Researching: different flavour of linux



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OPERATING SYSTEM RESEARCH PROJECT
April 24, 2014

Bidur Shrestha


CSC 345: Operating System
RESEARCHING: DIFFERENT FLAVOUR OF LINUX
Prepared for: Associate Professor of Computer Science

The SWEPCO Endowed Professor*

Center for Entrepreneurship and Information Technology,

Louisiana Tech University,

Dr. Box Leangsuksun
Prepared by: Bidur Shrestha
April 24, 2014



ABSTRACT

“RESEARCHING HOW DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTION OF LINUX IS USED”

Prepared by: Bidur Shrestha
This technical report discusses the current advances in Linux world and how are they distributed.

Linux is an open source operating system modelled on a UNIX. It is the software on a computer that enables applications and the computer operator to access the devices on the computer to perform desired function. (Linux foundation) In this report, I would like to talk about how Linux has been a part of our life and how helpful is it.





TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction

Definition

What is OS?

What is kernel?

Open source

History


Founder

Why was Linux made?

Distribution based on package management system



Debian

Gentoo

Gacman

RPM

Others

Conclusions

References


INTRODUCTION

Linux is defined as an open-source operating system modelled on UNIX. According to Linux foundation its states that “Linux is, in simplest terms, an operating system. It is the software on a computer that enables applications and the computer operator to access the devices on the computer to perform desired functions. The operating system (OS) relays instructions from an application to, for instance, the computer's processor. The processor performs the instructed task, and then sends the results back to the application via the operating system”. Several definition of Linux that is provides others to us as well.

Figure .1

Source: "Picture of Linux Kernel - Google Search." Picture of Linux Kernel - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.


Talking about the operating system, operating system makes the system to operate.so that you can get access to hardware. Operating system has several functions such as the operating system serves as an intermediary between application software and the hardware. An operating system knows how to make your hardware operate which are written for specific hardware. There are many ways to categorize the various operating systems that we find run on different hardware configuration. Operating system act like a bridge between hardware and software.


Figure 2

Source: "Picture of Linux Kernel - Google Search." Picture of Linux Kernel - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014

Data also recorded by the Linux foundation is that “Over 1,000 developers, from at least 100 different companies, contribute to every kernel release. In the past two years alone, over 3,200 developers from 200 companies have contributed to the kernel--which is just one small piece of a Linux distribution.” Therefore, now we think about the kernel, what is kernel and how is it useful to us. Linux Kernel is a UNIX like operating system kernel, which is released under the general public license. The Linux kernel is also an example of  open source software.

Generically an open source means that the source code provided to the public should be free and source code can be modified according to user desire. Open source is generally created and developed by the programmer and redistributed back to the community for no cost.. When Open source code are created which means the programmers has done collaborative effort in program and has improve the source code and share it to the community. Open source sprouted in the technological community as a response to proprietary software owned by corporations. After knowing this we would definitely like to know that who has contributed so much to the community and how it has evolved?




As describe by the source “On August 25, 1991, a Finn computer science student named Linus Torvalds made the following announcement to the Usenet group comp.os.minux:"I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) (among other things).” The “Minix” Torvalds referred to is a variant of the UNIX operating system, used as a guideline for his the free operating system he wanted to run on the x86-based consumer PCs of the day. “Gnu” refers to the set of GNU (GNU Is Not Unix) tools first put together by Richard Stallman in 1983. UNIX, the operating system that started it all, had its origins in the old Bell Labs back in the early 60s.” (Linux foundation)

Torvalds had work hard and built built the core of the Linux operating system, which is also known as the kernel. A kernel has nothing to do by itself unless its matched with the GNU tool that was developed by is Stallman’s. “GNU tools were from a project to create an operating system as well--a project that was missing a kernel to make Stallman's operating system complete. Torvalds' matching of GNU tools with the Linux kernel marked the beginning of the Linux operating system as it is known today”. (Linux foundation)

Linux has moved on and developed by different commercial user in order to make their living. Since the start of Linux in 1991, it has modified several times and has been redistributed in different form. On the basic of package management system, it has been distributed in several forms. The diagram below show how it has been distributed.

Figure 3


Source: "Picture of Linux Kernel - Google Search." Picture of Linux Kernel - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014

Debian Based:

  • Distribution designed to have highly optimized and frequently update software.

  • Uses portage package management system

  • E.g. gentoox, google OS


Gentoo:

  • Uses portage package management system

  • E.g. gentoox , google OS

  • Distribution designed to have highly optimized and frequently update software.


Pac man:

  • A package manager is capable of resolving dependencies

  • User need to only run a single command to completely update the system.

  • E.g. chakra and arch


RPM:

Others: there are various others distribution that are establish according to the user requirement such as Alpine Linux is a security-oriented, lightweight Linux distribution based on unclibc and Busy Box.

Since Linux has so many distributions and choose that, we can use operating system in a variety of ways so it leads us in advantage than any operating system such as windows and IOS.



Advantage:

cost - since Linux is open source it is free of cost so in order to install Linux you don’t have to pay the money.

Security- Linux is more secure than any other operating system

Freedom- Linux provides you a variety of distribution so that you have a great choice of OS.

Hardware – Even in old hardware, Linux works perfectly.

Flexibility- understanding Linux will provide you complete satisfactory in user experience and it is so flexible that you perform dual boot or can also perform virtualization.

Compatibility- it is compatible with most of the devices that are found. Lots of programmer is working to upgrade their code to catch up with changing hardware so as soon as new hardware comes to cope with the change Linux programmer work hard to keep the kernel level up to date.
CONCLUSION

Linux works out the best for those who want to customize and it help us to learn as well as hands on experience on operating system. Since its open source so, it is affordable. It has provides us the choice so we can select our operating system If you really want to learn then I would always recommend using Linux.




REFERENCES


"Picture of Linux Kernel - Google Search." Picture of Linux Kernel - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.

"What Is Linux." The Linux Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.

"Meet Ubuntu." Ubuntu PC Operating System. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.

"8 Advantages of Using Linux over Windows by Ubuntu-Artists on DeviantART."8 Advantages of Using Linux over Windows by Ubuntu-Artists on Deviant ART. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.



"List of Linux Distributions." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Apr. 2014. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.




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