HOD of Master of Computer Application Department, A.C.Patil College of Engineering,Kharghar-410210,Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
Miss Aparna Naresh Nerurkar
Student of of Master of Computer Application Department, A.C.Patil College of Engineering,Kharghar-410210,Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
With the emerging needs of the users abundance of technology has been invented to fulfill these sprouting needs of the users. Due to these plenty of inventions, technology has made its advancement in all fields. Mobiles Phones is an amazing invention of technology that has made itself a necessity in everyone’s life. As the popularity of Smartphone’s is increasing, the companies need to pack more interesting and attractive features and applications in upcoming devices so as to make them more interactive and user friendly for the users. For this reason, the companies have made the operating system of mobiles an open source like Android operating system. In this paper, we analyses the key features of the Android and Cynogen Mod to know its importance in some or the other field .After studying Both the operating sysytem from history and knowing about all of its versions we have found that companies have been releasing new versions time to time to meet the needs of customers. But there have been a lot of limitations in operating system that lead to the failure.In the present scenario, mobile technology is a technology which is increasing at a fast pace. This advancement in mobile technology has impacted everyone’s life. Nowadays various mobile technologies as well as mobile phones compete in the market. It has reduced the burden of work of a human being in some way or the other.This paper is a comparative indeep study between android and cynogen operating system.
One of the most widely used technologies today is mobile technology. It includes several or we can say all forms of portable technology like laptops, palmtops, cell phones, personal digital assistants, wireless card payment terminals, global positioning systems. This technology is radically increasing around the world day by day. This can be clearly seen in our day to day life as a poor man also either posses a mobile phone or has access to it. It has
transformed the way of doing business. Previously people use to go to banks or offices to do their task but now they can easily do it from mobile phone. It can be seen that in the past few years the wireless technologies is highly developed. Along with the exponential improvement
in performance & capacity of wireless communications systems, the information can be easily accessed using mobile devices.
In order to improve their infrastructure and rolling out data coverage, the mobile networks are spending a large amount. The continuous advances in mobile technology is impacting everyone’s life. The users are getting benefitted from the advances in mobile technology. This
is clearly visible in our day to day life. Previously, in order to mail important documents one has to deliver it from door to door but with the advancement in mobile technology one can easily sent it in few minutes in the form of soft copy. As a boon, the use of smart phones & tablets has transformed communications, entertainment. The advances in mobile technology is affecting various other fields also like it is playing a vital role in health care systems. As an example, if a person owns a business then he is free to extend his business rather than confining it to a particular area.This can be seen from the previous year that with the increasing number of years the generations of mobile is also increasing. The generation of a mobile phone is represented by ‘G’. From 1946 to 1980, 0G i.e. the zero generation prevailed. This included early mobile phones which were very expensive and it could only be used in cars, trucks and briefcases. Ithad a voice call feature only. After 0G next generation came which is 1G i.e. first generation.In this generation cellphones were analog devices which functions on AMPS/Datatac technology. Its features were voice calls with limited data which was somewhat higher than the previous generation. As the time passed the next digital generation came into existence which is the 2G i.e. the second generation cellular network. Its features were somewhat enhanced than the previous generations. It had voice, sms and circuit switched data features.The technologies which prevailed during this period were GSM, iDEN, EDGE,GPRS,CDMA, TDMA and HSCSD. Out of the above technologies some belong to the 2.5G standards family. In order to intoduce new features and technologies, the next generation was introduced i.e. 3G. It had superior features like broadband data, voice and streaming video.Though this technology was not fully implemented. It came into light from 2004 which included technologies like W-CDMA, 1Xev-DO. To add up some new features in the previous version of the generation, 4G was introduced. This generation had high
speed broadband for data and visual centric
information which is capable of transmitting data at 100mbps while moving and 1Gbs while standing still. In this paper we will try to familiarize with the Android and Cynogen Mod operating systems, it’s key features , it’s all versions, what all features were added or deleted in the versions, its advantages and disadvantages. Thus, through this paper we will try to help to understand about both O.S and all of its features so that anyone can select own operating system wisely according to your needs and benefits. On the basis of the advancement in mobile technology, the operating system on which these
work can be defined below along with the comparison between them:
CYNOGEN OS: The Cyanogen OS is an open source firmware that is built on top of the Android platform. It uses the Vanilla Android OS and introduces features and functions that are not available on the official platform. A replacement for the Android operating system, the Cyanogen OS is capable of boosting the performance of your device and helps you get rid of those annoying spyware, adware and more. Another benefits is that it gives you periodic updates with a number of enhancements and new features. CyanogenMod is designed to increase performance and reliability over Android-based ROMs released by vendors and carriers such as Google, T-Mobile, HTC, etc. CyanogenMod also offers a variety of features & enhancements that are not currently found in these versions of Android. This Android operating system is an open source platform which can be programmed and modified to suit one’s needs. Popular mobile carriers do not believe in providing
Fig:Image of Cynogen Mod
full control of the smartphone to the user. The phones are locked so that the device becomes network specific, and can be operated with certain restrictions.
Developers have discovered a method to overcome this restriction, though. This method is called ‘rooting’. Rooting a device enables the user to replace the stock firmware (the operating system that came pre-installed on phone) with a custom modified firmware. A popular version of a custom modified firmware is CyanogenMod, which instantly gained popularity after its launch in 2011 on the Android 2.3 Gingerbread. The ultimate aim of CyanogenMod is to deliver the full control of the device to the user.
ANDROID OS : This is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices which is
based on Linux kernel and is developed by google but later on by Open Handset Alliance(OHA) . Its native language is Java which is the officially supported language. In this applications can be written in other languages also but later on it is compiled to ARM nativecode
Fig:Image of Android
Operating Systems have developed a lot in last 15 years. Starting from black and white phones to recent smart phones or mini computers, mobile OS has come far away. Especially for smart phones, Mobile OS has greatly evolved from Palm OS in 1996 to Windows pocket PC in 2000 then to Blackberry OS and Android. One of the most widely used mobile OS these days is ANDROID. Android is a software bunch comprising not only operating system but also middleware and key applications. Android Inc was founded in Palo Alto of California, U.S. by Andy Rubin, Rich miner, Nick sears and Chris White in 2003. Later Android Inc. was acquired by Google in 2005. After original release there have been number of updates in the original version of Android. The Android OS is used on smartphones, netbooks and tablets, including the Dell Streak, Samsung Galaxy Tab, TV and other devices. And some research company estimated in Q2 2009 that Android had a 2.8% share of worldwide smartphone shipments. By Q4 2010 it had grown to 33% of the market, becoming the top-selling smartphone platform. After original release there have been number of updates in the original version of Android
HISTORY OF CYNOGEN:
As a company, Cyanogen Inc is still very new, though it is growing fast and making some interesting moves along the way — such as teaming up with Oppo for the N1 CM edition and working with OnePlus to deliver CyanogenMod 11S on the OnePlus One. It seems that it’s not just consumers taking notice of Cyanogen’s efforts, as a new report from The Information claims that Google’s Sundar Pichai met with Cyanogen Inc executives recently to discuss the possibility of an acquisition.Reportedly the CM team turned Google down, content to stay the course and has even discussed a Series C round of funding with a few investors and tech firms, seeking a valuation of nearly $1 billion. Considering the company is new and not exactly generating a massive revenue stream just yet, that might seem like a lot. Of course, the experience behind the CM team and the CyanogenMod ROM (and community) is the real value for the company, not the products and partnerships it has produced during its short corporate life.The experience behind the CM team and the CyanogenMod ROM is the real value for the company CyanogenMod remains one of the most well-known and popular ROMs in the Android world with some very big talent behind it, and so we could see how the addition of the CM team could potentially be of value to Google, as well as Android manufacturers or even possibly Google’s rivals. In the meantime, Cyanogen has plans to continue expanding its reach and, according to the report, has told potential investors it has a deal in place with MicroMax to bring CyanogenMod to India.With Micromax and others also pushing the Android One effort in India and other emerging markets, it remains unseen if CM has what it takes to compete in such an aggressive manner against Google. The Information also notes that Cyanogen needs to tread carefully, as they need to ensure that their modifications (and marketing tactics) don’t irk Google too much as CM still relies on Google Play certification. Unlike Amazon, there’s no in-house apps and services to fall back on if Google ever decides to fight dirty and deny certification.
HISTORY OF ANDROID:
Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV to develop, in Rubin's words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences. The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, but when it was realized that the market for the devices was not large enough, they diverted their efforts to producing a smart phone operating system. Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones. Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner and White, stayed at the company after the acquisition. Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move. At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices—a line of smart phones and tablets running the Android operating system, and built by a manufacturer partner. HTC collaborated with Google to release the first Nexus Smartphone, the Nexus One. Since then, Google has becomefamous for its nexus series , which includes both , mobile phones as well as tablets.
FEATURES OF CYNOGEN:
Genuine and Enchanting UI – CyanogenMod gives a true Android experience. The UI is as provided by Google and is not altered. It has many eye-catching themes that can be downloaded from the Play Store. The UI can be customized in many ways, including the animations of transitions of different screens. The home button also can be customized to perform various actions, such as a long press to start or play music, turn on the flashlight, etc.
Multi-featured Lock Screen – The lock screen on CyanogenMod gives the user the flexibility to put up applications such as Calendar, Contacts, Clock, etc. on the lock screen for easy access. The user doesn’t need to go through the steps of unlocking the phone and launching the desired application.
Incognito Mode – This feature allows the phone to protect your personal data from any ill-intended applications. With this mode, the phone will give control to the user. It does this by providing an option to disallow a particular application from accessing the personal data on the phone and connecting to the internet, or making use of any native feature.
Chromecast Support – Chromecast surely has gained ground from the day it was introduced in the market. Using it, most media streaming applications need to have a functionality to allow the streaming. The latest version of CyanogenMod gives a generic green light to Chromecast support for streaming audio and video from any application.
Device Finder – Google already introduced the tracking system for an Android device, permitting phone tracking and user data wiping remotely. But the risk with this service is that if the Google servers are compromised, it exposes all the user-tracking information to hackers, enabling them to track each and every registered user. To prevent this, CyanogenMod is planning to introduce a feature to track the device using an encrypted code. The browser and the device will communicate in an encrypted code via a secure channel. This will ensure that the entire user base will not be tracked in case of a server hack.
CyanogenMod is available for free download for any user willing to root the device. The new developments are rolled out only after careful review of the code and testing of all the features. However, rooting a phone is not 100% successful. If some incompatibility is met, the device could end up being dead forever.
FEATURES OF ANDROID:
The Android platform is a software stack for mobile devices that consists of an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android offers many features covering the areas of application development, Internet, media, and connectivity. These features include Application framework, Dalvik virtual machine, Integrated browser, Op- timized graphics, SQLite for structured data storage, Media support for common audio, video, and still image formats, GSM Telephony, Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi, Camera, GPS, Compass, and a rich Development environment. The Android platform primarily consists :-
a. Applications: This includes a set of core applications that come with the Android distribution like Email Client, Messaging application, Contacts application, browser, Web browser etc.
b. Application Framework: This layer has been designed to facilitate the reuse of components in Android. With the help of Application Framework elements (such as, Intents, Content Providers, Views, and Managers) in Android, de- velopers can build their applications to execute on Android Kernel and inter-operate among themselves and with existing applications.
c. Libraries: Libraries include System C
library, Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics engine, Media Codes, the SQL database SQlite and the web browser engine LibWebCore.
d. Android Runtime: The Android runtime has twocomponents. One is a set of Core libraries which provides the functions available in Java .The other is the Dalvik virtual machine which operates like a translator between the application side and the operating system. Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own feature and advantage of the Dalvik virtual machine.
e. Linux Kernel: Android uses a modified version of Linux for core system services, such as Memory Management, Process Management, Network Stack, Driver Model and Security.
COMPARISON BETWEEN ANDROID AND CYNOGEN MOD:
1.Cyanogenmod provides inbuilt root support
Thus enhanced features such as ad blocking, over clocking and under clocking of CPU,moving apps to external memory and many more are possible.
2. Minimum bloatware
Company specific bloatware or useless apps which are provided by the company by default are not present in Cyanogenmod.
3.Availability of various themes and skin
Cyanogenmod supports themes engine which enables application of a large variety of themes which is not possible on stock android.
4. Enhanced security
Cyanogenmod is designed with highest security norms.Thus a phone having official cyaogrenmod is more secure than normal android.
5.Speed and performance
Perhaps one major reason why you should shift to CyanogenMod is the improvement in performance. CyanogenMod is based on stock Android itself. There are no OEM skins running on top of it, which take up precious resources. Thus, you end up freeing additional resources which help in improving performance
You can also use the latest version of Android within days of the update being pushed by Google. As soon as a new version of Android is released, the CyanogenMod team merges the sources with their CM branch, and then release a build. Depending on how major or minor the Android OS update is, this can take anywhere between a few hours to a few days.
The Interface settings screen is packed with options. You can tweak the status bar, quick settings panel, notification drawer, and navigation bar. For example, you could reorder the buttons on the navigation bar at the bottom of your screen, or rearrange the order of the tiles in the quick settings panel.
The DSP Manager app provides system-wide equalizer controls you can use to adjust the sound coming from your device, enabling bass boost, activating an equalizer, and selecting presets that match the music you listen to.
9. over clocking or under clocking of CPU
Overclocking and underclocking are (custom) kernel features and aren't related to CyanogenMod unless the custom kernel supports only CyanogenMod and based off ROMs.
Cyanogenmod allows users to ether increase the CPU frequency for more powerful performance or decrease the CPU frequency for enhanced battery life.
CONCLUSION: Cyanogenmod makes the most out of your devices capabilities.Whereas Android ROM has only limited features made available to the user. CyanogenMod provides with an up-to-date version of Android. It’s also a pure, stock Android experience. CyanogenMod adds lots of their own tweaks and a handful of apps. However, they respect Google’s interface. The tweaks CyanogenMod adds don’t feel out of place — many of them are just added to the Settings screen as new options. Because it dispenses with the additional bloat a lot of manufacturers and carriers add, it’s also very fast.
CyanogenMod isupports your device, it will provide you with a pure, up-to-date Android experience. It’s a way to revitalize old Android devices that manufacturers are no longer updating.
I would gratefully and sincerely appreciate my supervisor: Assistant Prof. Suryawanshi Sir. Their inspiring guidance, rich experience and sustained encouragement enabled me to develop an intensive understanding of my research area. Without the generous help of my supervisor, this work would not have been possible. I am honored to have Prof. Prof. Suryawanshi Sir from A.C.Patil College as my opponent. I thank him for his kind support and helpful suggestions during the discussions in my MCA.
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 Open source os – The future of mobile (By Juniper Research)
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 Number of available Android applications www.appbrain.com/stats/number-of-android-apps )
 WHAT IS ANDROID ? ( HTTP://DEVELOPER.ANDROID.COM )
 Google Android: An Emerging Software Platform For mobile devices Nisarg Gandhewar et al. / International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE)