Republic of Côte d'Ivoire Urbanization Review

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Report No: AUS10013


Republic of Côte d'Ivoire

Côte d'Ivoire Urbanization Review


June 12, 2015






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Côte d’Ivoire Urbanization Review

Diversified Urbanization
June 12th, 2015

The World Bank


Acknowledgments 7

Executive Summary 8

Overview Chapter: Rethinking Ivorian Cities 12

Cities, Growth, and Productivity in Côte d’Ivoire 13

Urbanization: dynamics and policy responses 17

A typology of Ivorian cities: Global, Regional, and Domestic Connectors 21

Global Connectors 24

Regional Connectors 25

Domestic Connectors 25

Rethinking Ivorian Cities: Better Planning, Connecting, Greening, and Financing 25

Planning 26

Connecting 30

Greening 35

Financing 38

References 40

Chapter 1: Planning Cities 42

Current state of urban development in Côte d’Ivoire 42

Population growth 43

Urban infrastructure and access to basic services 44

The housing challenge 47

Main drivers of urbanization challenges 51

Outdated planning regulations 52

Parallel tenure systems 56

Undeveloped land: a public or private resource? 57

Preparing land for urban purposes 58

Delivering urban services 59

Affordable housing delivery 60

Looking ahead: priorities for action 61

Improving land market fluidity 61

Expanding service delivery 64

Simpler and more efficient planning 66

References 68

Chapter 2: Connecting Cities 70

Intra-urban mobility 70

Limited internal connections in Abidjan 71

Coordinating land use for intra-urban connectivity 73

Inter-urban connectivity 74

Road infrastructure 74

Transport costs 76

International connectivity 80

Maritime connectivity 80

Air connectivity 81

Rail connectivity 82

ICT connectivity 82

References 84

Chapter 3: Greening Cities 85

Why think about greening cities? 86

How green are Ivorian cities? 88

Urban pollution in Côte d’Ivoire effects productivity and livability 88

Unreliable basic services increase the social, economic, and environmental pressures of pollution from urban activities. 91

Coordination failures increase the costs of pollution from urban mobility and industrial activity 92

A green toolbox: instruments for decision makers 95

Building a data collection and dissemination platform 96

Improving the quality and coverage of basic services 98

Integrated planning 101

References 104

Chapter 4: Financing Cities 109

Moves to devolve responsibility and finance 109

Aims of decentralization of municipal services 110

Incomplete and inconsistent decentralization 112

Municipal finance and expenditures 114

Regulatory framework governing municipal finance 114

Total municipal revenues 115

Intergovernmental fiscal transfers 116

Local revenues and borrowing 119

Inadequate municipal finances for investment 121

Strengthening the system for municipal finance and expanding financing opportunities 123

Consolidating, harmonizing, and enforcing the legal and regulatory framework for municipal financing 125

Intervening to strengthen the intergovernmental fiscal framework 125

Strengthening the local revenue base 126

Following up on specific new areas for municipal financing 126

References 126

















Definitive Concession Decision (Arrête de Concession Définitive)

Bureau National d’Etude Technique et de Développement

Agency for Land Development (Agence de Gestion Foncière)

National Agency for Urban Sanitation (Agence Nationale de Salubrité Urbaine)

Association of Regions and Districts (Association des Regions et Districts de Côte d’Ivoire)

Country Environment Assessment

CFA Franc

Ivorian Company of Electricity (Compagnie Ivoirienne d’Electricité)

Côte d’Ivoire

Parastatal Accounting Directorate (Direction de la Comptabilité Parapublique)

General Directorate for Decentralization and Local Development (Direction Générale de la Décentralisation et du Développement Local)

General Financial Allocation (Dotation Globale Financière)

General Directorate of Treasury and Public Accounting (Direction Générale du Trésor et de la Comptabilité Publique)

General Directorate of Tax (Direction Générale des Impôts)

Directorate of Operations for Decentralized Collectivities (Direction des Opérations des Collectivités Décentralisées)

Household Survey (Enquête Niveau de Vie)

Municipal Credit Fund (Fonds de Prêts aux Collectivités Locales)

National Institute of Statistics (Institut National de la Statistique)

Japan International Cooperation Agency


Ministry of Urban Development (Ministère de la Construction, du Logement, de l’Assainissement et de l’Urbanisme)

Public–Private Partnership




General Population and Housing Census (Recensement General de la Population et de l’Habitat)

Company Urban Land Equipment (Société d'Equipement des Terrains Urbain)

Ivorian Company for Construction and Real Estate Management (Société Ivoirienne de Construction et de Gestion Immobilière)

Company for Water in Côte d’Ivoire (Société de Distribution Eau en Côte Ivoire)

Company of Management and Financing of Housing (Société de Gestion et de Financement de l'Habitat)

Fee for Removal of Household Waste (Taxe d’Enlèvement des Ordures Ménagères)


Union des Villes et Communes de Côte d’Ivoire (Association of Municipalities)



United State Agency for International Development

West African Economic and Monetary Union

All dollar amounts are U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.

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