Making Nutrition Policy Central to Development Understanding the Political and Institutional Conditions for Policy Change Case Study of the Political Economy of Nutrition Policies in Ethiopia Prepared By



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Making Nutrition Policy Central to Development
Understanding the Political and Institutional Conditions for Policy Change

Case Study of the Political Economy of Nutrition Policies in Ethiopia

Prepared By:

Mimi Wu


Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy

University of Virginia



August 3, 2009

Table of Contents





Table of Contents 2

Acknowledgements 2

Acronyms and Abbreviations 3

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6

I. INTRODUCTION 11

II. STUDY METHODOLOGY 13

III. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY 14

3.1 The Political Context in which Nutrition Policies Operate 14

3.2 Trajectory of Nutrition Policies in Ethiopia: Characterizing the “Outcome” 25

3.3 The Policy Making Process for Nutrition Policies: Characterizing the Scene, Actors and Strategies
41


3.4 Explaining Change: Factors Associated with Policy Change 44

3.5 Understanding Sequence (and Inter-Relation): Unpacking Key Factors
Identifying and Strategies 52


IV. Lessons Learned 56

Resources 59

Annex 1 65


Acknowledgements

This study on the political economy of nutrition policies in Tanzania was conducted on behalf of the World Bank. It was completed as a shadow case study for the comparative study of nutrition policies in six countries in Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Madagascar, and Senegal. The World Bank is conducting this comparative study to understand the factors and strategies pursued in Tanzania for nutrition policy-making and implementation, as well as long-term sustainability of nutrition policy as a result of governmental commitment.


The author would like to express her sincere gratitude to Menno Mulder-Sibanda and Marcela Natalicchio for their generous guidance and support. The author has also benefited from comments of Sue Anthony, Sue Lautze, Sunil Rajkumar, and Helen Young.

Acronyms and Abbreviations





ADLI

Agricultural Development-Led Industrialization

CF

Conceptual Framework

CM

Council of Ministers

CSD

Child Survival and Development

CTC

Community-based Therapeutic Care

DAG

Donor Assistance Group

DFID

Department for International Development (UK)

DPPA

Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Agency

EDHS

Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

EHNRI

Ethiopia Health and Nutrition Research Institute

ENA

Essential Nutrition Actions

ENI

Ethiopia Nutrition Institute

EPI

Expanded Program of Immunization

EOS

Enhanced Outreach Strategy

EWS

Emergency Warning System

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization (UN)

FMOH

Federal Ministry of Health

FSCB

Food Security Coordination Bureau

FSP

Food Security Project

GoE

Government of Ethiopia

HEP

Health Extension Plan

HEW

Health Expansion Worker

HSDP

Health Sector Development Plan

ICN

International Conference on Nutrition

IDA

Iron Deficiency Anemia

IDD

Iodine Deficiency Disorder

IFPRI

International Food Policy Research Institute

IOC

Iodized Oil Capsules

IYCF

Infant and Young Child Feeding Program

JNSP

Joint Nutrition Support Program

LGA

Local Government Authorities

MDA

Ministries, Departments, and Executive Agencies

MOARD

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

MOE

Ministry of Education

MOFED

Ministry of Finance and Economic Development

MPEE

Ministry of Planning, Economy and Environment

NCSS

National Child Survival Strategy

NFW

Nutrition Field Worker

NHP

National Health Policy

NID

National Immunization Days

NNP

National Nutrition Program

NNS

National Nutrition Strategy

OTP

Outpatient Treatment Program

PASDEP

Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty

PEM

Protein Energy Malnutrition

PM

Prime Minister

Profiles

USAID-funded analysis on the human and economic development consequences of malnutrition

RRC

Relief and Rehabilitation Commission

SDPRP

Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program

SIDA

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

SFP

Supplementary Feeding Program

SNP

Sidamo Nutrition Project

Triple-A Approach

Assessment-Analysis-Action

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund

USAID

U.S. Agency for International Development

VAD

Vitamin A Deficiency

WC

Woreda Council

WHO

World Health Organization




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