Natural Hazards, 3e



Download 131.83 Kb.
Date29.04.2021
Size131.83 Kb.

Natural Hazards, 3e (Keller)

Chapter 6 Flooding
Typical Student Misconceptions

(some from secr.carleto.edu/NAGTWorkshops/intro/misconception_list.html)


  1. Streams consist of flowing water.

  2. Rivers flow south.

  3. A 100 year flood is related to time and not size.

  4. Human activity can not affect floods.

  5. Increased water improves wetland areas.

  6. Floods are rare, atypical, unnatural events.

  7. Rivers do not carve valleys, but passively flow down them.

  8. Although rivers can cut down over time, they do not cut into sides.

  9. Waterfalls can increase in height over time, but do not retreat.

1) What is the role of a drainage basin?

A) Water from rivers or streams drain into the basin

B) Water from the basin drains into the rivers or streams

C) Soil in a drainage basin is very permeable and flood waters can drain into them instead of going into larger rivers

D) Soil in a drainage basin is very impermeable and water is held there to evaporate instead of going into large rivers

E) Drainage basins contain an intricate series of underground tunnels that drain water into the ocean

Answer: B

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


2) In which cycle does rivers not play an important role?

A) hydrologic cycle

B) tectonic cycle

C) rock cycle

D) biogeochemical cycle

E) rivers are involved in all cycles

Answer: B

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
3) Which river would have the highest gradient?

A) Rivers near their floodplains

B) Rivers near the ocean

C) Rivers in gentle valleys

D) Rivers flowing into dams

E) Rivers moving down mountains

Answer: E

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
4) Which of the following is not an example of a base level for a river?

A) Ocean


B) Lake

C) Waterfall

D) Rapids

E) Dam


Answer: D

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

5) What would the longitudinal profile of a river flowing from a gentle valley into an ocean look like?

A) A steeply decreasing line

B) A steeply increasing line

C) A gently decreasing line

D) A steeply decreasing line

E) An increasing and then decreasing line

Answer: C

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application


6) What is the floodplain?

A) The area around the river that is the limit to how far it will ever flood

B) A flat area adjacent to the river carved out by rivers

C) The steep sides of the river that holds in the water

D) Earthen mounds that run parallel to the river and hold the water in during floods

E) A flat area that rivers move to when they come down from a steep mountain

Answer: B

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
7) Which of the following loads are most likely to consist of heavy rocks and boulders?

A) Bed Load

B) Suspended Load

C) Dissolved Load

D) Structural Load

E) Buoyant Load

Answer: A

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
8) Which of the following loads would make a river appear murky or dirty?

A) Bed Load

B) Suspended Load

C) Dissolved Load

D) Structural Load

E) Buoyant Load

Answer: B

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

9) If you dip a glass of water into the river and put the water through a very fine sieve, what will you be left with?

A) Bed Load

B) Suspended Load

C) Dissolved Load

D) Structural Load

E) Pure water

Answer: C

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


10) Which channel would have the greatest stream velocity?

A) A narrow channel at the head of a stream

B) A narrow channel at the base level of a stream

C) A wide channel at the head of the stream

D) A wide channel at the base level of a stream

E) Stream velocity does not depend on width or elevation of stream

Answer: A

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
11) If you were running water through a hose, how would you increase the discharge of water coming from the hose?

A) Turn up the water at the faucet

B) Hold your finger over half of the opening in the hose

C) Put the hose into a sprinkler

D) Connect the hose to a spray gun

E) All of the above increase the discharge

Answer: A

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
12) If you were running water through a hose, how would you increase the velocity of the water coming from the hose?

A) Turn up the water at the faucet

B) Hold your finger over half of the opening in the hose

C) Put the hose into a sprinkler

D) Connect the hose to a spray gun

E) All of the above increase the velocity

Answer: E

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

13) Choose the best answer. Which would increase during a flood, discharge or velocity?

A) Discharge because there is more water flowing

B) Velocity because more water is trying to flow through a smaller space

C) Neither discharge or velocity because the stream will be doing more erosion during a flood

D) Neither discharge or velocity because both are constant for any stream

E) Both discharge and velocity will increase because more water is flowing into a smaller space.

Answer: E

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application


14) What happens to rivers when they reach their base level?

A) Their velocity decreases

B) They deposit sediment

C) They widen

D) They often form alluvial fans or deltas

E) All of the above happen to rivers at base level

Answer: E

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
15) Where does a meandering river run the fastest?

A) On the outside of a bend

B) On the inside of a bend

C) At the mouth of the river

D) Along the floodplain

E) Near the point bars

Answer: A

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
16) What is avulsion?

A) When a river overflows its banks and leaves pools of water behind

B) When a river turns and moves in the opposite direction due to uplift

C) When a river shifts its position after a flood

D) When a river overflows and inundates the floodplain

E) When a river deposits sediment and creates a fan-like structure

Answer: C

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

17) Where on a river would you most likely find point bars?

A) On the outside of a bend

B) On the inside of a bend

C) At the mouth of the river

D) At the source of the river

E) In the center of the river

Answer: B

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


18) Where on a river would you most likely find cutbanks and why?

A) On the outside of a bend because that is where the river erodes most.

B) On the inside of a bend because that is where the river erodes most.

C) On the outside of a bend because that is where the river deposits most.

D) On the inside of a bend because that is where the river deposits most.

E) In the middle of the river because that is where it moves the fastest.

Answer: A

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
19) Which of the following affect whether a river will flood?

A) Amount of precipitation in the drainage basin

B) Rate at which the precipitation soaks into earth

C) Rate at which the runoff moves towards the river

D) Amount of moisture in the soil

E) All of the above affect flooding

Answer: E

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
20) In which of the following cases would you not expect to result in flooding?

A) Rain falling on an area where soil has been saturated due to persistent thunderstorms.

B) Rain falling on an area where the ground is frozen

C) Rain falling on an area that is typically very dry such as a desert

D) Rain falling on an area that has been recently developed into a housing community with new paved roads and sidewalks

E) All of the above situations would probably result in flooding

Answer: E

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
21) What is the stage of a river?

A) The amount of water that flows

B) The height of water that is flowing

C) The age of the river

D) The elevation of the river

E) The size of the river

Answer: B

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

22) What is a hydrograph?

A) Graph of cross-sectional area vs. stage

B) Graph of stage vs. elevation

C) Graph of stage vs. time

D) Graph of discharge vs. gradient

E) Graph of speed vs. discharge

Answer: C

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


23) What is a hydrograph not able to tell you about a stream?

A) The stage or discharge of a river at a particular time

B) How quickly water enters a stream or river

C) How the stage or discharge of a river varies over time

D) The highest discharges or stages for rivers over a period of time

E) The amount of rainfall an area receives

Answer: E

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
24) Why is the calculation of a recurrence interval for floods important?

A) It tells you how often on average floods of certain sizes occur

B) It can be used to make maps along rivers of vulnerable areas

C) It can be used to help city planners decide where and where not to build

D) It can give homeowners help in making decisions about purchasing flood insurance

E) All of the above are uses of recurrence intervals

Answer: E

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
25) In which of the following environments are flash floods not common?

A) Higher elevations in a drainage basin

B) Arid environments with steep slopes

C) Humid environments with meandering rivers

D) Urban environments with poor drainage

E) Arid areas with little vegetation

Answer: C

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
26) What distinguishes Flash floods from Downstream floods?

A) Flash floods are common as a result of lightning storms

B) Flash floods occur in the upper part of the basin

C) Flash floods are more dangerous

D) Flash floods are less dangerous

E) Flash floods are only common with large rivers

Answer: B

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis

27) Does it have to be raining in order for a river to flood?

A) Yes. The rain fills up in a river causing it to overflow.

B) Yes. Rain runs off over the ground and into the river causing flooding

C) No. Some other precipitation such as snow could case the river to fill up

D) No. Rivers can flood well after rain has stopped and tributaries have added to bigger streams

E) No. Rivers can flood during droughts without any rain

Answer: D

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application


28) Which of the following locations are not at risk from floods?

A) North Dakota

B) Washington

C) Pennsylvania

D) Texas

E) All of the U.S. have some risk of floods

Answer: E

Section: 6.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
29) What areas are at risk of flooding?

A) Areas that get a lot of snow

B) Areas that get a lot of rain

C) Areas that get little rain

D) Areas that are tropical

E) Any area that gets precipitation is at risk for floods

Answer: E

Section: 6.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
30) Which of the following natural hazards is the number 1 disaster in the United States in the past century?

A) Floods

B) Volcanoes

C) Earthquakes

D) Hurricanes

E) Lightning

Answer: A

Section: 6.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
31) Which of the following adverse effects of natural hazards is not associated with flooding?

A) Pollution

B) Disease

C) Destruction of buildings

D) Land upheaval

E) Economic loss

Answer: D

Section: 6.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

32) Which of the following will not affect the damage from a flood?

A) People's use of the floodplain

B) Season of the year the flooding occurs

C) Type of sediment deposited

D) Geographic region

E) Speed of the floodwaters

Answer: D

Section: 6.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


33) Which of the following natural disasters are floods not associated with?

A) Fires


B) Landslides

C) Hurricanes

D) Earthquakes

E) Floods are associated with ALL of the above

Answer: E

Section: 6.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
34) What is the best reason why periodic flooding of the Mississippi River could have decreased the disaster from Hurricane Katrina to New Orleans?

A) Periodic flooding would have built up the delta raising the elevation of New Orleans

B) Periodic flooding would have destroyed areas that were hit by Hurricane Katrina

C) Periodic flooding would have kept people from living or building in New Orleans

D) Periodic flooding would have given the government more opportunities to prepare for disaster

E) Periodic flooding would have made people more mindful of hurricane warnings

Answer: A

Section: 6.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
35) What positive effects can floods have?

A) Floods can supply nutrients to soils for farming

B) Floods clear ecosystems of debris

C) Floods supply sediments to build up the elevation of land

D) Floods bring nutrients to ecosystems

E) Flooding is never positive and is always bad for human interests

Answer: E

Section: 6.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

36) How would a river in an area changed from forest to farmland react to changes?

A) Decreased amounts of sediment would increase the gradient of the stream

B) Increased amounts of sediment would increase the gradient of the stream

C) Decreased amounts of sediment would decrease the gradient of the stream

D) Increased amounts of sediment would decrease the gradient of the stream

E) The change would have no effect on the stream

Answer: B

Section: 6.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


37) Why would people build dams on rivers?

A) To control the amount of water that flows down a river

B) To hold back water for irrigation

C) To use water for hydroelectric power

D) To build lakes for recreation

E) All of the above are reasons to build dams

Answer: E

Section: 6.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
38) How would the hydrograph of a large rainstorm change after urbanization of an area?

A) The hydrograph would become a straight line.

B) The peak of the hydrograph would become lower and wider.

C) The peak of the hydrograph would become higher and wider.

D) The peak of the hydrograph would become higher and narrower.

E) The peak of the hydrograph would become lower and narrower.

Answer: D

Section: 6.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
39) How does urbanization influence a river or stream?

A) Urbanization increases the frequency of floods.

B) Urbanization increases the magnitude of floods.

C) Urbanization increases the rate at which water flows to the river.

D) Urbanization decreases stream flow during dry season.

E) All of the above are ways in which urbanization influences a river.

Answer: E

Section: 6.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
40) What are some things that governments can do to minimize the damage from floods?

A) Make a detailed map of the floodplain in order to determine which areas are the most vulnerable.

B) Make floodplain maps available to the public and encourage homeowners to purchase insurance.

C) Make a plan to regulate construction on the floodplain.

D) Construct drains and pumps to remove potential floodwaters.

E) All of the above are things that governments can do to minimize the damage from floods.

Answer: E

Section: 6.7

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
41) If you are standing in the middle of a river and look at either side, you might see tall earthen hills with concrete walls on top. What are they and what do they do?

A) They are levees and they hold in floodwaters

B) They are drains and they drain water to the city

C) They are dams and let water out slowly

D) They are cutbanks and they hold in water

E) They are dikes and they funnel water downstream

Answer: A

Section: 6.7

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
42) Does channelization of a stream prevent flooding?

A) No. Nothing can prevent flooding,

B) No. It increases flooding.

C) Yes. It is the best solution and has no drawbacks.

D) Yes. However, it is not necessarily good for habitats.

E) No one actually knows because it is just theoretical.

Answer: D

Section: 6.7

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
43) What is the greatest hazard to people in a flash flood?

A) Sediment deposits

B) Erosion of farmlands

C) People driving into floods and being carried away

D) Houses and other buildings being carried away

E) Fires


Answer: C

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
44) Which homes built on the floodplain are most likely to be actually washed away?

A) Those on the floodway

B) Those on the floodway fringe

C) Those above the 100 year floodplain

D) Those above the 20 year floodplain

E) All of the above houses will be washed away

Answer: A

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
45) Which of the following are things that you should not do in preparing for a flood?

A) Buy flood insurance.

B) Place sandbags to block water from entering doors.

C) Make a flood kit and place it in your basement.

D) Make a flood plan with members of your household.

E) Find out how to turn off utilities in the event of a flood.

Answer: C

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

46) What should you do during a flood?

A) Move to higher ground away from the river.

B) Wade into the water to see how deep it really is.

C) Drive your car through water to get to safety.

D) Swim across water to a safer location.

E) Go to a bridge and watch the water rise.

Answer: A

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


47) Tributaries are smaller streams where water drains from larger rivers.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


48) Rivers are the result of drainage from many smaller streams.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


49) The gradient of streams is higher at headwaters than at the mouth of a river.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


50) The longitudinal profile of most streams is an upwardly curving line.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


51) The bed load of a stream is usually the heaviest load that the stream can carry.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


52) A narrower river usually runs faster than a wider one.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


53) A flooded river has a greater discharge, but a smaller velocity.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


54) An alluvial fan is usually found at the base level of rivers.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

55) Discharge in a river is usually constant and this creates changes in velocity as the river's shape changes.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


56) Flooded rivers can erode, transport, and deposit more sediment than normally flowing rivers can.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


57) Flash floods are most common on the floodplains of large meandering rivers.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


58) Flash floods are usually of short duration and therefore not very dangerous.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


59) Hydrographs are used to show the amount of water in the hydrologic cycle.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


60) All areas of the U.S. have some risk of flooding.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


61) Living near a dam is very safe because you will never have to worry about flooding.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


62) Construction of levees can actually make floods worse in areas up and downstream from the construction.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


63) Rivers normally stay in a state of dynamic equilibrium between their flow velocity and their gradient and cross-sectional area.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge

64) Paving over land decreases the amount of flooding because water can't soak into the pavement as well as in the soil.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


65) Channelization is one of the more drastic solutions to flooding because it causes the draining of wetlands that is adverse to wildlife.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.7

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


66) If you live on the 100 year floodplain, it means that you will only have a flood once every 100 years.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


67) Insurance and building codes are two important ways that the government can protect property from disaster in a flood.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


68) There are some places that have too high a flood risk for people to rebuild and these homes are better off abandoned.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


69) During a flood, the safest place to be is behind a levee or floodwall.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


70) After a flood, you should be sure to wash anything that has been in touch with river water.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


71) Flooding is the number one natural disaster to affect the United States in the last century.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 6.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge


72) Give an example of something that acts as a base level for streams. Explain what happens to the river as it reaches this level and why it is a base level. Sketch a longitudinal profile for this stream.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension, Application

73) Explain the role of rivers in the rock cycle.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


74) What is the difference between stream discharge and velocity? How are they related?

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


75) Explain how a floodplain forms.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


76) Explain one thing that will cause a river to overflow its banks.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


77) Sketch a hydrograph for a river that has experienced flash flooding and one that has experienced downstream flooding. What is the difference in the two hydrographs?

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application


78) Describe the difference between a flash flood and a downstream flood?

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


79) Explain how it is possible for very dry areas to become flooded.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application


80) Explain how it is possible for floods to produce fires.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


81) Many major cities are on floodplains. Give 3 reasons why people would want to live in areas that have periodic flooding.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension


82) Explain why it is not safe to live near dams and how they are maintained.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application


83) A river maintains a dynamic equilibrium between its velocity, gradient and cross-sectional shape. Explain how this happens. To get gravel for industrial uses, it is mined by taking it directly from rivers. Explain what this might do to areas downstream from the river.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension, Application


84) Floods in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina were catastrophic. Explain how New Orleans' levee system made the flooding problem worse for New Orleans residents. Some people have suggested that New Orleans should be abandoned. Explain why New Orleans will be susceptible to new flooding and how YOU think New Orleans should be rebuilt.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension, Evaluation


85) Using the idea of dynamic equilibrium, explain why floods are common in urban areas. Sketch a hydrograph for a river flood in an urban area. On that sketch show what the river might look like if the area were not urbanized. Describe the difference between the two sketches and explain what YOU think urban planners should do about the flooding problem.

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension, Evaluation

86) Imagine that you were put in charge of planning a public awareness campaign about flooding. What are some of the most important things that you would want people to know? Why are these important? How would you implement your education plan?

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension, Analysis



Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.



Download 131.83 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2020
send message

    Main page