[ ] A [X] B [ ] C [ ] FI [ ] TBD (to be determined)
Date PID Prepared
October 13, 2006
Estimated Date of Appraisal Authorization
January 17, 2007
Estimated Date of Board Approval
March 29, 2007
Key development issues and rationale for Bank involvement
.1Economic growth in Zanzibar has averaged 6% over the past three years and GDP per capita is estimated at $300 in 2004 (compared to $260 on mainland Tanzania). Unusually in Africa, services represent the major share of GDP (51% in 2004) followed by agriculture (23%) and industry (13%). Tourism is growing rapidly and Zanzibar’s unique history and environment provide it with “name recognition” internationally and the number of African and international visitors is growing each year. However, Tanzanians on the Isles are not participating in the numbers expected, largely because they do not have the required skills, particularly in English. In addition, skills in mathematics and science are limited and inadequate to serve the needs of a modern economy. It is estimated that 22% of the population live in poverty and this is distributed unevenly throughout the islands with up to 60% living in poverty in some rural areas. Zanzibar’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan (MKUZA) has three clusters of activities: Growth and reduction of income poverty; Improved social well-being and access to quality social services with emphasis on the poor men and women and vulnerable groups; and Good governance and national unity. In regard to education the MKUZA objectives are: to ensure equitable access to demand-driven quality education which is gender responsive.
.2Currently education spending is in the range of 4.0 – 4.5% of GDP and about 22% of government spending. Gross enrolment rates at primary school is about 100% (with about 80% net enrollment). The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar (RGZ) has analyzed the major constraints and challenges affecting the education sector and published this in 2005 as the Zanzibar Education Sector Country Status Report (ZESCSR). Subsequently, secondary education was identified as the most urgent priority for reform. At secondary level, ZESCSR identified the following issues:
Inadequate access. Only three new designated secondary schools have been built since independence and none have been built for the past fifteen years! Most of the schools operate double-shift and, despite this, average class size is over 60.
Poor English language proficiency. The language of instruction in primary school is Kiswahili and many students are unable to cope with the transition to teaching in English at secondary level. In addition, many secondary teachers have poor skills in English.
Under-qualified and unqualified teachers. Only 58% of the teachers in secondary schools are qualified and there are acute shortages of teachers in English, mathematics and science. In addition, teachers are deployed inefficiently.
Lack of teaching/learning materials. MoEVT does not provide textbooks, and laboratory and ICT equipment is in very short supply.
.3Based on the ZESCSR, MoEVT has developed a new Zanzibar Education and Training Policy which addressed structure and focus for education and has been approved by the Zanzibar House of Representatives. The current system of basic education for all has seven years of primary and three years of secondary education. Upon completion of basic education about 40% of students go on to two years of secondary school and sit for O-level examinations and a further 25% of the most academically successful of these go on to A-level. Currently, the language of instruction in primary school is Kiswahili, and in secondary school is English. The new system will have two years of preschool education for all and retain the ten years of primary and lower secondary education for all but the system will be organized into six years of primary and four years of lower secondary education. It is intended that all children will complete lower secondary and sit for O-level examinations. The new system also recognizes the importance of English language, mathematics and science and children will be taught mathematics, social studies and science through English in the last two years of primary school. It is MoEVT’s intention also to improve teacher preparation for secondary schools by increasing the number of places on diploma and degree courses and requiring teachers teaching in the first two years of secondary school to have a diploma and in the next two years to have a degree. The latter will be phased in gradually.
.4The education system at Zanzibar is closely aligned with the system on the mainland. In primary education the curriculum and examinations are managed at Zanzibar. Secondary education is a shared responsibility where curriculum and examinations falls under the auspices of the Tanzania Institute of Education and the National Examinations Council of Tanzania. Financing however is considered a responsibility of the RGZ. Tertiary education is a “union matter” according to the Constitution. The structure of the system is today similar to the mainland with the exception of the “Orientation Secondary Class” which adds a year to the Zanzibar cycle. This will be phased out soon. The primary cycle is currently seven years in both places though this will be reduced to six years in the future at Zanzibar.
.5Following the decision by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania not to include Zanzibar in the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP approved by the Board in June, 2004) but to develop a separate program for Zanzibar, the MoEVT prepared the Secondary Education Development Programme in October 2005 and asked the World Bank to lead external partners in their analytical work and dialogue with RGZ. The Government is in the process of developing a Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) in education in which the World Bank and other development partners are involved. However, to address urgent needs in secondary education Government has asked the World Bank to spearhead support for secondary education through a separate investment credit. The project objectives and interventions are fully consistent with the full sector-wide program under development and is expected to further help consolidate the SWAP concept. Preparatory studies are also coordinated with those for the SWAp. A few other donors have started discussions on support for secondary education, although specific financial contributions may take some time to materialize.
.6The development objective is to improve completion of lower secondary education with successful performance among students.. Quantitative indicators will be chosen which can measure the number of children, disaggregated by gender, taking and passing the O-level examination1.
.7Recognizing that secondary education benefits the young people receiving it and the country providing it, MoEVT has identified secondary education as its highest priority and requested the Bank to lead partners in supporting this sub sector. At the same time, MoEVT is developing a sector program and this project will support and be integrated into this. Given that this is the first separate project for Zanzibar and that the sector program will take some time to develop, it is intended that secondary education will be supported initially through a Specific Investment Credit. ADB is likely to provide further support for secondary (it is currently supporting primary education) and USAID will be providing textbooks for science subjects.
.8To address more immediate needs, even as the SWAP is being discussed among the Government and donor partners, the proposed intervention will focus on four main outputs namely: (i) Improved access to and equity in secondary education; (ii) Improved quality of secondary education; (iii) Capacity Building for the education system.
.9The proposed project has been tentatively costed to US$35 million. Work remains to further refine realistic costing of project components based upon previous experience and expert inputs. MoEVT will also prioritize project components to achieve a balance of components between access and quality – to address the issues noted above. Tentatively, the following components and the specific inputs have been discussed as proposals to be discussed and finalized during preparation.
Component 1: Improving access and equity to Secondary Education
.10Sub-Component 1A. To meet the demand for school facilities to accommodate the projected increase in secondary school enrolment, the project will support:
(i) Construction of new schools with a total capacity of 100 classrooms. The project will construct 100 classrooms in areas where very little provision currently exists or the facilities are dilapidated and the structures temporary. It is expected that schools continue to be double shifted and as such this would add between 8000-12000 student places depending upon the student classroom ratio. As part of this program, about thirty science laboratories, 10 computer labs, 10 libraries, 10 administrative blocks, toilet facilities and water and 20 staff houses will also be built. Site selection principles will take into account existing coverage and school-age population in the area. Most sites will be identified upfront. It remains to modify existing designs or to produce new designs for these schools. Information on cost remains limited as the work undertaken by the MoEVT so far has mainly focused on completion and rehabilitation works, and as such there is limited information on the cost of new construction by National or International contractors. The current unit rates used for project planning have been calculated through analysis of empirical data from a limited number of construction projects. Communities have traditionally contributed extensively to primary schools, and also to a lesser extent, towards secondary school extensions (usually within a combined primary/secondary school), and ways in which communities will be engaged will be defined during preparation.
(ii) Construction of 10 “model” secondary schools. These schools will be established in all of the ten districts of Zanzibar and their size will vary according to school-age population and enrollment in the various districts. The model school concept builds upon a long running system of selective “biased schools” at Zanzibar. There are very few of these biased schools currently and the provision of ten new model schools, one in each district, will significantly expand the capacity and make the distribution of quality secondary education more equitable on both islands (Pemba and Unguja). The model schools are defined by the availability of adequate facilities and innovative education programs that could meet the students learning needs. These model schools will not necessarily differ from other schools in terms of buildings, but are likely to be served with better facilities in the form of laboratories and equipment. The model school will have facilities that will include (i) at least 6 standard size well-ventilated and well-secured classrooms complete with furniture (ii) a science block including laboratories for Chemistry, Physics and Biology (iii) library and bookstore (iv) Computer room (v) multipurpose hall and workshop (vi) head teachers office with furniture and other office facilities (vii) staff room with furniture (viii) Hostels (ix) 10 staff houses and (x) adequate toilet facilities and potable water. In addition to the functional requirements, it is necessary to define the space standards applicable to the various sub-components (classrooms, laboratories, computer rooms, library etc), the level of equipment provision, the quality and type of finishes required and the capital cost constraints before appraisal.
(iii) Rehabilitation of seven secondary schools; four of them situated in Stone Town and three in Pemba.
.11Sub-Component 1B. In order to accommodate the expansion of enrolments, it will be necessary to increase the supply of secondary school teachers. It is estimated that if all the secondary schools have to be equipped with academically and professionally qualified teachers, the system would need approximately 2414 new teachers for the next five years. To increase the supply of teachers especially for Pemba, the project will support:
(i) Construction of a new facility for Benjamin Mkapa Teacher Training College in Pemba. This College is currently located in an old factory building with poor facilities and the capacity to train 100 primary school teachers. It is intended that the College will have the capacity to enroll about 500 primary and secondary teachers with an annual output of about 200 teachers. The college will have 12 classrooms, 3 well-equipped laboratories, computer room, multipurpose workshop and hall, library and bookstore, toilets and administration block and hostel facilities to accommodate about 200 students. The new facility will be built on an already identified site at Mchangamdogo in North Pemba.
Component 2: Quality Improvement.
.12In addition to enhancing the physical learning environment at the secondary and teacher education levels, the project will support the provision of inputs aimed at improving the quality of education through provision of textbooks, reference books, equipment, and training of teachers through both pre-service and in-service training and improving the capacity of the teacher training institutions.
.13Sub-Component 2A. To enhance the quality of teaching at the secondary level, the project will provide support for pre-service and in-service training of teachers over a five year period. Based on the demand for teachers, the project will finance the training of teachers mainly in the areas of science, mathematics, ICT and English language. The training will focus on improved classroom instruction, with certification of unqualified teachers at par with those graduating from teacher training colleges. Staff from Teacher Training College, the State University of Zanzibar and the Zonal Teacher Centers will be used in the professional development of teachers. The in-service training program will be modeled on the successful Teacher Advancement Programme which has been carried out for the last five years. Capacity of these Institutions to deliver the services will be strengthened through the provision of 10 long- and short-term training courses and the provision of teaching and learning materials such as textbooks, reference books, laboratory equipment and chemicals. MoEVT will refine and cost its plans for in-service teacher training., including: (i) secondary maths and science teachers; (ii) English for primary teachers; (iii) primary science and maths teachers; (iv) school head teachers and inspectors. The plan will include course specifications, projected numbers and structures, costs, and implementation arrangements should be prepared in advance of the next mission. MoEVt will also prepare structures to ensure ongoing monitoring and regulation teacher supply, and teacher deployment policies and practices.
.14Sub-Component 2B. Overall the project will enhance educational quality at the secondary education level by financing the provision of textbooks and reference books, science equipment and ICT equipment. The schools will be provided with laboratory equipment and chemicals, 405 computers, 560,000 textbooks and other teaching and learning materials for both students and teachers and at least 135,000 volumes of library books (5,000 volumes per school). MoEVT will revisit possible cost-sharing modalities for the sustainable provision of textbooks in key subjects in all junior secondary schools in Zanzibar. This includes. (i) Examine current distribution and utilization mechanisms for textbooks on the mainland and in Zanzibar; (ii) report on appropriate cost-sharing modalities in other countries; (iii) calculating annual cost implications of implementing sustainable textbook provision and (iv) recommend a cost-sharing strategy for Zanzibar. This will be completed during implementation and prior to distribution of the books.
.15Sub-Component 2C. The policy decision to teach some subjects in English language at the upper primary level is intended to improve the pupils’ readiness for secondary school. The project will provide support for the development of curriculum and materials for the upper primary classes as well as in-service training of teachers at this level. As has been described, pre-vocational education and training will be introduced to give the students an understanding of the skills required in the world of work and the project will provide institutional support to the Curriculum and Materials Development Division to undertake the work. Government will prepare to implement the necessary changes in initial teacher education curricula to align with the revised structures, including: (i) preparing diploma level secondary teachers to teach to Form 4; (ii) preparing primary teachers of maths and science to teach through English from standard 5; and (iii) enhancing the English language skills of all primary teachers.
.16Sub-Component 2D. To strengthen the supervision process, the Department of Inspectorate which is now understaffed and lacks necessary equipment and facilities will be improved through training more Inspectors and the provision of vehicles, computers and associated accessories. The Department will be responsible for supervising the teaching and learning process in the classrooms.
Component 3: Capacity Building for the Education System
.17Sub-Component 3A. The objective of this component is to meet the capacity requirement for the education sector but in particular for those associated with the management of the secondary education sub-system. The project will support:
(i) Technical assistance for the conduct of functional analysis of the organization and management of MoEVT, definition of the roles of the Central Ministry vis a vis the Regions and Districts. As a result of the study it is anticipated that MoEVT will restructure its administration and management in order to strengthen its policy development role and its capacity to deliver education services more effectively. This will be particularly relevant and important in preparation for the SWAp.
(ii) Management training for about 100 secondary school managers both through regular face to face and through distance education by the use of the network of the Teacher Centers. Likewise the School Management Committee will be trained for trouble-shooting and in practical maintenance skills for minor repairs at schools. The project will finance the purchase of toolkits for all the secondary schools and provision of updated maintenance manual.
(iii) Short- and long-term training of staff at various levels of the sectors will be provided. About 5 long-term training and 10 short-term training courses will be provided. The aim is to improve and upgrade management skills in the Ministry in the area of planning, budgeting, resource allocation, monitoring and evaluation and donor coordination.
.18Sub-Component 3B. This component will cover issues of HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention, as well as gender and environmental issues among students and teachers. The magnitude of the impact of HIV/AIDS pandemic in education sector in Zanzibar is not documented and the data of teachers and students affected are not available. However, it is known that HIV/AIDS has affected all the sectors. This will involve HIV/AIDS and environmental awareness and sensitization in secondary schools by updating all the teaching and learning materials, and conducting workshops for teachers and students. The activity will be carried out to complement UNFPA-funded Moral Ethics and Environmental Studies. Girls’ performance at secondary education level especially in the area of science and mathematics subjects will also be emphasized.
4. Institutional Arrangements
.19Implementation of the project will be carried out through the existing structures of the MoEVT, involving its different departments, district education boards and education institutions. To ensure adequate coordination and collaboration, the roles and outputs for these different levels regarding the project will be specified, and mainstreamed in the day to day functions at these different levels. The MoEVT will specify the roles including capacity building required at all levels for project implementation. The Project Implementation Plan will be developed during preparation. Further clarity on the scope of construction activities is required before the Plan can be shaped though there is some benefit in considering possible procurement methods at an early stage. It is anticipated that the scale of activities and the timeframe within which they will take place will require the resources of larger national contractors.
.20Overall capacity in MoEVT to manage and implement the program is found to be good but will need reinforcement in particular areas. The capacity of the relevant units of MoEVT will be strengthened through the provision of technical assistance, short-term training and equipment necessary to undertake the implementation of the program. A tentative assessment of procurement capacity has taken place and it is likely that this will require strengthening. An assessment of appropriate procurement methods will be done, taking into account the capacity of contractors. The World Bank will advice on how to proceed with this. An assessment of financial management capacity has taken place and generally concludes that the project can utilize existing systems in MoEVT for project financial management. Capacity and procedures are advanced to the extent that it is a model for others. Capacity in the Physical Development Division (PDD) of the MoEVT in particular needs strengthening. The current PDD has four Building Supervisors on Unguja and two on Pemba. The value of contracts supervised annually is in the region of US$ 2 mil. Whilst this might seem a low figure generally, much of the construction work has been undertaken through Force Account procedures which are labour intensive in supervision activities and the staff are working at capacity. The current PDD staff does not have the capacity to undertake the supervision and control of a programme of the scale envisaged. It needs to be bolstered by the employment of external consultants or by the appointment of additional staff, or both.
5. Safeguard policies that might apply
The project is expected to trigger the Environmental Assessment (OP/BO 4.01) and Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12) policies due to its focus on construction and rehabilitation of schools. An Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) will be prepared to identify, assess and mitigate likely negative environmental and social impacts of the project. And a Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) will be prepared to address the potential resettlement issues.
1 It should be noted that while the O-level exam is norm referenced, it is the same examination as that taken on the mainland. As Zanzibar students represent no more that 5% of examination takers, their performance relative to students on the mainland can be used to demonstrate progress in learning.