Reading Subtest Complete Practice Test 2 Value of Coral Ecosystems



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Reading Subtest Complete Practice Test 2
Value of Coral Ecosystems
1 Healthy coral reefs are among the most biologically diverse and economically valuable ecosystems on earth, providing valuable and vital ecosystem services. Coral ecosystems are a source of food for millions; protect coastlines from storms and erosion; provide habitat, spawning and nursery grounds for economically important fish species; provide jobs and income to local economies from fishing, recreation, and tourism; are a source of new medicines, and are hotspots of marine biodiversity. They also are of great cultural importance in many regions around the world, particularly Polynesia.
2 In the US, coral reefs are found in the waters of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean (Florida, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands) and the Pacific Islands (Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). They are also found along the coasts of over 100 other countries.
3 While it is difficult to put a dollar value on some of the benefits coral ecosystems provide, one recent estimate gave the total net benefit of the world's coral reef ecosystems to be $29.8 billion/year. For example, the economic importance of Hawai`i's coral reefs, when combining recreational, amenity, fishery, and biodiversity values, were estimated to have direct economic benefits of $360 million/year.

4 The global value above does not account for the economic value of deep-sea coral ecosystems, which, while less well studied and understood, also provide important ecosystem services. Deep-sea corals serve as hotspots of biodiversity in the deeper ocean and their structure provides enhanced feeding opportunities, a place to hide from predators, a nursery area for juveniles, fish spawning aggregation sites, and a place for sedentary invertebrates to grow, much like their coral reef counterparts. These ecosystems have been identified as habitat for commercially important fishes such as rockfish, shrimp, and crabs. Deep-sea corals are also being targeted in the search for new medicines. The value of these services adds to the global value of coral ecosystems.
5 Yet coral reefs are in decline due to an increasing array of threats—primarily from global climate change, unsustainable fishing impacts, and land-based pollution. According to the Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008, 19 percent of the world's reefs are effectively lost, 15 percent are seriously threatened with loss in the next 10-20 years, and 20 percent are under threat of loss in the next 20-40 years. The decline and loss of coral reefs have significant social, cultural, economic, and ecological impacts on people and communities in the US and around the world. However, with effective leadership and management, healthy, resilient reef ecosystems can continue to provide these valuable services to current and future generations.
6 Scientists around the world have been working to document and name the species occurring on Earth for over 250 years; in that time over 1.5 million species have been identified. However, even conservative estimates hint that 90 percent of the life forms on Earth have yet to be discovered or described. Alarming rates of extinction, primarily due to human impacts, put us in a race against time to discover species in time to save them. Coral ecosystems are no different; new discoveries of species associated with coral ecosystems are documented each year, but untold numbers of other species become extinct before science even knows they exist. Coral ecosystems are degrading due to a number of threats despite the hard work of many to bring light to the value and plight of the world's coral ecosystems.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010, January 22) Value of Coral Ecosystems. Retrieved from NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program: http://coralreef.noaa.gov/aboutcorals/values/.
1. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to plight as it is used in the last paragraph of the passage?
A. Worth

B. Dilemma

C. Hope

D. Terror


2. Information presented in which of the following paragraphs best supports the author’s statement that coral reefs “are hotspots of marine biodiversity”?
A. Paragraph 3

B. Paragraph 4

C. Paragraph 5

D. Paragraph 6


3. This passage was most likely written for an audience of
A. high school biology students.

B. government policymakers.

C. general readers with an interest in the environment.

D. marine biologists.


4. Information presented in the passage best supports which of the following conclusions?
A. The inevitable decline of coral reefs will devastate the world’s economy.

B. Coral reefs are more important to the rest of the world than they are to the United States.

C. New species to be discovered in coral reefs could be dangerous.

D. Although human activity has harmed coral reefs, human intervention may now save them.


5. Which of the following facts best supports the author’s contention that coral reefs are in decline?
A. According to experts, 19% of reefs are lost and even more are threatened to be lost in the upcoming decades.

B. Deep sea corals may be a source of new medicines.

C. Fisheries bring in less income than they used to.

D. The hard work of scientists is not paying off.


6. Information presented in the graph supports which of the following conclusions?
A. The great revenue generated by tourism makes coral reefs in warm climates more vital than coral reefs in colder areas.

B. In the total approximate $30 billion/year value of coral reefs, tourism and recreation play the biggest role.

C. Biodiversity value is not great compared to fisheries value.

D. Coral reefs are primarily important because of their dollar value.



Facts About Dams
1 When Hoover Dam was finished in 1935 it was the tallest dam in the world. From about 1938 until 1948 the Hoover Dam power plant was the largest hydroelectric producer in the world. Since then, bigger but not necessarily better facilities have been built, and people often ask us what is the biggest dam in the world today? The answer depends on what you mean by biggest. Do you mean the tallest dam? Or do you mean the one with the most material in it? Or, how about the biggest hydroelectric producer? The answer to each of these questions is a different dam.
2 Syncrude Tailings Dam in Canada is currently ranked number one by volume of construction material at 706,320,000 cubic yards (540,000,000 cubic meters). These are mine tailings so the more they mine and add to the tailings the larger the structure will grow. In contrast, Hoover Dam contains 3,250,000 cubic yards (2,600,000 cubic meters) of concrete, which is much less. Hoover Dam is solid concrete and it was designed specifically to be used as a dam, whereas, the Syncrude Tailings is the piled up dirt left over from mining operations. Although the material is compacted and otherwise treated to make a stable structure it relies on volume of material to hold water back. Hoover Dam relies not only on volume of material but the strength of that material.
3 The tallest dam in the world is currently located on the Vakhsh River in Tajikistan and is called Rogun. It is 1099 feet (335 meters) tall. Hoover Dam is 726.4 feet (221.3 meters) tall. Today Hoover Dam ranks number 20 or 21 on the list of tallest dams. The uncertainty is due to the Tehri Dam in India. It is still under construction, but when it is finished it will be the about 856 feet (261 meters) tall. There is one dam in the United States taller than Hoover Dam, and that is the Oroville Dam on the Feather River in California. It stands 770 feet (235 meters) tall, but it is not a solid concrete dam like Hoover. In fact Hoover Dam is still the tallest solid concrete dam in the western hemisphere.
4 The Itaipu Dam on the border between Brazil and Paraguay can produce 12,600 megawatts (MW). The largest hydroelectric plant in the United States is the Grand Coulee Dam. Its three power plants can produce a total of 6,809 MW. The Hoover Dam power plant weighs in at 2,074 MW, which is still a lot of electricity. As a comparison, the Diablo One nuclear plant in California makes about 1106 MW, so Hoover Dam is analogous to two nuclear power plants (generally speaking).

Hoover Dam is no longer the biggest in any of these categories, but it does remain among the biggest and perhaps is still the best.


United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Reclamation. (2004, September 10) What is the Biggest Dam in the World? Retrieved from Story of Hoover Dam: Essays: http://www.usbr.gov/lc/hooverdam/History/essays/biggest.html.
7. Which of the following words or phrases best defines analogous to as it is used in the final paragraph?
A. Equivalent to

B. Greater than

C. More extreme than

D. Likely to


8. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?
A. The Hoover Dam used to be a remarkable structure, but newer and better dams have eclipsed it.

B. Although Hoover Dam has been surpassed in size, height, and power, it is still one of the most remarkable structures in the world.

C. The major function of dams is to provide hydroelectric power to outlying regions.

D. Dams in the United States are not as large or powerful as dams in other countries, so the United States should embark on better hydroelectric projects.


9. Which of the following phrases best describes the author’s main reason for writing about the Oroville Dam in paragraph 3?
A. to show how small the Hoover Dam is in comparison

B. to show how large the Hoover Dam is in comparison

C. to point out that while the Oroville Dam is taller, the Hoover Dam is still the tallest concrete dam

D. to point out the benefits of solid concrete dams over other types of dams


10. According to information in the passage, the primary difference between Hoover Dam and the Syncrude Tailings Dam in Canada is that
A. the Hoover Dam was designed specifically to be a major power plant, whereas the Syncrude Tailings Dam was not.

B. the Hoover Dam contains ranks higher in volume of construction material.

C. the Hoover Dam relies not only on volume of material but also the strength of that material, as opposed to Syncrude Tailings Dam, which relies only on volume.

D. although the Syncrude Tailings Dam is heavier, Hoover Dam is taller.


11. In which of the following statements does the author express an opinion rather than state a fact?
A. From about 1938 until 1948 the Hoover Dam power plant was the largest hydroelectric producer in the world.

B. In fact Hoover Dam is still the tallest solid concrete dam in the western hemisphere.

C. The Hoover Dam power plant weighs in at 2,074 MW, which is still a lot of electricity.

D. Hoover Dam is no longer the biggest in any of these categories, but it does remain among the biggest and perhaps is still the best.


12. Which of the following lists best outlines the main topics in the passage?
A. -Questions on dams

-Hoover Dam’s size

-Hoover Dam’s height

-Hoover Dam’s power


B. -History of Hoover Dam

-Largest dams by volume

-Tallest dams

-Dams producing most electricity


C. -Hoover Dam

-Syncrude Tailings Dam

-Vaksh River Dam

-Itaipu Dam


D. -Background on Hoover Dam

-Construction materials for dams

-Controversy over height of dams

-Tallest dams



Homicide Hot Spots
1 The most useful role the Federal Government can play in decreasing crime is to develop and support effective methods for reducing gun violence in national hot spots of homicide. While other goals are important, this one is by far the most important. It is also the most challenging. It requires that we put recent good news into context, that we understand the geographic concentrations of gun violence, that we rethink the current patterns of Federal spending, and that we focus on learning about what works in the small number of neighborhoods that suffer most of the gun violence.
2 The geographic distribution of homicide can be compared to the geographic distribution of elevation in the United States. Consider an elevation map of the country. Most of us recognize the familiar bulge of the Eastern mountains in the Appalachian chain and the high peaks of the Rocky Mountains in the West. Few are surprised that the highest mountain in the United States is Mount McKinley in Alaska at 20,320 feet and that Death Valley in California is the lowest point at 282 feet below sea level.
3 What many people find surprising is that the average elevation of the United States is 2,500 feet, even though most Americans live far below that average. (For comparison, the average elevation of Washington, D.C., is 150 feet above sea level.) Forty-two States have average elevations lower than the national average, and only Denver and a few other cities have large populations at or above the average elevation. It is safe to assume that 90 percent or more of all Americans live below the average elevation (Wright, 1992: 47).
4 It is equally safe to assume that 90 percent or more of all Americans live within census tracts or small geographical neighborhoods where the homicide rate is well below the national average. Even in cities like Chicago, the homicide rate in middle-class neighborhoods such as Hyde Park is comparable to that of Sweden and is 80 percent lower than the national average. Yet 100 yards to the south of Hyde Park lies Woodlawn, where the homicide rate in 1996 was 12 times the national average (Crime Prevention Effectiveness Program, ongoing research).
5 The cumulative effect of neighborhoods like Woodlawn on the overall homicide rate is similar to the effect of the Rocky Mountains on the mean elevation of the United States. Almost half (44 percent) of all homicides in 1996 occurred in only 47 of approximately 14,000 police jurisdictions in the United States (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1997). The concentration within those cities is almost as great. A recent University of Maryland survey of homicides by census tract in large cities found that less than 1 percent of the U.S. population produced more than 10 percent of the homicides (Crime Prevention Effectiveness Program, ongoing research).
6 Most Americans live at a very low risk of homicide, by both national and world standards. If we want to reduce homicide in America, we would be ill advised to spread our resources equally across the entire Nation. If we want to lower our average elevation, we would be ill advised to bulldoze the prairie simply because more land mass is there. Knocking down the mountain peaks would lower the average elevation far more effectively.
References

Crime Prevention Effectiveness Program. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, ongoing research.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1997.

Wright, John, ed. The Universal Almanac 1993. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel, 1992.


Sherman, L.W. (1998, October) Cooling the Hot Spots of Homicide: A Plan for Action. In What Can the Federal Government Do To Decrease Crime and Revitalize Communities? Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/172210.pdf.
13. What is the best meaning of cumulative as it is used in paragraph 5?
A. Incredible

B. Collective

C. Unimportant

D. Reasonable


14. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?
A. Although the average elevation in the United States is 2,500 feet, most Americans live below that level, and most Americans live in low-crime areas.

B. Small neighborhoods suffer the most gun violence.

C. The importance of averages to understanding gun violence should not be underestimated.

D. Understanding the geographic distribution of homicides can help public safety officials stop these violent crimes by concentrating resources where most crimes occur.


15. Which of the following phrases best describes the author’s reason for writing about the Rocky Mountains in this passage?
A. to help the reader understand gun violence by analogy

B. as a contrast to crime statistics

C. to describe the beauty of natural resources

D. to show that homicides do occur in mountainous regions


16. The author explains that most of the American population lives below the average elevation of the United States. He explains that this is true because
A. extremely high points like Mount McKinley raise the average elevation above that of most of the land in the United States.

B. most people do not want to live at high elevations.

C. high levels of gun violence occur at high elevations.

D. elevations far below sea level like Death Valley lower the average elevation.


17. Which of the following assumptions most influenced the author’s argument?
A. The government can do nothing to stop violent crime.

B. Government resources can lower incidents of violent crime.

C. Even distribution of resources is always the best choice.

D. Even distribution of resources is never truly fair.


18. Which of the following types of graphics would most likely accompany this passage?
A. a map of the United States showing major mountain ranges

B. a bar chart comparing various mountain ranges and number of homicides

C. a map of the United States highlighting areas with the highest concentration of gun violence

D. a line graph showing increases and decreases in gun violence over time



History of Science Policy
1 During the two years immediately prior to the entry of the United States into World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt took two relatively low-key actions that were destined to have significant impact on the relationship between science and government in the United States. On September 9, 1939, he issued an Executive Order establishing the Executive Office of the President (EoP), following the recommendation of the President’s Committee on Administrative Management, chaired by Louis Brownlow; and on June 15, 1940—five days after the fall of France—he accepted the proposal of Vannevar Bush, President of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and Chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), to establish a National Research Defense Council (NRDC) that would aid national defense by placing relevant non-governmental science sectors at the disposal of the government. In 1941, the NRDC joined the Medical Research Council as a component of the emergency Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), whose director—Bush—reported directly to the president. This set a significant precedent for the special treatment of science by government.
2 The five or six years immediately following World War II are frequently cited as the period in which serious considerations of U.S. science policy were initiated. Between 1945 and 1951, more science- and technology-related federal agencies and advisory bodies were established than in any comparable period before or since. These included the 1946 establishment of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Office of Defense Mobilization (SAC/ODM), which was elevated to the President’s Science Advisory Committee (PSAC) in 1957. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) also grew during these years from a relatively minor agency to the nation’s principal support of biomedical research.
3 Debates about the charters of these agencies thrust large numbers of working scientists into overt political roles for the first time in American history.
4 While this was by far the largest and most coordinated federal effort to formulate science policy, it was not the first. Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and others at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 proposed granting the new federal government authority over the conduct and support of science (the proposal failed, largely because it was seen as taking too much power away from the states). The Civil War years saw an expanded federal reach into science aided by the absence of opponents, who were sitting in the Confederate capital in Richmond. The 1862 Morrill Act established a system of land grant colleges and the 1863 chartering of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) created a science advisor to the federal government. Another 1863 act led directly to the 1889 establishment of the Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 1884, Congress tasked the Allison Commission with determining whether there should be a federal Department of Science. With the onset of World War I, the federal government created the National Research Council in 1916.
5 The Franklin Roosevelt administration was the first to try its hand at long-range science-policy planning. Roosevelt’s New Deal introduced two novel ideas regarding federal authority over science: it asserted the right and responsibility of the federal government to become directly involved with issues previously considered off limits; and it advanced the then-novel idea that new programs and budget initiatives should include long-range plans.
Blanpied, W. (2010, June 14). Introduction. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m34577/1.2/.
19. What is the best synonym for thrust as it is used in paragraph 3?
A. Power

B. Encouraged

C. Tempted

D. Forced


20. In paragraph 2 the author writes, “Between 1945 and 1951, more science- and technology-related federal agencies and advisory bodies were established than in any comparable period before or since.” This statement is most likely a reference to
A. the surprising importance of scientists during wartime.

B. the growing importance of science policy to the United States government during and immediately after the presidency of FDR.

C. an unheard of interference of politics into science.

D. the founding of the National Institutes for Health.


21. Which of the following statements best expresses the author’s point of view?
A. The author believes that science and politics don’t mix.

B. The author respects the decisions made by FDR to plan science and technology policy through government agencies.

C. The author is surprised that previous attempts to formulate science policy failed.

D. The author believes that social and economic policymaking takes precedence over science and technology policy.


22. Which of the following best lists the historical order of events?
A. - FDR’s increased attention to science policy

- Establishment of Department of Agriculture

- Constitutional Convention

- Roosevelt’s New Deal


B. - National Research Defense Council established

- President’s Science Advisory Committee created

- Founding fathers attempt to include science policy in the Constitution

- Department of Agriculture established


C. - Founding fathers attempt to include science policy in the Constitution

- Department of Agriculture established

- National Research Defense Council established

- President’s Science Advisory Committee created


D. - President’s Science Advisory Committee created

- Founding fathers attempt to include science policy in the Constitution

- Department of Agriculture established

- National Research Defense Council established


23. Which of the following facts best supports the author’s contention that the federal government expanded scientific research opportunities during the Civil War?
A. The Morrill Act was passed and established land grant colleges.

B. The National Institutes of Health expanded.

C. The National Research Council was established.

D. Benjamin Franklin and others hoped to grant the federal government control over scientific research.


24. Which of the following statements best summarizes the main points of the passage?
A. The history of science policy demonstrates that political attempts to control science are not in the best interest of the nation.

B. The role of the federal government in scientific policymaking is hotly debated and unresolved to this day.

C. While the founding fathers failed to establish a federal science policy, government leaders during the Civil War made great advances in this area, culminating in FDR’s decisions.

D. Although FDR was not the first president to expand the role of the federal government in scientific research, his contributions to science-policy planning built on previous acts and established a base for further growth.



Libraries for an Aging Population
1 Librarians need models of how to provide services to—and with—older adults who are seeking to continue learning and remain engaged in the world. This requires familiarity with current thinking about longevity, the aging process, and the characteristics of midlife adults. Librarians need help in translating that basic information and insight into specific services.
2 New services to older adults have to be welcoming, attractive, and accessible, but above all they must imagine older adults in ways that respect their vitality and desire to learn, grow, and stretch their vision of themselves. Community services should reflect the new understanding of active older adults. They should enable libraries to fill voids not well met by senior centers, make the library the kind of place where midlife adults would like to be, and promote intergenerational connections that foster engagement in the whole community.
3 Working with today’s older adults involves new approaches to community librarianship. Baby boomers and others have their own ideas, so it is necessary to find ways of empowering them to define services and programs. Further, to attract baby boomers, programs must be marketed in new ways, such as by subject rather than by target audience. For example, we need to begin talking about travel for people who have the time to travel, not travel for older adults or other age groups. Librarians can take more of a facilitation role: You have an idea, we have a place. Baby boomers are looking for information and options. Libraries, as providers of community information, can link boomers to local opportunities for work and services.
4 Libraries need to develop new structures for identifying and mobilizing people with time and commitment who can assist their peers. Just as Home Depot salespeople include many retired tradespersons, such as plumbers and carpenters, who enjoy sharing their knowledge and talking with customers of all ages, so it could be with the library – a place for older people to share their knowledge.
5 Services must be administered by people who understand lifespan issues. Access to information and referrals about work, service, leisure, health, and other issues are the greatest needs of older adults. Libraries must integrate new understanding about older adults’ needs for information and options across their institutions:

  • Job and career centers are one example of the opportunity to adapt an existing service or reorganize around a different population.

  • Consumer health services can be reconfigured to factor in the needs and interests of older adults.

  • Computer training for active older adults is a growing need and should be part of the new model.

6 Across the country, libraries are beginning to develop services and programs that complement “senior services” and respond to baby boomers’ interests and needs. The Lifelong Access service framework developed by Americans for Libraries Council is one model for converting the new understanding about aging into specific programs and services. Its components include stakeholder involvement; provision of information on options for work, service and learning; community conversations about aging and retirement; intergenerational programming; and links to other agencies. Libraries in Arizona, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania are beginning to implement the service model, including organization of Lifelong Advisory Councils and Community Conversations on Aging and Retirement.


Zeisel, W. (2006) Designs for Change: Libraries and Productive Aging. Retrieved from Institute for Museums and Library Services Publications: http://www.imls.gov/pdf/DesignsforChange.pdf.
25. Which of the following words or phrases best defines complement as it is used in paragraph 6?
A. Better

B. Go along with

C. Compensate for

D. Praise


26. Which of the following statements from paragraph 3 best expresses the main idea of that paragraph?
A. Working with today’s older adults involves new approaches to community librarianship.

B. Baby boomers and others have their own ideas, so it is necessary to find ways of empowering them to define services and programs.

C. Further, to attract baby boomers, programs must be marketed in new ways, such as by subject rather than by target audience.

D. Baby boomers are looking for information and options.


27. Information in paragraph 6 is primarily intended to
A. explain how baby boomers differ from other generations and what they need from libraries.

B. outline a plan of action to help librarians meet the needs of older adults.

C. give examples of poor library programming for older adults.

D. give examples of effective library programming to meet the needs of an aging population.


28. Information presented in the passage best supports which of the following conclusions?
A. Older people want to get jobs as librarians.

B. Librarians need to make a greater effort to attract older rather than younger patrons.

C. Members of today’s older population are healthy and have time on their hands.

D. Our aging population is getting sicker and sicker.


29. Which of the following assumptions most influenced the author’s argument?
A. Libraries are not relevant institutions in today’s society.

B. Libraries provide more than just books.

C. Older adults need more emotional care and sensitivity.

D. People of all ages like to travel and learn about other parts of the world.


30. Which of the following summaries best captures the important ideas of the passage?
A. If libraries follow recommended programs to provide relevant services that are sensitive to lifespan issues, older people will benefit more from the library experience.

B. Like Home Depot, libraries should employ retired persons to make their services more relevant.

C. To attract baby boomers, libraries need to focus more on travel and home improvement resources.

D. Libraries and senior centers have failed to meet the needs of an aging population, so both should follow the models established in Massachusetts, Arizona, and Pennsylvania.



Daniel J. Boorstin (1914-2004)

12th Librarian of Congress 1954-1974
1 Daniel J. Boorstin, the twelfth Librarian of Congress, was born in Atlanta, Georgia on October 1, 1914.  He was one of the two sons of Samuel Aaron Boorstin, a lawyer, and of Dora (Olsan) Boorstin.  His grandparents on both sides of his family were Russian-Jewish immigrants.  He grew up and attended public schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma.  After graduating from Tulsa Central High School in 1930, he entered Harvard College, which awarded him the bachelor's degree summa cum laude in 1934.  As a Rhodes Scholar from Oklahoma, in 1934, he entered Balliol College, Oxford, from which he received his B.A. in Jurisprudence (first class honors) in 1936 and his Bachelor of Civil Laws (first class honors) in 1937.  Simultaneously, he was enrolled as a student at the Inner Temple, London, and passed the English bar examinations.  He became a Barrister-at-Law in 1937.
2 Boorstin returned to the United States in 1937 as a Sterling Fellow at Yale University Law School, where he worked toward a doctor of judicial science degree, which was awarded in 1940.  From 1938 to 1942, he was an instructor on the faculty of Harvard University, where he taught English and American history and literature, and also legal history at the Harvard Law School.  His first book, The Mysterious Science of the Law, was published by Harvard University Press in 1941.  He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1942.
3 While teaching at the Harvard Law School, he met his future wife, Ruth Frankel, the sister of a legal assistant who worked for him.  They were married in 1941 and she became his most trusted editor and the mother of their three sons, Paul, Jon, and David.
4 After a brief tour as a lawyer with the Lend-Lease administration, Boorstin joined the faculty of Swarthmore College.  In 1944 he left Swarthmore for the University of Chicago, working as one of a group of teachers under president Robert M. Hutchins to establish an interdisciplinary program in the social sciences.  He rose rapidly through the ranks of the history department, becoming a full professor in 1956.  In 1966, he was appointed to an endowed chair, the Preston and Sterling Morton Distinguished Service Professor of History.
5 In 1969, after a distinguished and productive 25-year academic career and many honors in the United States and abroad, Boorstin left the University of Chicago to become director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of History and Technology (today known as the National Museum of American History).  Focusing on the Smithsonian's participation in the forthcoming U.S. Bicentennial in 1976, he brought new intellectual energy to the institution, along with exhibitions such as "A Nation of Nations" that provided a new, broad social context for a new generation of Smithsonian exhibitions.  He stepped down as director in 1973 to become Senior Historian.
6 On June 30, 1975, President Gerald R. Ford nominated Boorstin to be Librarian of Congress.  The Senate hearings on the nomination lasted three days.  Opposition from the American Library Association echoed the association's opposition to the nomination of Archibald MacLeish to be Librarian of Congress in 1939: Boorstin's background, "however distinguished it may be, does not include demonstrated leadership and administrative qualities which constitute basic and essential characteristics necessary in the Librarian of Congress."  The nomination was strongly supported, however, by a bipartisan group of congressmen including Senators Mark O. Hatfield, Adlai E. Stevenson, and Charles H. Percy and Representatives Carl Albert, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and John J. Rhodes, Minority Leader of the House of Representatives.  Thus in 1975, as in 1939, the Congress readily accepted the nomination of an author and in this case a historian, to head the Library.  Confirmation occurred, without debate, on September 26, 1975, and on November 12, 1975, Daniel J. Boorstin took the oath of office as the twelfth Librarian of Congress.
Library of Congress. (2008, May 5) Daniel J. Boorstin. Retrieved from Library of Congress About the Library: http://www.loc.gov/about/librarianoffice/boorstin.html.
31. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to tour as it is used in paragraph 4?
A. Time

B. Vacation

C. Visit

D. Work
32. In paragraph 4 the author states that Boorstin “rose rapidly through the ranks of the history department, becoming a full professor in 1956.” This is most likely a reference to


A. Boorstin’s dubious practices as an educator.

B. Boorstin’s accomplishments as an academic, an administrator, and a historian.

C. Boorstin’s poor preparation to be Librarian of Congress.

D. Boorstin’s exciting and varied career paths.


33. The author’s main purpose in this passage is to
A. raise questions about the qualifications of non-librarians to serve in the Library of Congress.

B. persuade the reader that Boorstin’s nomination was just.

C. describe Boorstin’s career in detail.

D. provide information about a past Librarian of Congress.


34. According to information presented in the passage, which of the following factors most influenced the American Library Association to oppose the nomination of Boorstin to become Librarian of Congress?
A. His background was in academics, research, and writing rather than administration.

B. He had never worked in a library before.

C. His work at the Smithsonian would pose a conflict of interest.

D. Gerald Ford nominated Boorstin on June 30, 1975.


35. Which of the following statements best characterizes the author’s objectivity in this passage?
A. The author’s personal relationship with Daniel Boorstin makes him an unreliable source.

B. The author writes more persuasively about Boorstin than about the Library of Congress.

C. Although the author clearly respects Boorstin, he maintains and objective tone.

D. The unnecessary amount of time spent on Boorstin’s career reveals the author’s bias.


36. Which three main topics would best help outline information presented in the passage?
A. -Boorstin’s youth

-Boorstin’s career

-Boorstin’s accomplishments

-Boorstin’s death


B. -Education of Daniel Boorstin in law

-Boorstin’s career as a lawyer

-Boorstin’s career as an educator

-Boorstin’s career as a librarian


C. -Boorstin’s personal life

-Boorstin’s accomplishments in academics

-Boorstin’s accomplishments in museums and libraries
D. -Boorstin’s accomplishments

-Boorstin’s failures

-Debate over his nomination to Librarian of Congress

Waardenburg syndrome
1 Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an inherited disorder often characterized by varying degrees of hearing loss and changes in skin and hair pigmentation. The syndrome got its name from a Dutch eye doctor named Petrus Johannes Waardenburg who first noticed that people with differently colored eyes often had a hearing impairment. He went on to study over a thousand individuals in deaf families and found that some of them had certain physical characteristics in common.
2 One commonly observed characteristic of Waardenburg syndrome is two differently colored eyes. One eye is usually brown and the other blue. Sometimes, one eye has two different colors. Other individuals with Waardenburg syndrome may have unusually brilliant blue eyes.
3 People with WS may also have distinctive hair coloring, such as a patch of white hair or premature gray hair as early as age 12. Other possible physical features include a wide space between the inner corners of eyes called a broad nasal root. In addition persons with WS may have low frontal hairline and their eyebrows may connect. The levels of hearing loss associated with the syndrome can vary from moderate to profound.
4 Individuals with Waardenburg syndrome may have some or all of the traits of the syndrome. For example, a person with WS may have a white forelock, a patch of white hair near the forehead, and no hearing impairment. Others may have white patches of skin and severe hearing impairment. The severity of the hearing impairment varies among individuals with WS as do changes in the skin and hair.

On rare occasions, WS has been associated with other conditions that are present at birth, such as intestinal disorders, elevation of the shoulder blade, and disorders of the spine. A facial abnormality, known as cleft lip and/or palate, also has been associated with WS.


5 There are at least four types of Waardenburg syndrome. The most common types of WS identified by scientists are Type 1 and Type 2. The different types of physical characteristics a person has determines the type of WS. Persons who have an unusually wide space between the inner corners of their eyes have WS Type 1. Hearing impairments occur in about 20 percent of individuals with this type of Waardenburg syndrome. Persons who do not have a wide space between the inner corners of their eyes, but who have many other WS characteristics are described as having WS Type 2. About 50 percent of persons with WS Type 2 have a hearing impairment or are deaf.
6 As a genetic disorder, Waardenburg syndrome is passed down from parent to child much like hair color, blood type, or other physical traits. A child receives genetic material from each parent. Because Waardenburg syndrome is a dominant condition, a child usually inherits the syndrome from just one parent who has the malfunctioning WS gene. Actually, there is a 50/50 chance that a child of an individual with WS will also have the syndrome.
National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (1999, March) Waardenburg Syndrome. Retrieved from Health Info, Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/waard.asp.

37. Which of the following words is the most appropriate synonym for pigmentation as used in the first paragraph?


A. Length

B. Texture

C. Color

D. Loss
38. Information presented in which of the following paragraphs best supports the author’s statement that Waardenburg syndrome is an inherited disorder?


A. Paragraph 3

B. Paragraph 4

C. Paragraph 5

D. Paragraph 6


39. This passage was most likely written for an audience of
A. medical doctors.

B. the general educated public.

C. government policymakers.

D. schoolchildren.


40. According to information presented in the passage, a primary difference between WS Type 1 and WS Type 2 is that
A. people with WS Type 2 are less likely to have hearing loss.

B. people with WS Type 2 do not typically have a patch of white hair near the forehead.

C. WS Type 1 is not as serious as WS Type 2.

D. people with WS Type 2 do not have a wide space between their eyes.


41. Which of the following statements best describes the author’s credibility in this passage?
A. The author appears to be knowledgeable and reliable.

B. The author’s lack of medical training makes him or her an unreliable source.

C. The author’s personal experience raises questions about his or her bias.

D. The author appears to be more interested in deafness than in the other symptoms of Waardenburg syndrom.


42. Which of the following lists best outlines information presented in the passage?
A. - Doctor Petrus Johannes Waardenburg

- Two differently colored eyes

- Hair and skin pigmentation
B. - Hair and eye pigmentation associated with Waardenburg syndrome

- Hearing loss associationed with Waardenburg syndrome

- Children of parents with Waardenburg syndrome
C. - Discovery of Waardenburg syndrome

- Characteristics of Waardenburg syndrome

- Types of Waaredenburg syndrome
D. - Characteristics of Waardenburg syndrome

- Types of Waardenburg syndrome

- Similarities to other disorders

Answer Key


1. B

2. D


3. C

4. D


5. A

6. B


7. A

8. B


9. C

10. C


11. D

12. B


13. B

14. D


15. A

16. A


17. B

18. C


19. D

20. B


21. B

22. C


23. A

24. D


25. B

26. B


27. D

28. C


29. B

30. A


31. A

32. B


33. D

34. A


35. C

36. C


37. C

38. D


39. B

40. D


41. A

42. C







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