2. Can common usage be mistaken about the correct meaning of a word?
3. Is an action free if its immediate psychological cause is a neurosis?
4. Is determinism compatible with free will?
5. Would there be no moral responsibility without determinism?
For Further Reading Ayer, A. J. “Freedom and Necessity.” Polemic, no. 5 (October 1946): 36–44. Reprinted in Ayer’s Philosophical Essays. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1954.
Ayer argues that determinism is compatible with free will and moral responsibility because the opposite of determinism is constraint rather than causality. Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. In Hume’s Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals. 3d ed. Edited by L. A. Selby-Bigge, revised by P. H. Nidditch. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1975. 417 pp.
Section 8, “Of Liberty and Necessity” (pp. 80–103), contends that, when liberty and necessity are properly understood, it becomes clear that human actions are both free and determined.
Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli. An Idealist View of Life. 2d ed. London, England: George Allen & Unwin, 1937. 352 pp.
Chapter 7, “Human Personality and Its Destiny,” contains a section entitled “Karma and Freedom” (pp. 274–81), which argues that the Hindu doctrine of karma (that our actions create a force that affects our destiny) is compatible with human freedom.