo Eshun, Simon Reynolds, etc.); science fiction authors have had careers in music or engaged socio-political and aesthetic aspects of music (Philip K. Dick, Anthony Burgess, Samuel R. Delany, William Gibson, etc.); finally, science fiction radio, film, television, and digital media have been influential in shaping popular perceptions of audio technologies, new instrumentation, and futurist music.
Engaging this history, the course will examine a set of aesthetic and cultural questions that emerge from these interactions: (1) How has the study of intermediality in music, film, and literature been influenced by gscience fiction? (2) In what ways has science fiction contributed to and developed understandings of music’s role in power, ideology, and social interaction? (3) How can a theory of musical ekphrasis or verbal music be applied to science fiction studies? (4) How do imaginings of audio technologies and future music develop in musical and multimedial contexts?
Objectives: Over the next fifteen weeks, we will:

[1] develop a critical history of “science fiction” as a genre designation in media and music.

[2] address the history of multiple academic disciplines: science fiction studies, media studies, musicology, intermedial studies, and sound studies.

[3] examine ekphrasis and intermediality in a science fiction context.

[4] enrich our critical understanding of music, technology, and anthropology.

[5] explore the roles that sound recording, broadcasting, and studio art have played in constructing “sonic fictions.”


Required Texts:



Books:
Friedrich Kittler. Gramophone, Film, Typewriter

Timothy D. Taylor. Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and Culture

Philip Hayward, ed. Off the Planet: Music, Sound and Science Fiction Cinema

S. Alexander Reed. Assimilate: A Critical History of Industrial Music

Philip K. Dick. Radio Free Albemuth

Philip K. Dick. VALIS


Additional Resources:
Science Fiction and Music Websites/Archival Research (a selection):

Io9.com


eaton.ucr.edu

depauw.edu/sfs/

blissout.blogspot.com

discogs.com

dancecult.net

rocksbackpages.com

thewire.co.uk
SCIENCE FICTION AND MUSIC BIBLIOGRAPHY (a selection):

Ballard, J.G. Selected novels and short stories.

Cope, Julian. Krautrocksampler.

Denton, Bradley. Buddy Holly Is Alive and Well on Ganymede.

Dick, Philip K. Selected novels and short stories.

Disch, Thomas. On Wings of Song.

Ellison, Harlan. Spider Kiss.

Goonan, Kathleen Ann. Nanotech Quartet and In War Times.

Lovecraft, H.P. “The Music of Erich Zann” and “The Whispherer in Darkness.”

Eshun, Kodwo. More Brilliant Than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction.

Miller, Paul D. aka. DJ Spooky That Subliminal Kid. Rhythm Science.

Reynolds, Simon. Energy Flash: A Journey thought Rave Music and Dance Culture.

Sicko, Dan. Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electro Funk.

Toop, David. Ocean of Sound: Aether Talk, Ambient Sound, and Imaginary Worlds.

Waldrop, Howard. Selected short fiction.

William S. Burroughs. Selected writings.


SCIENCE FICTION FILMOGRAPHY (a selection):
Science Fiction Features Films (Music)

Metropolis (1927)

The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951)

Godzilla (1954)

Forbidden Planet (1956)

2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)

Planet of the Apes (1968)

A Clockwork Orange (1971)

Space is the Place (1974)

The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975)

Star Wars (1977)

Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977)

Alien (1979)

E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial (1982)

Tron (1982)

Blade Runner (1982)

Repo Man (1984)

Akira (1988)

The Fifth Element (1997)

The Matrix (1999)

Tron: Legacy (2010)
Science Fiction and Music Documentaries:

Modulations: History of Electronic Dance Music (Iara Lee, 1998)

Krautrock: The Rebirth of Germany (BBC, 2009))

Kraftwerk and the Electronic Revolution (Chrome Dreams, 2008)

High Tech Soul: The Creation of Techno Music (Plexifilm, 2006)

The Last Angel of History (Icarus, 1996)

J.G. Ballard (BBC, 1991)

A Day in the Afterlife of Philip K. Dick (BBC, 1994)

Pink Floyd: Behind the Wall (Sonia Anderson, 2011)

David Bowie: The Story of Ziggy Stardust (BBC, 2012)

Prog Rock Britannia (BBC, 2007)

Synth Britannia (BBC, 2009)
Selected Statements:
It was like the drone of some loathsome, gigantic insect ponderously shaped into the articulate speech of an alien species, and I am perfectly certain that the organs producing it can have no resemblance to the vocal organs of man, or indeed to those of any of the mammalia. There were singularities of timbre, range, and overtones which placed this phenomenon wholly outside the spheres of humanity and

earth-life.



H.P. Lovecraft, “The Whisperer in Darkness,” 1939
I think, Hamilton said, “that music is here to stay. The question is: how do we handle it? Operating a hi-fi rig is getting to be an art in itself. These sets we’ll be turning out will take as much skill to run as to build.”

I can see it now,” Laws said, grinning. “Slender young men sitting on the floors of their North Beach apartments, rapturously turning knobs and switches, as the incredibly authentic roar of freight engines, snowstorms, trucks unloading scrap iron and other recorded oddities thunder out.”

Philip K. Dick, Eye in the Sky, 1957
We create out of the German language, the mother language, which is very mechanical, we use as the basic structure of our music. Also the machines, from the industries of Germany… We use tapes, prerecorded, and we play tapes, also in our performance… We don’t need a choir. We just turn the key, and there’s the choir.

Kraftwerk, interview with Lester Bangs, 1975
I feel the science-fictional-enterprise is richer than the enterprise of mundane fiction. It is richer through its extended repertoire of sentences, its consequent greater range of possible incident, and through its more varied field of rhetorical and syntagmic organization. I feel it is richer in much the same way atonal music is richer than tonal, or abstract painting is richer than realistic.

Samuel R. Delany, 1977
An ambience is defined as an atmosphere, or a surrounding influence: a tint. My intention is to produce original pieces ostensibly (but not exclusively) for particular times and situations with a view to building up a small but versatile catalogue of environmental music suited to a wide variety of moods and atmospheres.

Brian Eno, liner notes to Music For Airports, 1978
I’ma pull out ya ears cuz I’m sick

Traveling hard, I’ll off, another lunatic

Smacking germs, eating bugs, biting mouse

Roaches wonder why I’m traveling

On to bell vue cuz I’m sick

Traveling hard at the speed of thought.

Ultramagnetic MCs, “Traveling at the Speed of Thought,” 1987.
Sonic Fiction strands you in the present with no way of getting back to the 70s. Sonic Fiction is the first stage of a reentry program which grasps this very clearly. Sonic Fictions are part of modern music’s MythSystems. Moving through living space, real-world environments that are already alien.

Kodwo Eshun, More Brilliant Than the Sun, 1998
Science fiction and music go together for me like… well, like Strayhorn and Ellington, like Rodgers and Hart, like B.B. King and Lucille, or Monk and his piano…

To meld two major musical and literary ideas of the twentieth century, to portray human beings in a technological, if musical milieu, seems to me to be an interesting and almost inevitable enterprise.

Kathleen Ann Goonan, 2000

Assessment and Assignments:
Course Assessment (i.e., Grading):
Letter Grades:
A - Achievement that is excellent relative to the level necessary to meet requirements.
B - Achievement that is good relative to the level necessary to meet requirements.
C - Achievement that meets the course requirements in every respect.
D - Achievement worthy of credit even though it fails to meet course requirements.
F - Represents failure (or no credit) and signifies that the work was either (1) completed at a level of achievement that is not worthy of credit or (2) was not completed.
Course participation (40%): Reading of articles, book chapters, and/or literary works will be assigned each week, along with listening assignments or film viewings (available in the Music Library). Each course session will focus on a single theoretical subject, course reading, or cultural object. Students are expected to come prepared each week and to bring all necessary materials to class; consistent and active participation in discussion is expected. Course readings that are not chapters from required books will be available on Blackboard.
Essay (60%): Participants in “Music and Science Fiction” will complete one research essay (15-20 pages) over the course of the semester; the essay is due on the final day of class. Chicago or Modern Language Association (MLA) style should be used in formatting papers. The essay topic should be chosen only after consulting the instructor. The topic is intended to provide an opportunity for students to prepare either for a possible presentation at an academic conference or to engage fundamental issues related to their graduate research. In the case of the latter, the division of the essay into shorter assignments would be possible. Essay options will be discussed in class. For MLA style, see: http://libguides.usc.edu/content.php?pid=19123&sid=133048

See also the site on MLA style offered by Purdue University:



http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/


Week One

Introduction

Jan. 17th

Syllabus overview: music and science fiction




Week Two

Modernity

Jan. 24th



Reading:

Timothy D. Taylor, Strange Sounds. 3-71.

Simon Reynolds, “Sonic Fiction: Part 2: Literature.” Loops 2. 107-27.


Week Three

Media Theory and Technology

Jan. 31st




Reading:

Friedrich Kittler, “Gramophone” from Gramophone, Film, Typewriter. 21-114.



Listening:

Pierre Schaeffer, “Etude aux chemins de fer 1948”

The Beatles, “Yellow Submarine”

Pink Floyd, “Fat Old Sun”

Jimi Hendrix, “And The Gods Made Love”


Week Four

Forbidden Planet

Feb. 7th


Reading:

Simon Reynolds, “Sonic Fiction: Part 1: Cinema.” Loops. 204-22.

Rebecca Leydon, “Forbidden Planet: Effects and Affects in the Electro Avant-garde.” Off the Planet. 61-76.

Timothy D. Taylor, Strange Sounds. 72-95.



Viewing:

Forbidden Planet


Week Five

2001: A Space Odyssey

Feb. 14th


Guest speaker: David Raiklen, science fiction composer, USC alumnus, and host of “The Science Fiction Soundtrack” podcast.

Reading:

Philip Hayward, “Sci Fidelity – Music, Sound, and Genre History.” Off the Planet. 1-29.

David W. Patterson, “Music, Structure and Metaphor in Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey” American Music, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Autumn, 2004), pp. 444-474.

Viewing:

2001: A Space Odyssey


Week Six

Afrofuturism 1: Sonic Fiction

Feb. 21st


Reading:

Kodwo Eshun, More Brilliant Than the Sun. (Selections)

Nabeel Zuberi, “The Transmolecularization of [Black] Folk: Space is the Place, Sun Ra, and Afrofuturism.” Off the Planet. 77-95.

Listening:

Selections from reading



Viewing:

Space is the Place


Week Seven

Afrofuturism 2: DJs and Techno Culture

Feb. 28th




Reading:

Kodwo Eshun, More Brilliant Than the Sun. (Selections)



Listening:

Cybotron,“Techno City”

Zapp, “More Bounce To The Ounce”

Drexciya, “Bubble Metropolis”

Further examples from the reading.


Week Eight

Progressive Rock, Krautrock, Ambient

March 7th


Reading:

Sean Albiez, “Sounds of Future Past: From Neu! To Numan.” In Pop Sounds: Klangtexturen in der Pop- und Rockmusik.

Michael Hannan and Melissa Carey, “Ambient Soundscapes in Blade Runner.” In Off the Planet. 149-64.

Lester Bangs. “Kraftwerkfeature.”



Listening:

Kraftwerk, “Autobahn” and “Radioactivity”

Selections from readings.

Viewing:

Blade Runner


Week Nine

Industrial

March 14th



Reading:

S. Alexander Reed, Assimilate: A Critical History of Industrial Music. (Selections)

Karen Collins, “‘I’ll Be Back’: Recurrent Sonic Motifs in James Cameron’s Terminator films.” 165-75.

Listening:

Selections from Assimilate reading.



Viewing:

The Terminator


Week Ten

SPRING BREAK

March 21st

NO CLASS


Week Eleven

Philip K. Dick 1: Radio Free Albemuth

March 28th


Guest Speaker: John Alan Simon, writer/director/producer of the film, Radio Free Albemuth (a special screening of the film at USC will take place)

Reading:

Philip K. Dick, Radio Free Albemuth.

Paul Williams: feature article in Rolling Stone, “The Most Brilliant Sci-Fi Writer on Any Planet: Philip K. Dick.”

Listening:

The Who, The Who Sell Out




Week Twelve

Philip K. Dick 2: Valis

April 4th



Reading:

Philip K. Dick, Valis



Listening:

Sonic Youth, Sister.




Week Thirteen

The Man Who Fell To Earth

April 11th


Reading:

Philip K. Dick, Valis



Viewing:

The Man Who Fell To Earth


Week Fourteen

Stars: Buddy Holly and David Bowie

April 18th



Reading:

Ken McLeod, “Space Oddities: Aliens, Futurism, and Meaning in Popular Music.” Popular Music, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Oct., 2003), pp. 337-355

Nathaniel Williams. “Retrofuturism in Context: Buddy Holly as Science-Fiction Metaphor.” (conference paper).

Listening:

David Bowie, The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars




Week Fifteen

Future Traditions 1

April 25th



Reading:

Timothy Taylor, “Technostalgia,” Strange Sounds 96-114

tobias c. van veen, “Vessels of Transfer: Allegories of Afrofuturism in Jeff Mills and Janelle Monáe.” Dancecult: Journal of Electronic Dance Music Culture 5(2): 7-41.

Milo Miles. “Robots, Romance, and Ronin: Music in Japanese Anime.” The Cartoon Music Book. 219-24.



Listening:

Selections from reading.



Akira soundtrack (selections).

Janelle Monáe, The ArchAndroid.



Week Sixteen

Future Traditions 2

May 2nd


Reading:

Sean Nye, “Headphone-Headset-Jetset: DJ Culture, Mobility, and Science Fictions of Listening.” In Dancecult: Journal of Electronic Dance Music Culture 3(1): 64-96.



Simon Reynolds, “Out of Space: Nostalgia for Giant Steps and Final Frontiers.” In Retromania. 362-98.



Course Calendar: Overview


January




17th

Introduction


24th

Modernity


31st

Media Theory and Technology


Feburary




7th

Forbidden Planet


14th

2001: A Space Odyssey

21st

Afrofuturism 1


28th

Afrofuturism 2


March




7th

Progressive Rock, Krautrock Ambient


14th

Industrial


21st

SPRING BREAK


28rd

Philip K. Dick 1


April




4th

Philip K. Dick 2


11th

The Man Who Fell To Earth


18th

Stars: Buddy Holly and David Bowie


25th

Future Traditions 1


May




2th

Future Traditions 2

Final Essay due


Finals week

Return essay




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