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- The passage suggests that Herodotus…………

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199- The passage suggests that Herodotus…………. .

A)made a fortune from the sale of his books

***B)is one of the earliest historical writers

C)did not actually visit the places he wrote about

D)played a major role in the history of the Persian Empire

E)could speak Persian, Arabic and Scythian

200-It can be inferred from the passage that during the battle of Termophylae, Herodotus………. .

A)took detailed notes and did not fight

B)attacked the evil king Lygdamis

***C)was too young to have played a role

D)lost his father through a Persian arrow

E)was assisting the enemy Persian army

201-The author tells us that Herodotus died……….. .

A)having completed only 6 of a planned 9-book collection

B)while paying a visit to Caesar in Italy

C)before he could visit his own country

D)in a battle in the Persian War

***E)in the Athenian colony of Thuril

Vitamin C occurs most abundantly in oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and raw tomatoes and cabbage. Several other fruits and vegetables, including potatoes, contain lesser amounts. It is, however, easily destroyed by cooking. vitamin C is necessary for the development of bones, teeth, blood vessels, and other tissues, and plays a part in the functioning of most of the cells in the hotly. Deficiency shows itself in painful haemorrhages around the bones and in swollen, bleeding gums, a condition called scurvy. For a long time, in the days when a sailor's diet consisted of salted and dried food and ship's biscuits, scurvy was the curse of sailors on long voyages.
202-It is obvious from the passage that vitamin C …….. .

***A)is an essential part of a healthy diet

B)is present is both raw and well-cooked vegetables

C)is less important for adults than it is for children

D)was once more important than it is now

E) is the best cure for a cold

203-The passage implies that scurvy among sailors was caused by……… .

***A)a lack of fresh fruit and vegetables

B)cooking food for too long

C)having to work under difficult conditions

D)the fact that their journeys were too long

E) their fondness for fish and biscuits

204-The best way to ensure having enough vitamin C in one's diet is to ………. .

A)thoroughly cook all food to destroy harmful bacteria

B)try to avoid diseases affecting bones and teeth

C)make sure that it includes lightly cooked meat

***D)eat plenty of salads and citrus fruits

E)include such items as salted and dried food

At least half of all visitors to Nepal go to the lakeside town of Pokhara. The symbol of the region is the 6.993-metre high Machhapuchhare Mountain, which means “ fish tail” in English. Indeed the mountain is shaped like a fish tail and viewed from Pokhara, is a majestic sight. Yet one detail singles out this giant mountain from the others in the region: no one has ever climbed it, and it is unlikely that anyone ever will. In the 1960s, the Nepalese government declared it a holy mountain, forbidden to mountaineers. Sherpas, in particular, respect this. And without sherpas, the indispensable porters of the high valleys of Nepal, the Europeans and Americans who constantly attempt to conquer the mountains in the region are helpless.
205-It is obvious from the passage that……. .

A)there are a lot of fish in Pokhara Lake

B)no one has ever climbed most of the mountains near Pokhara

C)the mountains around Pokhara have English names

D)tourism in Nepal has grown in importance since the 1960s

***E)Pokhara is one of the most popular destinations in Nepal

206-Machhapuchhare has never been climbed because … .

A)it is one of the tallest mountains in the world

***B)it is regarded as sacred, and so mountaineers are not allowed to climb it

C)it is dangerously steep, which discourages mountaineers from attempting to climb it

D) it is not as challenging for climbers as the other mountains in the region

E) there aren’t any Sherpas experienced enough to lead mountaineers to it

207-What the passage stresses about Sherpas is that they………… .

A)are members of a religious sect trying to ban mountain-climbing in Nepal

B)climbed high mountains until the government forbade them in the 1960s

***C)are essential to climbers who want to conquer the mountains in Nepal

D)don't approve of Europeans and Americans climb their mountain

E)want to be the first people to climb Machhapuchhare

Plants can summon an insect rescue team when they are attacked by pests, just as if they were calling for a microscopic ambulance. In fact, researchers say the signal is specific enough to tell the helpful insects exactly what to expect when they arrive on the scene. For example, two kinds of caterpillars attack numerous crops and cost US farmers about $6 billion annually. The plants summon a black, parasitic wasp that it is the natural enemy of the caterpillars. Scientists have known for years that plants could send out distress calls to wasps and other insect bodyguards, but they are just beginning to understand how sophisticated the messages can be. They hope to find out more about the signals and eventually use them to develop chemical-free pest control systems.
208-The passage states that………….. .

A)most of the agricultural crops produced in the USA are lost to pests

B)caterpillars can help plants attacked by black wasps

C)scientists have known all about plants' distress calls for years

***D)friendly insects can help plants against unfriendly ones

E)researchers have only recently become aware of the distress calls of plants

209-According to the passage, further research into the plants' distress calls is necessary in order for scientists…………. .

A)to act promptly when plants need help

B)to develop new chemicals to be used against pests

C)to understand whether plants really have this ability

D)to distinguish between useful and harmful insects

***E)to make use of them in the fight against pests

210-One can understand from the passage that "pest" means a……….. .

A)microscopic ambulance B)specific signal

***C)harmful insect D)type of researcher

E)helpful insect

Not so long ago, most companies were family affairs, owned by different members of the same family. Some still are, but now many companies have survived the founding families and grown into big organisations which own smaller, or subsidiary companies. These companies work in other countries to form multi-national groups, such as the big oil companies like Shell or Esso, and the big car manufacturers like Ford. The big multi-national companies each control more money than many countries do. These companies only exist to make profits for their owners, or shareholders.
211-According to the passage, most companies………. .

***A)used to belong to a single family

B)are subsidiary companies belonging to larger organisations

C)have larger budgets than some countries do

D)are owned by the oil companies

E)have now been taken over by multi-nationals

212-The author states that……………. .

A)multi-national companies usually belong to a single family

***B)some multi-nationals are richer than some nations

C)there are no longer any family-owned large companies

D)the biggest organisations are called subsidiary companies

E)the big oil companies are usually owned by single families

213-The author believes that multi-national companies……….. .

A)are a positive force in the world

B)are largely controlled by the countries where they work

C)sometimes become too involved in family affairs

***D)have no other purpose but to make money

E)employ many people from the original founding families

The "dead cities" of Syria are coming alive and archaeologists are seriously concerned. Pushed by a booming population, farmers are moving into the hills of northern Syria and making homes in villages that have been deserted but nearly intact for a millennium. The government is trying to limit the destruction of archaeological sites by barring people from moving into hundreds of deserted ancient villages and imposing fines for destroying antiquities. In some cases, officials can pull down newly-built houses that are too close to the dead cities. This has outraged the new villagers; mostly poor Muslim farmers and shepherds who feel little connection to antiquities from Syria's Christian past.
214-The passage tells, us that archaeologists are worried………….. .

A)about the impoverished state of the farmers and shepherds

B) because they are not allowed to continue excavations in Syria

C)because buildings of historical value have officially been given to villagers

D)due to the government's decidedly anti-Christian stance

***E) because the growing population is threatening historic sites in Syria

215-The passage suggests that the villagers’ lack of concern comes from ………. .

A)the government's policy of not fining them heavily for destruction

B)their belief that the cities have always belonged to Syrians

***C)their cultural and religious distance from Syria's Christian past

D)the government's lax attitude to drive them out of their new homes

E)the great profit to be made from selling antiquities to archaeologists
216-It may be gathered from the passage that the ancient cities of northern Syria……….. .

***A)are in very good condition despite being empty for a thousand years

B)are hard to find since they are simply shapeless piles of rocks

C)are really quite new cities but are very poorly maintained

D)have been continuously inhabited for a least a millennium

E)are also home to a large number of Christians

For the first time after the Apollo moon landings, NASA is launching a mission into outer space to bring back extraterritorial material. This time, NASA is going after comet and interstellar dust. "Stardust", the robotic spacecraft that will collect the tiny grains, is scheduled for a journey of seven years that will cover 5.1 billion kilometres. It is NASA's first attempt to bring back pieces of a comet. This particular comet, Wild-2, rarely came close to the Sun until the 1970s, and so still should contain the original, frozen components of the solar system. By studying samples from this well-preserved comet, scientists hope to better understand how icy, rocky comets may have provided the water and organics necessary for life to form on the Earth, and possibly elsewhere.
217-According to the passage, so far, …………. .

A)the Apollo spacecraft has brought back several pieces of comets

B)NASA has regularly sent missions to bring back material from outer space

C)the "Stardust" spacecraft has completed some other major missions

***D)pieces of a comet haven't been brought back from space by NASA

E)the comet Wild-2 has never come close to the Sun

218-The passage suggests that the Wild-2 comet ……… .

A)came close to the Sun for the first time in 1970

B)travels about 5.1 billion kilometres every seven years

C)was discovered In the 1970s

***D)probably consists partly of frozen material

E)is the first comet to come dangerously close to the Earth

219-Scientists wish to study the comet because it…………. .

A)seldom comes near the Sun

B)is full of extraterritorial material

***C)could help them explain how life started

D)is considered to be the oldest comet in the universe

E)may melt if it goes too close to the Sun

In order to avoid the traditional form, writers like the Irishman James Joyce tried to find other structures around which to build their novels. Joyce broke away from the regular beginning, middle, and end technique of earlier writers with his novel 'Ulysses'. Using the Greek mythology contained in The Odyssey', written by Homer, Joyce devised a completely new technique which combined Greek mythology with tales of modern life. In the novel, the adventures of Homer's Ulysses are paralleled to the happenings of one day in the life of a group of characters in Dublin, Ireland. As this novel shows, if a writer actually describes every single thing a character does throughout one day, that one day can easily produce a whole long novel.
220- James Joyce's novel 'Ulysses' ……… .

A)is a traditional novel with a beginning, middle and end

B)was a modem translation of Homer's 'Odysseus'

C)revolutionised classical Greek literature

D)was written in one day

***E)was meant to be different from novels written up to that time

221-According to the passage, 'Ulysses' reflects similarities between………. .

***A)the lives of a mythological figure and a group of contemporary people

B)the writing techniques used by Homer and James Joyce

C)the moral values of Homer's day and those of Joyce's own

D)the lives, over a number of years, of a number of people in Dublin

E)a writer in ancient Greece and one in contemporary Ireland

222-The passage states that the action of the novel takes place……… .

A)in a traditional settling

B)over a long period of time

C)in ancient Greece

***D)in a single day

E)in a mythical setting

Under the great Moghul emperors, artists emerged from their previous anonymity. They were allowed, for the first time, to sign their work, and even encouraged to include self-portraits in their paintings. And the artists' skills did not go unrewarded : one emperor even presented a favourite painter with an elephant, the ultimate status symbol of the age. Yet little is known about the artists' lives. The more successful may have enjoyed an economic status similar to lower-level nobles. However, their simple dress in the self-portraits suggests that the rewards for many painters did not always match their unquestionable talent.
223-In the passage, the word "anonymity' in the first sentence refers to a condition in which………. .

A)the people had to live in extreme poverty

B)the artists were well-respected

C)the emperors employed only very talented artists

D)the artists worked for very little money

***E)the artists of paintings were not known by name

224-At the time of the Mogul emperors, ………… .

A)artists could only earn very little money

***B)not all the artists earned well

C)artists had the same status as the nobles

D)most of the artists were not rewarded for their paintings

E)every artist was allowed to have his own elephant

225-We can infer from the passage that one way artists were able to become better known was by …….. .

***A)including pictures of themselves in their work

B)riding status symbols through town

C)selling paintings to Moghul emperors

D)having an economic status similar to lower-level nobles

E)matching their unquestionable talent with simple dress

Four years ago, Craig Keilburger, a Canadian boy then only 12 years old, founded Free the Children, a youth organisation aimed at ending child labour and encouraging youth involvement in community service. Since then, hundreds of local chapters have formed all over the world, participating in everything from letter-writing campaigns to programmes like "Rugmark", a labelling system for carpets made without child labour. Now 16, Keilburger has travelled extensively, meeting children from Pakistan to Brazil and giving speeches on child exploitation.
226-According to the passage, Free the Children is……… .

***A)an association opposed to children having to work

B)an organisation which was founded 16 years ago

C)dedicated to teaching children how to write letters

D)a group of adults who want to help children

E)a charity founded in Canada, but now active in Pakistan and Brazil

227-It can be inferred from the passage that…….. .

A)Craig Keilburger is now 19 years old

B)child labour has been ended because of the efforts of Free the Children

C)Free the Children is one of the most effective organisations in the world

***D)children are often exploited in making carpets

E)Canadians understand the world better than other people

228-The passage states that Craig Keilburger……….. .

A)has personally founded hundreds of local chapters of Free the Children

B)has become one of the youngest successful businessmen in the world

***C)travels around the world lecturing on the exploitation of children

D)labels carpets made without child labour

E)believes that children should help to support their families

The producer is the person who starts and controls the whole process of making a film. He may buy the film rights to a book or employ a scriptwriter to write a script. He employs all the staff, both technical and creative involved in the making of the film, including the director. He is also in control of the finances of the film, and it is his responsibility to see that the cost does not exceed the budget allowed. Unlike today, in the golden age of Hollywood in the 1930s and '40s, the famous names were the producers like David Selnnick and Samuel Goldwin, and not the directors.
229- We learn from the passage that………. .

A)the producer is the most creative person involved in making a film

B)producers have not been very important since the 1940s

C)the producer is responsible only for technical parts of film-making

D)the direct6r plays the most important role in making a film

***E)the producer is involved with every aspect of making a film

230-It is implied in the passage that………… .

A)directors and producers have equal status today

B)producers finance films, but other people are more important in making a film

C)producers usually write scripts for their films

***D)producers are no longer as famous as they once were

E)films were better in the 1930s and '40s than they are today.

231-According to the passage, …………. .

A)the cost of a film often exceeds its budget

***B)it is the producer who oversees the finances of a film

C)today. the producer and the director of a film are usually the same person

D)films with the largest budgets are always the most successful

E)no contemporary producer has ever been as successful as David Selznick or Samuel Goldwin

At present, there are only two people in the world who have undergone successful hand transplants. This operation has only recently been available and the second successful transplant was carried out in January, 1999. Since this operation, more than one hundred people have contacted the doctor who carried out the operation. Potential candidates are put through medical, psychiatric and psychological tests. Their medical histories are scrutinised. Moreover, they are bluntly told of the risks of the medication that suppresses the immune system. This is necessary to prevent the body from rejecting the foreign tissue in the new hand, which is taken from a dead body.

232-The passage tells us that ………. .

A)more than one hundred people have recently had hand transplants

B)having a hand transplant is a new craze in cosmetic surgery

***C)effective techniques for transplanting human hands have only been recently developed

D)two people have recently died due to the failure of their immune systems during hand transplants

E)the same doctor has carried out more than a hundred operations recently

233-In the case of a hand transplant, the immune system……… .

***A)might reject the new hand if not controlled

B)plays the major role on the psychological situation of the candidates

C)is suppressed to reduce the risk of spreading the infection

D)is risky to people with certain medical histories

E)of a dead body might not be compatible with that of the person receiving the hand

234-It is implied in the passage that……….. .

A)most hand transplant operations are successful

B)the doctor who carried out the second successful operation is advertising for more business

C)only the person whose immune system functions well is considered suitable for the operation

***D)there may be psychological as well as physical problems for those who receive the operation

E)it is still too soon to tell how successful the two most recent operations have been

One of the smallest of all mammals is the shrew, a mouse like creature with a head and body length of only 3.8 centimetres. All shrews are small, with dense, velvety fur, long tails, and tiny eyes and ears. Shrews have been called bloodthirsty, though the label is not entirely accurate because they must eat almost constantly to stay alive. The animal is believed to have a very high metabolic rate and cannot live more than a few hours without food. In the absence of normal prey, it will turn to cannibalism to survive. The shrew, or some closely related animal, can be found on every continent except Australia. Since this tiny animal has a reputation for having a very bad temper, the adjective "shrewish" is sometimes used to describe a certain type of women.
235-The passage tells us that the shrew……… .

A)has a very short life span

***B)is similar to a mouse in appearance

C)lives in dense forests

D)makes an exceptionally good pet

E)is in the habit of eating every two hours

236-The passage states that shrews……….. .

A)are found in huge numbers in Australia

B)are the smallest living mammals

***C)eat each other when they can't find any food

D)feed on the blood of other mammals

E)eat rarely but in large amounts at a time

237-From what is stated in the passage, we can infer that a shrewish woman is someone who………… .

A)has tiny eyes and ears

B)is very fond of velvet and fur

C)keeps shrews as pets

***D)easily gets annoyed

E)is noticeably smaller than the average

Over the past 30 years, children's consumption in Britain has increased dramatically. In the average family of two parents and two children, spending on toys and children's clothing has more than tripled, and spending on sweets, ice-cream and soft drinks has risen by one-third. Research has recently found that spending is around £3,000 per child per year. The growth in spending reflects higher living standards, but it has been boosted by the efforts of the advertising industry. Campaigns directed straight at children account for much advertising expenditure. Most children in Britain over eight now have a television in the bedroom; on average, they watch 900 hours of TV a year, which is more than the 750 hours the average child is actually being taught in school. Thus a child could see at least 10,000 commercials a year.
238-The average family 30 years ago………. .

A)bought more children's clothes and books and less ice-cream and candy

B)watched more TV commercials than today

C)had a higher living standard than today

D)didn't have a television set

***E)spent far less on children's products

239-One reason that children's consumption in Britain has risen is that……….. .

A)parents tend to have fewer kids now

B)more kids are involved in advertising campaigns

C)researchers advise parents to spend £3000 per year

***D)the living standard has risen in the country over the years

E)children have much more money themselves nowadays

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