Rosario C. Maramba Information Technology



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Rosario C. Maramba

Information Technology



  1. Define IT.

Information technology is a modern term that describes the combination of traditional computer and communication technologies. Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data,often in the context of a business or other enterprise. The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, such as computer,hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce and computer services.

  1. Enumerate the parts of IS.

. An information system has five parts: people, procedures, software, hardware, and data.

1.People: It is easy to overlook people as one of the five parts of a microcomputer system. Yet this is what microcomputers are all about—making people ,end users like you, more productive.

2. Procedures: The rules or guidelines for people to follow when using software, hardware, and data are procedures. These procedures are typically documented in manuals written by computer specialists. Software and hardware manufacturers provide manuals with their products. These manuals are provided either in printed or electronic form.

3. Software: A program consists of the step-by-step instructions that tell the computer how to do its work. Software is another name for a program or programs. The purpose of software is to convert data (unprocessed facts) into information (processed facts). For example, a payroll program would instruct the computer to take the number of hours you worked in a week (data) and multiply it by your pay rate (data) to determine how much you are paid for the week (information).

4.Hardware: The equipment that processes the data to create information is called hardware. It includes the keyboard, mouse, monitor, system unit, and other devices. Hardware is controlled by software.

5. Data: The raw, unprocessed facts, including text, numbers, images, and sounds are called data. Processed, data yields information. Using the example above, the data (number of hours worked and pay rate) are processed (multiplied) to yield information (weekly pay).

Almost all of today’s computer systems add an additional part to the information system. This part, called connectivity, allows computers to connect and to share information. These connections, including Internet connections, can be by telephone lines, by cable, or through the air. Connectivity allows users to greatly expand the capability and usefulness of their information systems.


  1. Discuss each part of the computer system.

The system unit is the core of a computer system. Usually it's a rectangular box placed on or underneath your desk. Inside this box are many electronic components that process information. The most important of these components is the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor, which acts as the "brain" of your computer. Another component is random access memory (RAM), which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. The information stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned off.

Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. The cables plug into specific ports(openings), typically on the back of the system unit. Hardware that is not part of the system unit is sometimes called a peripheral device or device.



  1. Motherboard – The motherboard is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. It is also known as the mainboard or system board.

  2. CPU – The CPU is the central electronic chip that determines the processing power of the computer.

  3. Memory – Memory is the part of the computer that temporarily stores applications, documents, and stem operating information.

  4. Bus – A bus is an electronic line that allows 1s and 0s to move from one place to another.

  5. Expansion Slots – Expansions slots appear on the motherboard. They are sockets into which adapters are connected.

  6. Ports and Connectors – A port is a connector located on the motherboard or on a separate adapter.

  7. Bays – A bay is a space inside the computer case where a hard drive, floppy drive or CD-ROM drive sits

  8. Power Supply – A power supply changes normal household electricity into electricity that a computer can use.

  9. Sound Components – A sound card lets a computer play and record high quality sound.
    Central Processing Unit (CPU)

4.Identify the components of computer system.

Components of a Computer System

Computer Case,Monitor, Speakers, Keyboard, Mouse, Printer, Scanner, Web camera, Floppy drive, CD or DVD drive

5. Discuss the nature of each component of computer system.

Input/output: Input devices translate data and programs that humans

can understand into a form that the computer can process. The most common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse. Output devices translate the processed information from the computer into a form that humans can understand. The most common output devices are monitors or video display screens and printers.

• Secondary storage: Unlike memory, secondary storage devices hold

data and programs even after electrical power to the computer system has

been turned off. The most important kinds of secondary media are floppy,

hard, and optical disks. Floppy disks are widely used to store and transport data from one computer to another. They are called floppy because data is stored on a very thin flexible, or floppy, plastic disk.Hard disks are typically used to store programs and very large data files.Using a rigid metallic platter, hard disks have a much greater capacity and are able to access information much faster than floppy disks. Optical disks use laser technology and have the greatest capacity.The two basic types of optical disks are compact discs (CDs) and digital versatile

(or video) discs (DVDs).



http://bpastudio.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/vbmodules/hdts/computercomponents.gif

6. Enumerate the parts of the computer.



The basic parts of a desktop computer are the computer case,monitor, keyboard, mouse, and power cord.

http://www.wccsonline.com/technology/site%20pics/technology%20parts/pc_parts.png

7.Discuss the functions of the parts of the computer.



The computer case is the metal and plastic box that contains the main components of the computer. It houses the motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), the power supply, and more.

Monitor


a monitorA monitor

The monitor works with a video card, located inside the computer case, to display images and text on the screen. Newer monitors usually have LCD (liquid crystal display) or LED (light-emitting diode) displays. These can be made very thin, and they are often called flat panel displays. Older monitors use CRT (cathode ray tube) displays. CRT monitors are much bigger and heavier, and they take up more desk space.


The power cord is the link between the power outlet and the power supply unit in the computer casing. If the power cord is not plugged in, the computer will not power on. To protect your computer from voltage spikes, you can plug the power cord into a surge protector. You can also use an Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS), which acts as a surge protector and also provides temporary power if there is a blackout.

The keyboard is one of the primary ways we communicate with the computer and enter data. There are many different types of computer keyboards such as wired, wireless, ergonomic, multimedia, and more. Although there may be differences in the location of some keys or features, keyboards are very similar and allow you to accomplish basically the same tasks.

The mouse is a peripheral that is known as a pointing device. It lets you point to objects on the screen, click on them, and move them.

Others are:



CPU: The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the brains behind your computer. The CPU is responsible for performing calculations and tasks that make programs work. The faster the CPU, the quicker programs can process computations and commands.

RAM: A fast CPU is useless without an adequate amount of RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM is usually referred to as a computer's memory -- meaning it stores information that is used by running programs or applications. More memory lets you run more applications at the same time without degrading your system's performance.

Hard Disk Drive: The hard disk drive (HDD) of the computer is where permanent information is stored. Documents, databases, spreadsheets, and programs are all stored on the hard disk. The larger the hard disk, the more you can fit on the drive. The size of the HDD does not affect the speed at which a program can run, but the HDD speed can affect how fast you can access your files.

Video Card: The video card is a board that plugs into the PC motherboard to give it display capabilities. New video cards come with their own RAM and processor to help speed up the graphics display. Many computers come with video chips built in. That makes a separate video card unnecessary, unless the computer is going to be used for high-end multimedia work or to play video games.

Sound Card: Like video cards, sound cards are expansion boards used for enabling a computer to manipulate sound. Most sound cards give you the power to plug in speakers and a microphone. Some even give you the jacks for hooking your computer up to a common stereo. As with video cards, many computers come with sound chips, making it unnecessary to buy a separate card, unless you need higher sound quality for your work.

Modem: The modem allows your computer to use a telephone line to communicate and connect to the Internet.

Network Card: A network card allows your computer to be connected either to other computers or to the Internet if you are using a fast Internet connection such as cable or dsl.

Fans: One or more fans inside the computer keep air moving and keep your computer cool.

Cables: Numerous wires and flat, ribbon-like cables provide power and communication to the various parts inside your computer.

8. Discuss the history of the development of the computer.



10.Construct a timeline of the history of computer development.

Computer History
Year/Enter

Computer History
Inventors/Inventions

Computer History
Description of Event

1936

Konrad Zuse - Z1 Computer

First freely programmable computer.

1942

John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
ABC Computer

Who was first in the computing biz is not always as easy as ABC.

1944

Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper
Harvard Mark I Computer

The Harvard Mark 1 computer.

1946

John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
ENIAC 1 Computer

20,000 vacuum tubes later...

1948

Frederic Williams & Tom Kilburn
Manchester Baby Computer & The Williams Tube

Baby and the Williams Tube turn on the memories.

1947/48

John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & Wiliam Shockley
The Transistor

No, a transistor is not a computer, but this invention greatly affected the history of computers.

1951

John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
UNIVAC Computer

First commercial computer & able to pick presidential winners.

1953

International Business Machines
IBM 701 EDPM Computer

IBM enters into 'The History of Computers'.

1954

John Backus & IBM 
FORTRAN Computer Programming Language

The first successful high level programming language.

1955
(In Use 1959)


Stanford Research Institute, Bank of America, and General Electric
ERMA and MICR

The first bank industry computer - also MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) for reading checks.

1958

Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce
The Integrated Circuit

Otherwise known as 'The Chip'

1962

Steve Russell & MIT
Spacewar Computer Game

The first computer game invented.

1964

Douglas Engelbart
Computer Mouse & Windows

Nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end.

1969

ARPAnet

The original Internet.

1970

Intel 1103 Computer Memory

The world's first available dynamic RAM chip.

1971

Faggin, Hoff & Mazor
Intel 4004 Computer Microprocessor

The first microprocessor.

1971

Alan Shugart &IBM
The "Floppy" Disk

Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its flexibility.

1973

Robert Metcalfe & Xerox
The Ethernet Computer Networking

Networking.

1974/75

Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair & IBM 5100 Computers

The first consumer computers.

1976/77

Apple I, II & TRS-80 & Commodore Pet Computers

More first consumer computers.

1978

Dan Bricklin & Bob Frankston
VisiCalc Spreadsheet Software

Any product that pays for itself in two weeks is a surefire winner.

1979

Seymour Rubenstein & Rob Barnaby
WordStar Software

Word Processors.

1981

IBM
The IBM PC - Home Computer

From an "Acorn" grows a personal computer revolution

1981

Microsoft
MS-DOS Computer Operating System

From "Quick And Dirty" comes the operating system of the century.

1983

Apple Lisa Computer

The first home computer with a GUI, graphical user interface.

1984

Apple Macintosh Computer

The more affordable home computer with a GUI.

1985

Microsoft Windows

Microsoft begins the friendly war with Apple.












  1. Motherboard – The motherboard is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. It is also known as the mainboard or system board.

  2. CPU – The CPU is the central electronic chip that determines the processing power of the computer.

  3. Memory – Memory is the part of the computer that temporarily stores applications, documents, and stem operating information.

  4. Bus – A bus is an electronic line that allows 1s and 0s to move from one place to another.

  5. Expansion Slots – Expansions slots appear on the motherboard. They are sockets into which adapters are connected.

  6. Ports and Connectors – A port is a connector located on the motherboard or on a separate adapter.

  7. Bays – A bay is a space inside the computer case where a hard drive, floppy drive or CD-ROM drive sits

  8. Power Supply – A power supply changes normal household electricity into electricity that a computer can use.

  9. Sound Components – A sound card lets a computer play and record high quality sound.
    Central Processing Unit (CPU)

http://www.wccsonline.com/technology/site%20pics/technology%20parts/pc_parts.png

System unit


The system unit is the core of a computer system. Usually it's a rectangular box placed on or underneath your desk. Inside this box are many electronic components that process information. The most important of these components is the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor, which acts as the "brain" of your computer. Another component is random access memory (RAM), which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. The information stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned off.

Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. The cables plug into specific ports(openings), typically on the back of the system unit. Hardware that is not part of the system unit is sometimes called aperipheral device or device.

3. How computer process data and information.

Computer data processing is any process that uses a computer program to enter data and summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information. It involves recording, analysing, sorting, summarising, calculating, disseminating and storing data. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems. Nevertheless, the terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise information systems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output.

Data processing may or may not be distinguished from data conversion, when the process is merely to convert data to another format, and does not involve any data manipulation.

Rosario C. Maramba

Information Technology

1.Discuss the following terms:

a. teaching is all about inspiring, engaging, and empowering our children and young people.It is about making a difference to future generations.

b.Learning is acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types ofinformation. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves. Learning is not compulsory; it is contextual. It does not happen all at once, but builds upon and is shaped by what we already know. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process, rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge. Learning is based on experience. Learning produces changes in the organism and the changes produced are relatively permanent

c. ICT integration-This basically refers to use of technology in communication, data processing and data storage to impact the knowledge on learners. ICT offers increased possibilities for codification of knowledge about teaching and for innovation in teaching activities through being able to deliver learning and cognitive activities anytime and any where

d. ICT in education-Information and communication technologies (ICT) are both a necessity and an opportunity for education. However, their impact on the learning process is not fully understood. Performance indicators are needed to identify their uses and outcomes across diverse educational settings. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can contribute to universal access to education, equity in education, the delivery of quality learning and teaching, teachers’ professional development and more efficient education management, governance and administration.

2.a. In what ways where in you can integrate ICT into teaching and learning?

Use it as a medium in your classroom teaching and let the students use it in acquiring knowledge based on the teaching. Introduce it to the class and teach them how to use it in their assignments and research.

b. How will you motivate ADE teachers to integrate ICT into teaching and learning.



Present to them the idea of having ICT in teaching and learning. Show them the positive and negative sides and let them weigh. Tell them the benefits they can get and how to make their teaching much easier than before. Convince and teach them also how to use and present some simple but understandable examples.

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