M. Tech. ECE Course Description Batch 201315
SEMESTER–I
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS (MECE 101)
Algorithm Analysis – Time Space Tradeoff – Asymptotic Notations – Conditional asymptotic notation – Removing condition from the conditional asymptotic notation  Properties of bigOh notation – Recurrence equations – Solving recurrence equations –Analysis of linear search.
Divide and Conquer: General Method – Binary Search – Finding Maximum and Minimum– Merge Sort – Greedy Algorithms: General Method – Container Loading – Knapsack Problem.
Dynamic Programming: General Method – Multistage Graphs – AllPair shortest paths –Optimal binary search trees – 0/1 Knapsack – Travelling salesperson problem
Backtracking: General Method – 8 Queens problem – sum of subsets – graph coloring –Hamiltonian problem – knapsack problem.
Graph Traversals – Connected Components – Spanning Trees – Biconnected components – Branch and Bound: General Methods (FIFO & LC) – 0/1 Knapsack pproblem – Introduction to NPHard and NPCompleteness.
Suggested Books:
1. Ellis Horowitz, Sartaj Sahni and Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Computer Algorithms/ C++, Second Edition, Universities Press, 2007. (For Units II to V)
2. K.S. Easwarakumar, Object Oriented Data Structures using C++, Vikas Publishing House pvt. Ltd., 2000 (For Unit I)
SUGGESTED BOOKS:
1. T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R.L.Rivest, and C. Stein, "Introduction to Algorithms", Second Edition, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 2003.
2. Alfred V. Aho, John E. Hopcroft and Jeffrey D. Ullman, "The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms", Pearson Education, 1999.
ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING (MECE 103)
Discrete Random Signal Processing
Discrete Random Processes, Expectations, Variance, Co variance, Scalar Product, Energy of Discrete Signals Parseval’s theorem, Wiener Khintchine Relation Power Spectral Density, Periodogram  Sample Autocorrelation, Sum Decomposition Theorem, Spectral Decomposition Theorem, Spectral Factorization Theorem, Discrete Random Signal Processing by linear systems – Simulation of White Noise  Low pass filtering of White Noise.
Spectrum Estimation
Non parametric Methods Correlation Method, Co variance estimator, Performance Analysis of Estimators Unbiased, Consistent Estimators – Periodogram Estimator Barlett Spectrum Estimation Welch Estimation Model based Approach AR, MA, ARMA Signal Modelling Parameter Estimation using Yule Walker Method.
Linear Estimation and Prediction
Maximum likelihood crieterion – efficiency of estimator – least mean squared error criterion Wiener Filter – Discrete Winer Hoff equations, Recursive Estimators Kalman Filter, Linear Prediction, Prediction error whitening filter, inverse filter – Levinson recursion, Lattice realization and Levinson recursion algorithm for solving Toeplitz system of equations.
Adaptive Filters
FIR adaptive filters Newton’s steepest descent method – adaptive filter based on steepest descent method Windrow Hoff LMS adaptive algorithm – Adaptive channel equalization – Adaptive echo cancellation –Adaptive noise cancellation – RLS adaptive filters –Exponentially weighted RLS – sliding window RLS Simplified IIR LMS adaptive filter.
Multirate Digital Signal Processing
Mathematical Description of change of sampling rate –Interpolation and Decimation, continuous time model, Direct digital domain approach, Decimation by an integer factor, Interpolation by an integer factor, Single and multistage realization polyphase realization
Digital Signal Processors
Introduction to DSP architecture  Harvard architecture  Dedicated MAC unit  Multiple ALUs, Advanced addressing modes, Pipelining, Architectures of ADSP and TMS series of processor.
Suggested Books:

Monson H. Hayes, “Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modelling”, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1996.

Sopocles J. Orfanidis, “Optimum Signal Processing”, McGraw Hill, 1990.

John G. Proakis, Dimitris G. Manolakis, “Digital Signal Processing”, Prentice Hall of India, 1995.

B.Venkataramani & M. Bhaskar, Digital Signal Processor Architecture, Programming and Application, TMH 2002. (UNIT  V)
OPTICAL NETWORKS (MECE 105)
OPTICAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Light propagation in optical fibers – Loss & bandwidth, System limitations, NonLinear effects; Solutions; Optical Network Components – Couplers, Isolators & Circulators, Multiplexers & Filters, Optical Amplifiers, Switches, Wavelength Converters.
OPTICAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURES
Introduction to Optical Networks; SONET / SDH, MetropolitonArea Networks, Layered Architecture ; Broadcast and Select Networks – Topologies for Broadcast Networks, MediaAccess Control Protocols, Testbeds for Broadcast & Select WDM; Wavelength Routing Architecture.
WAVELENGTH ROUTING NETWORKS
The optical layer, Node Designs, Optical layer cost tradeoff, Routing and wavelength assignment,Virtual topology design, Wavelength Routing Testbeds, Architectural variations.
PACKET SWITCHING AND ACCESS NETWORKS
Photonic Packet Switching – OTDM, Multiplexing and Demultiplexing, Synchronisation, Broadcast OTDM networks, Switchbased networks; Access Networks – Network Architecture overview, Future Access Networks, Optical Access Network Architectures; and OTDM networks.
NETWORK DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT
Transmission System Engineering – System model, Power penalty  transmitter, receiver, Optical amplifiers, crosstalk, dispersion; Wavelength stabilization ; Overall design considerations; Control and Management – Network management functions, Configuration management, Performance management, Fault management, Optical safety, Service interface.
Suggested Books:
1. Rajiv Ramaswami and Kumar N. Sivarajan, “Optical Networks : A Practical Perspective”, Harcourt Asia Pte Ltd., Second Edition 2004.
2. Siva Ram Moorthy and Mohan Gurusamy, “WDM Optical Networks : Concept, Design and Algorithms”, Prentice Hall of India, Ist Edition, 2002.
3. P.E. Green, Jr., “Fiber Optic Networks”, Prentice Hall, NJ, 1993.
ADVANCED EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN (MECE 107)
Introduction And Examples Of Embedded Systems, Concept Of Embedded System
Design: Design challenge, Processor technology, IC technology, Design technology, Tradeoffs
Custom single purpose processor hardware, generalpurpose processor:
Introduction, basic architecture, operation, superscalar and VLSIIW architecture, application specific instruction set processors (ASIPS), microcontrollers, digital signal processors, selecting a microprocessor.
Memory: Introduction, Memory write ability, Storage performance, Tradeoff s, Common memory types Memory hierarchy and cache
AVR 8515 microcontroller: Architecture and Programming in assembly and C.
Interfacing Analog and digital blocks: AnalogtoDigital Converters (ADCs), Digital to Analog, Converters (DACs)., Communication basics and basic protocol concepts, Microprocessor interfacing: I/O addressing, Port and Bus based, I/O, Memory mapped I/O, Standard I/O interrupts, Direct memory access, Advanced communication principles parallel, serial and wireless, Serial protocols I2C, Parallel
protocols PCI bus, Wireless protocol IrDA, blue tooth.
Different peripheral devices: Buffers and latches, Crystal, Reset circuit, Chip select logic circuit, timers and counters and watch dog timers, Universal asynchronous receiver, transmitter (UART), Pulse width modulators, LCD controllers, Keypad controllers.
Design tradeoffs: due to thermal considerations and Effects of EMI/ES etc.
Software aspect of embedded systems: Challenges and issues in embedded software development, Codesign
Embedded software development environments: Real time operating systems, Kernel architecture: Hardware, Task/process control subsystem, Device drivers, File subsystem, system calls, Embedded operating systems, Task scheduling in embedded systems: task scheduler, first in first out, shortest job first, round robin, priority based scheduling, Context switch: Task synchronization: mutex, semaphore,
Timers, Types of embedded operating systems, Programming languages: assembly languages, high level languages
Development for embedded systems: Embedded system development process, Determine the requirements, Design the system architecture, Choose the operating system, Choose the processor, Choose the development platform, Choose the programming language, Coding issues, Code optimization, Efficient input/output, Testing and debugging, Verify the software on the host system, Verify the software on the embedded system.
Suggested Books
Frankvahid/Tony Givargis, “ Embedded System Design A unified Hardware/software Introduction”.
David E Simon, " An embedded software primer ", Pearson education Asia, 2001.
Dreamteach Software team,” Programming for Embedded Systems” AVR 8515 manual
J.W. Valvano, "Embedded Microcomputor System: Real Time Interfacing"
Jack Ganssle, "The Art of Designing Embedded Systems", Newnes, 1999
ADVANCED DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN (MECE 109)
SEQUENTIAL CIRCUIT DESIGN
Analysis of clocked synchronous sequential circuits and modeling State diagram, state table, state table assignment and reductionDesign of synchronous sequential circuits design of iterative circuitsASM chart and realization using ASM
ASYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL CIRCUIT DESIGN 9
Analysis of asynchronous sequential circuit – flow table reductionracesstate assignmenttransition table and problems in transition table design of asynchronous sequential circuitStatic, dynamic and essential hazards – data synchronizers – mixed operating mode asynchronous circuits – designing vending machine controller
FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND TESTABILITY ALGORITHMS
Fault table methodpath sensitization method – Boolean difference methodD algorithm –Tolerance techniques – The compact algorithm – Fault in PLA – Test generationDFT schemes – Built in selftest.
SYNCHRONOUS DESIGN USING PROGRAMMABLE DEVICES
Programming logic device families – Designing a synchronous sequential circuit using PLA/PAL – Realization of finite state machine using PLD – FPGA – Xilinx FPGAXilinx 4000
SYSTEM DESIGN USING VHDL
VHDL operators – Arrays – concurrent and sequential statements – packages Data flow – Behavioral – structural modeling – compilation and simulation of VHDL code –Test bench  Realization of combinational and sequential circuits using HDL – Registers – counters – sequential machine – serial adder – Multiplier Divider – Design of simple microprocessor.
Suggested Books:
1. Charles H.Roth Jr “Fundamentals of Logic Design” Thomson Learning 2004
2. Nripendra N Biswas “Logic Design Theory” Prentice Hall of India,2001
3. Parag K.Lala “Fault Tolerant and Fault Testable Hardware Design” B S Publications,2002
4. Parag K.Lala “Digital system Design using PLD” B S Publications,2003
5. Charles H Roth Jr.”Digital System Design using VHDL” Thomson learning, 2004
6. Douglas L.Perry “VHDL programming by Example” Tata McGraw.Hill – 2006.
7. William I. Fletcher, “An Engineering approach to Digital Design”, Prentice Hall  1980
8.
SEMESTER–II
ADVANCED MICROPROCESSOR BASED SYSTEM DESIGN (MECE 102)
Unit I: Microprocessor Architecture
Introduction to 16bit microprocessors, 8086/8088 CPU architecture, memory segmentation,
physical address generation, addressing modes, Instruction set: data transfer, arithmetic, logical, string
manipulation, control transfer, unconditional branch, conditional branch, flag, processor control, 8087
coprocessor, data formats
Unit II: Assembly Language Programming
Assembler organization, assembler directives and operators, Assembly language programs,
MASM and DEBUG utility, stack structure, PUSH and POP instructions, subroutine, procedure and
macros, timing and delays
Unit III: Interfacing of Peripherals
Programmable peripheral interface 8255, internal architecture, control word register, operating
modes; Timer/counter 8253/8254: functional block diagram, control word register, modes of operation,
timing diagrams; keyboard interface/display controller 8279: internal architecture, 8279 commands,
operating modes; programmable interrupt controller 8259A: architectural block diagram, command words
Unit IV: Architectures of 80x86 processors
Protected mode memory addressing, protected virtual addressing mode (PVAM), architecture,
special features and overview of 80286, 80386 and 80486, Pentium Pro processors, superscalar
architecture, MMX (Multimedia Extension) and SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) technology
Suggested Books:
1. Advanced Microprocessors & Peripherals: A. K. Ray & Bhurchandi, TMH, New Delhi
2. Microprocessor based Systems: N. G. Palan, TechMax Publication, Pune
3. Assembly Language Programming: Peter Abel, PHI, New Delhi
4. 8086/8088 Family: Design, Programming and Interfacing: John Uffenbeck, Pearson Education
5. Intel Microprocessors 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium Pro Programming and Interfacing:
Barry and Brey, PHI, New Delhi
6. Modern Digital Electronics: R. P. Jain, TMH, New Delhi
7. The 80x86 Family : Design, Programming and Interfacing: John Uffenbeck, Pearson Education
VLSI DESIGN (MECE 104)
Introduction to MOS Circuits: MOS Transistors, MOS Transistor Switches, CMOS Logic, Circuit and System Representations, MOS Transistor Theory – Introduction MOS Device Design Equations, The Complementary CMOS InverterDC Characteristics, Static Load MOS Inverters, The Differential Inverter, The Transmission Gate, The Tri State Inverter, Bipolar Devices.
Circuit Characterization And Performance Estimation: Introduction, Resistance Estimation Capacitance Estimation, Inductance, Switching Characteristics CMOS Gate Transistor Sizing, Power Dissipation, Sizing Routing Conductors, Charge Sharing, Design Margining, and Reliability.
CMOS Circuit And Logic Design: CMOS Logic Gate Design, Basic Physical Design of Simple Gate, CMOS Logic Structures, Clocking Strategies, I/O Structures, Low Power Design.
Systems Design And Design Method: Design Strategies CMOS Chip Design Options, Design Methods, Design Capture Tools, Design Verification Tools, Design Economics, Data Sheets, CMOS esting  Manufacturing Test Principles, Design Strategies for Test, Chip Level Test Techniques, System Level Test Techniques, Layout Design for Improved Testability.
CMOS Sub System Design: Data Path OperationsAddition/Subtraction, Parity Generators, Comparators, Zero/One Detectors, Binary Counters, ALUs, Multiplication, Shifters, Memory Elements, ControlFSM, Control Logic Implementation.
Suggested Books
1. SuN. Weste and K. Eshranghian, "Principles of CMOS VLSI Design", Addison Wesley, 1998.
2. Jacob Backer, Harry W. Li and David E. Boyce, " CMOS Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation ", Prentice Hall of India, 1998.
3. L.Glaser and D. Dobberpuhl, "The Design and Analysis of VLSI, Circuits”, Addison Wesley 1993.
4. C.Mead and L. Conway, "Introduction to VLSI Systems", Addison Wesley, 1979.
5. Randel & Geiger, “ VLSI Analog and Digital Circuit Design Techniques” McGraw Hill,1990.
6. Sahib H.Gerez, “Algorithms for VLSI design automation ”,1998.
7. William M. Penny, Lillian Lau, “ MOS Integrated Circuits Theory, Fabrication, Design and System Applications of MOS LSI”, Van Nostrand Reihold Company.
8. Sung Ms Kang, Yusuf Lablebici, “CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis & Design”, Tata McGraw Hill.
WIRELESS AND MOBILE COMMUNICATION (MECE 106)
WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
Cellular systems Frequency Management and Channel Assignment types of handoff and their characteristics, dropped call rates & their evaluation MAC – SDMA – FDMA – TDMA – CDMA – Cellular Wireless Networks
WIRELESS NETWORKS
Wireless LAN – IEEE 802.11 Standards – Architecture – Services – Mobile Ad hoc Networks WiFi and WiMAX  Wireless Local LoopBluetooth Technology.
MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
GSMarchitectureLocation tracking and call setup Mobility management Handover SecurityGSM SMS –International roaming for GSM call recording functionssubscriber and service data mgt –Mobile Number portability VoIP service for Mobile Networks – GPRS –ArchitectureGPRS proceduresattach and detach proceduresPDP context procedurecombined RA/LA update proceduresBilling
MOBILE NETWORK AND TRANSPORT LAYERS
Mobile IP – Dynamic Host Configuration ProtocolMobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols– Multicast routingTCP over Wireless Networks – Indirect TCP – Snooping TCP – Mobile TCP – Fast Retransmit / Fast Recovery – Transmission/Timeout FreezingSelective Retransmission – Transaction Oriented TCP TCP over 2.5 / 3G wireless Networks
APPLICATION LAYER
WAP Model Mobile Location based services WAP Gateway –WAP protocols – WAP user agent profile caching modelwireless bearers for WAP  WML – WMLScripts – WTA  iMode SyncML.
Suggested Books:
1. Jochen Schiller, “Mobile Communications”, Second Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
2. William Stallings, “Wireless Communications and Networks”, Pearson Education, 2002.
3. Kaveh Pahlavan, Prasanth Krishnamoorthy, “Principles of Wireless Networks”, First Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
4. Uwe Hansmann, Lothar Merk, Martin S. Nicklons and Thomas Stober, “Principles of Mobile Computing”, Springer, 2003.
5. C.K.Toh, “AdHoc Mobile Wireless Networks”, First Edition, Pearson Education, 2002.
MICROWAVE CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS (MECE 108)
Introduction to microwave transmission lines and matching techniques
Microstrip transmission lines
Single and double stub tuning circuits
Quarterwave impedance matching circuits
Quadrature and 180 degree hybrid analysis and design
Even and oddmode analysis of hybrids
Reciprocal and lossless networks
Cascaded network using ABCD parameters
Frequency responses
Lowpass and highpass filter analysis and design
Filter design by insertion loss method
Stepped impedance filter
Filter transformation
Filter implementation using microstrip lines
Noise analysis
Noise in devices and systems
Noise figure and noise temperature
Nonlinear responses of microwave circuits
Design and fabrication of a microwave amplifier
Gain and stability analysis
Input and output matching circuits
Dynamic range, noise and nonlinearity
Microwave systems
Radar
Radiometers
Microwave communication systems
Suggested Books

Almudena Suárez, "Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits", 2009.

Nonlinear Microwave and RF Circuits, 2nd Edition, by Stephen A. Maas.

Microwave Solid State Circuit Design, 2nd edition, by Inder Bahl, Prakash Bhartia
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (MECE 110)
INTRODUCTION: Concept of research and its applications in the various functions of management; Types of research. Types of business problems encountered by the research; Problems and precautions to the researcher in India
PROCESS OF RESEARCH: Steps involved in research process; various methods of research design.
DATA COLLECTION: Sampling procedure; Sample size; Determination and selection of sample member; Types of data and various methods of collecting data; Preparation of questionnaire and schedule; Precautions in preparation of questionnaire and collection of data.
ANALYSIS OF DATA: Coding, editing and tabulation of data; various kinds of charts and diagrams used in data analysis; Application of statistical techniques for analyzing the data, Application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Uses of Data Analysis Tools like SPSS and Excel.
REPORT PREPARATION: Types and layout of research report; Precautions in preparing the research report; Bibliography and Annexure in report; Drawing conclusions; Giving suggestions and recommendations to the concerned persons.
Suggested Books:
1) Collis J and Hussey R Business Research (Palgrave, 2003)
2) Cooper Business Research (Tata McGrawHill)
3) Saunders Research Methods for Business Students (Pearson Education, 3rd edition)
4) Beri Marketing Research (Tata McGrawHill), 1993, 2nd ed.
5) David J. Luck and Ronald S. Ruben Marketing Research (Prentice Hall of India), 1987, 7th ed.
]
SEMESTER  III
ELECTIVE
(MECE 201 & 203)
REMOTE SENSING
Basic Principles of Optical Remote Sensing: Energy sources and radiation principles, Atmospheric
absorption, interaction of energy with various features of the earth's surface.
Digital processing of satellite images: Geometric rectification, spatial and radiometric enhancement,
edge detection, band ratio, false color composites, Principal component analysis, Spectral domain
enhancement, Supervised and unsupervised classification for thematic map generation.
Geographic Information System: Basic concepts, Raster and Vector mode operation.
Microwave Remote Sensing: Basic principles, spatial resolution of SAR system, geometric
characteristics, signature of earth features.
Visual Remote Sensing: Aerial photography, Parallax, Vertical exaggeration, Visual interpretation of
Earth features from aerial photographs and satellite imageries, Application in thematic interpretation,
Stereo photo interpretation, Photogrammetric computation
Texts/References:
1. Thomas M. Lillesand, Ralph W. Kiefer, and Jonathan W. Chipman, “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation”
2. John A. Richards and Xiuping Jia, “Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis: An Introduction”
3. Thomas Martin Lillesand, “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation”
4. James B. Campbell, “Introduction to Remote Sensing”, Third Edition
5. Roger M. McCoy, “Field Methods in Remote Sensing”
MICROWAVE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Transmission Lines: Basic principles, Structures and Properties of Transmission Lines.
Scattering Parameters and Circuit Analysis, Uncertainty and Confidence in measurements, Using
Coaxial Connectors in Measurement
Attenuation Measurement: Basic principles, Measurement systems, important considerations when making attenuation measurements
RF Voltage Measurement: RF voltage measuring instruments, impedance matching and mismatch errors.
Noise Measurements: Types of noise, types of noise source, measuring noise, measurement accuracy, mismatch effects, automated noise measurements.
Network Analyzers: Spectrum Analyzer Measurements and Applications. Elements of network analyser, MMIC measurement techniques, calibration and verification of automatic network analysers, spectrum analyser basic principle, applications of spectrum
analyzer
RF Power Measurement: Power sensors, power measurements and calibration, calibration and transfer standards, power splitters, couplers and reflectometers
Suggested Books
1. Richard Collier & Douglas Skinner, “Microwave Measurements” 3rd Edition, IET, 2007.
SYSTEM ON CHIP
Introduction to the concept of a SOC
Backgrounder, microprocessor and Microcontroller based systems, Embedded systems. Differences between Embedded systems and SOCs. System design Concept of system, importance of system architectures, introduction to SIMD, SSID, MIMD and MISD architectures, concept of pipelining and parallelism. Designing microprocessor /Microcontroller based system and embedded system. System design issues in SOCs. System buses Introduction to busses used in SOCs. Introduction to AMBA bus. Detailed study of IBM's core connect bus, concept of PLBprocessor local bus and OPBon chip peripheral bus. Processors used in SOCs Introduction to CISC ,RISC, Von Neuman and Harward Architecture. Concept of Soft processors and study of Microblaze RISC processor. Study of IBM's power PC SOC implementation Backgrounder – programmable logic and FPGA Architecture . Concept of embedded processors and study of virtex II PRO Architecture. Study of features like embedded RAMs ,multipliers ,Digital clock management etc. Introduction to tools used for SOC design, Xilinx embedded development kit
Suggested Books:
1) FPGA based system design by Wyne wolf – published by prentice hall.
2) Readings in hardware/software codesign Giovanni De Micheli,Rolf Ernst, and Wayne Wolf – published by Morgan Kaufman.
3) Computers as components:principles of embedded computing system design published by Morgan Kaufman publishers
4) Multiprocessors systemsonchips by Ahmed jerrya wayne wolf,eds Morgan Kaufman publishers
5) Core connect architecture at http://www.chips.IBM.com/products/coreconnect
6) EDK power PC tutorial at http://www.xilinx.com/EDK
7) Virtexll pro handbook from Xilinx
8) Power PC info http://www.chips .IBM.com/products power PC/cores/405sde_pb.html.
9) White papers form xilinx.com and http://www.chips .ibm.com
10) Arm processor details at WWW.arm.com
11) Amba bus architecture at at http://www.arm.com/products/solutions/Ambahomepage.html http://www.princeton.edu/~wolf
DESIGN OF ANALOG/ MIXED MODE VLSI CIRCUITS
Basic CMOS Circuit Techniques, Continuous Time And Low voltage Signal Processing: MixedSignal VLSI ChipsBasic CMOS CircuitsBasic Gain StageGain Boosting TechniquesSuper MOS Transistor Primitive Analog CellsLinear Voltage Current ConvertersMOS Multipliers and ResistorsCMOS, Bipolar and LowVoltage BiCMOS OpAmp DesignInstrumentation Amplifier DesignLow Voltage Filters.
Basic BiCMOS Circuit Techniques, Current Mode Signal Processing: Continuous Time Signal ProcessingSampledData Signal ProcessingSwitchedCurrent Data Converters.
SampledData Analog Filters, Over Sampled A/D Converters And Analog Integrated
Sensors: Firstorder and Second SC CircuitsBilinear Transformation – Cascade DesignSwitchedCapacitor Ladder FilterSynthesis of SwitchedCurrent Filter Nyquist rate A/D ConvertersModulators for Over sampled A/D ConversionFirst and Second Order and Multibit SigmaDelta ModulatorsInterpolative Modulators – Cascaded ArchitectureDecimation Filtersmechanical, Thermal, Humidity and Magnetic SensorsSensor Interfaces.
Analog VLSI Interconnects: Physics of Interconnects in VLSIScaling of InterconnectsA Model for Estimating Wiring DensityA Configurable Architecture for Prototyping analog Circuits.
Statistical Modeling And Simulation, Analog ComputerAided Design And Analog And Mixed AnalogDigital Layout: Review of Statistical Concepts  Statistical Device Modeling Statistical Circuit SimulationAutomation Analog Circuit Designautomatic Analog LayoutCMOS Transistor LayoutResistor LayoutCapacitor LayoutAnalog Cell LayoutMixed Analog Digital Layout.
Suggested Books
Paul R. Gray and Robert G.Meyer, “ Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits”, John Wiley & Sons.
Mohammed Ismail, Terri Fiez, " Analog VLSI signal and Information Processing ", 1994, McGrawHill International Editons.
Behzad Razavi, “ Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”, Tata McGraw Hill.
Y. Tsividis, “ Mixed AnalogDigital Devices and Technology”, McGraw Hill.
Alan B. Gnebene, “ Bipolar and MOS analog integrated circuit design“,John Wiley & Sons.
LOW POWER VLSI DESIGN
Low power Basics: Need for low power VLSI chips, Sources of power dissipation on Digital
Integrated circuits. Emerging Low power approaches. Physics of power dissipation in CMOS devices.
Device & Technology Impact on Low Power: Dynamic dissipation in CMOS, Transistor sizing & gate
oxide thickness, Impact of technology Scaling, Technology & Device innovation.
Power estimation Simulation Power analysis: SPICE circuit simulators, gate level
logic simulation, capacitive power estimation, static state power, gate level
capacitance estimation, architecture level analysis, data correlation analysis in DSP
systems. .
Low Power Design Circuit level: Power consumption in circuits. Flip Flops & Latches design, high
capacitance nodes, low power digital cells library
Logic level: Gate reorganization, signal gating, logic encoding, state machine encoding, precomputation
logic
Low power Architecture & Systems: Power & performance management, switching activity
reduction, parallel architecture with voltage reduction, flow graph transformation, low power
arithmetic components, low power memory design.
Low power Clock Distribution: Power dissipation in clock distribution, single
driver Vs distributed buffers, Zero skew Vs tolerable skew, chip & package co
design of clock network
Algorithm & architectural level methodologies: Introduction, design flow,
Algorithmic level analysis & optimization, Architectural level estimation &
synthesis.
Reference Books:
1. Gary K. Yeap, “Practical Low Power Digital VLSI Design”, KAP, 2002
2. Rabaey, Pedram, “Low power design methodologies” Kluwer Academic, 1997
3. Kaushik Roy, Sharat Prasad,“LowPower CMOS VLSI Circuit Design” Wiley,2000
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Introduction to AI
Roots and Scope of AI, Definition, Turing Test, Application Areas of AI
AI as Representation and Search
Predicate Calculus
Structures and Strategies for State Space Search
Heuristic Search
Control and Implementation of State Space Search
Representation and Inference
Knowledge Representation
Strong Methods for Problem Solving
Reasoning in Uncertain Situations
Machine Learning
SymbolBased: Framework for Symbol – Based Learning, Version Space Search, ID3 Algorithm, Unsupervised learning, Reinforcement Learning
Connectionist: Perceptron Learning, Backpropagation Learning, Competitive Learning, Hebbian Coincidence Learning, Attractor Networks
Advanced Topics of AI Problem Solving
Automated Reasoning: Weak Methods in Theorem Proving, GPS and Difference Table, Resolution for Theorem Proving, Automated reasoning with PROLOG
Understanding Natural Language: Role of Knowledge, Symbolic Analysis, Syntax, ATN Parsers, Stochastic Tools for Language Analysis, Natural Language Applications
Text Book:
"Artificial Intelligence – Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving", George F. Luger, 4th Edition, Pearson Education , 2003.
Reference Books:
"Artificial Intelligence", Knight, Tata McGraw Hill
"Artificial Intelligence ‘a Modern Approach" Russell & Norvig, second edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
RADIO FREQUENCY ENGINEERING
Unit 1: RF Passive Components and Transmission Line Analysis
High frequency Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors – Transmission Line Analysis – line equation –
Micro stripe line – SWR voltage reflection coefficient propagation constant, phase constant, phase
velocity – smith chart – parallel RL and RC circuits – ABCD parameters and S parameters.
Unit 2: RF Active Components and RF Amplifier Design
RF Diode, PIN diode, GUNN diode, RF Bipolar junction Transistor, RF Field Effect Transistor –
Modeling of Diode, transistor and FET  RF Amplifier: characteristics, power relational and stability
considerations – LNA, Power amplifiers, Differential amplifiers, Distributed power amplifiers and
Broad band amplifiers.
Unit 3: RF Circuits Design
RF Oscillator Design, Fixed frequency oscillator – Dielectric resonant oscillator, Voltage controlled
oscillator sun element oscillator – RF mixer design – single ended mixer – double ended mixer – RF
filter resonator and filter configuration – Butterworth and chebyshev filters – Design of micro stripe
filters.
Unit 4: RF IC Design
Introduction to RFIC – Analog and Microwave design versus RFIC design – noise performance
estimate – RF technology – receiver with single IF stage metallization – sheet resistance – skin effect
–parasitic capacitance and inductance – current handling – metal capacitors – Spiral inductors –
quality factor – layout in IC – mutual inductance – multilevel – measurement – packaging.
Unit 5: RF System Design
Link design – Fading design – Protected and non protected microwave systems – Path calculation –
Spread spectrum microwave system – Compatibility – Safety coordinate systems – Datam’s & GPS –
Receiver design – receiver architecture dynamic range – frequency conversion and filtering –
examples of practical receivers – FM broadcast, Digital cellular, Multimeter wave point to point,
Direct conversion GSM receiverRF MEMS: Concept, Implementation and Applications.
Text Books:
1. Reinhold Ludwig and Pavel Bretchko, “RF circuit design,” Pearson Education, 2007.
2. David Pozar, “Microwave and RF design of Wireless systems,” Johnwiley, 2008.
Reference Books:
1. Josn Rogers and Calvin Plett, “Radio frequency Integrated circuit design,” Artech house, 2002.
2. Ferri Losee, “RF systems, Components and Circuits handbook,” Artech house, 2002.
3. Joseph.J.Carr, “Secrets of RF circuit design,” Tata McGraw Hill, 2004.
4. Vivek Varadhan,” RF MEMS and their applications”, Wiley Eastern edition, 2003.
DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION AND SIMULATION
Physical Characterization: Thin Film Thickness Measurementsellipsometry, surface profiling, spectrophotometry, FTIR
Critical Dimension Measurements: Optical microscope, Scanning Electron
Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope
Material and Impurity Characterization: SIMS, XRD, EDAX
Electrical Characterization: Fourprobe technique, Hall effect, sheet resistance CV
measurements, DLTS, Carrier lifetime, impurity profiling, IV measurements
Process and SPICE model parameter Extraction.
Suggested Books
W.R. Reunyan, “ Semiconductor Measurements And Instrumentation”, McGraw Hill.
Schroder, “Semiconductor Material And Device Characterization”
Philips F. Kare and Greydon B. Lauabee, “ Characterization of semiconductor Materials”, McGraw Hill.
K.V. Ravi, “Imperfections And Impurities In Semiconductor Silicon”, John Wiley And Sons.
INFORMATION THEORY AND CODING
INFORMATION THEORY
Information – Entropy, Information rate, classification of codes, Kraft McMillan inequality, Source coding theorem, ShannonFano coding, Huffman coding, Extended Huffman
coding  Joint and conditional entropies, Mutual information  Discrete memoryless channels – BSC, BEC – Channel capacity, Shannon limit.
SOURCE CODING: TEXT, AUDIO AND SPEECH
Text: Adaptive Huffman Coding, Arithmetic Coding, LZW algorithm – Audio: Perceptual coding, Masking techniques, Psychoacoustic model, MEG Audio layers I,II,III, Dolby AC3  Speech: Channel Vocoder, Linear Predictive Coding
SOURCE CODING: IMAGE AND VIDEO
Image and Video Formats – GIF, TIFF, SIF, CIF, QCIF – Image compression: READ, JPEG – Video Compression: PrinciplesI,B,P frames, Motion estimation, Motion compensation, H.261, MPEG standard
ERROR CONTROL CODING: BLOCK CODES
Definitions and Principles: Hamming weight, Hamming distance, Minimum distance decoding  Single parity codes, Hamming codes, Repetition codes  Linear block codes, Cyclic codes  Syndrome calculation, Encoder and decoder – CRC
ERROR CONTROL CODING: CONVOLUTIONAL CODES
Convolutional codes – code tree, trellis, state diagram  Encoding – Decoding: Sequential search and Viterbi algorithm – Principle of Turbo coding
Suggested Books:
1. R Bose, “Information Theory, Coding and Crptography”, TMH 2007
2. Fred Halsall, “Multidedia Communications: Applications, Networks, Protocols and Standards”, Perason Education Asia, 2002
3. K Sayood, “Introduction to Data Compression” 3/e, Elsevier 2006
4. S Gravano, “Introduction to Error Control Codes”, Oxford University Press 2007
5. Amitabha Bhattacharya, “Digital Communication”, TMH 2006
ADVANCED MICROCONTROLLERPIC, AVR
The PIC18 Microcontrollers: History and Features
PIC18 Architecture & Assembly Language Programming
Branch, Call, and Time Delay Loop
PIC18 I/O Port Programming
Arithmetic, Logic Instructions and Programs
Bank Switching, Table Processing, Macros, and Modules
PIC18 Programming in C
PIC18 Hardware Connection and ROM Loaders
PIC18 Timer Programming in Assembly and C
PIC18 Serial Port Programming in Assembly and C
Interrupt Programming in Assembly and C
LCD and Keyboard Interfacing
ADC, DAC, and Sensor Interfacing
SPI Protocol and DS1306 RTC Interfacing
Motor Control: Relay, PWM, DC, and Stepper Motors
Introduction to ARM and AVR 8515 microcontroller: Architecture and Programming
in assembly and C
Suggested Books
1. Daniel Tabak, "Advanced Microprocessors", McGraw Hill. Inc., 1995
2. James L. Antonakos, "The Pentium Microprocessor", Pearson Education, 1997
3. Steave Furber, "ARM system  on  chip architecture", Addison Wesley, 2000
4. John.B..Peatman, "Design with PIC Micro controller", Pearson Education, 1988
5. Gene. H.Miller, "Micro Computer Engineering", Pearson Education, 2003
6. James L Antonakos, "An Introduction to the Intel family of Microprocessors", Pearson Education, 1999
7. Barry B.Breg,, "The Intel Microprocessors Architecture, Programming and Interfacing", PHI, 2002
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND PROTOCOLS
Data Communications: Components – Direction of Data flow – networks – Components and
Categories – types of Connections – Topologies –Protocols and Standards – ISO / OSI model –
Transmission Media – Coaxial Cable – Fiber Optics – Line Coding – Modems – RS232
Interfacing sequences.
Data Link Layer: Error – detection and correction – Parity – LRC – CRC – Hamming code
low Control and Error control  stop and wait – go backN ARQ – selective repeat ARQ sliding
window – HDLC  LAN  Ethernet IEEE 802.3  IEEE 802.4  IEEE 802.5  IEEE 802.11 – FDDI
 SONET – Bridges.
Network Layer: Internetworks – Packet Switching and Datagram approach – IP addressing
methods – Subnetting – Routing – Distance Vector Routing – Link State Routing – Routers.
Transport Layer: Duties of transport layer – Multiplexing – Demultiplexing – Sockets – User
Datagram Protocol (UDP) – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – Congestion Control – Quality
of services (QOS) – Integrated Services.
Application Layer: Domain Name Space (DNS) – SMTP – FTP – HTTP  WWW – Security
Cryptography.
REFERENCE:
1. Behrouz A. Forouzan, “Data communication and Networking”, Tata McGrawHill, 2004.
2. James F. Kurose and Keith W. Ross, “Computer Networking: A TopDown Approach
Featuring the Internet”, Pearson Education, 2003.
3. Larry L.Peterson and Peter S. Davie, “Computer Networks”, Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd.,
Second Edition.
4. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks”, PHI, Fourth Edition, 2003.
5. William Stallings, “Data and Computer Communication”, Sixth Edition, Pearson
Education, 2000.
ADVANCED CONTROL THEORY
Unit I
Introductory matrix algebra and linear vector space. State space representation of systems. Linearization
of a non  linear System. Solution of state equations. Evaluation of State Transition Matrix (STM) 
Simulation of state equation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK program.
Unit II
Similarity transformation and invariance of system properties due to similarity transformations. Minimal
realization of SISO, SIMO, MISO transfer functions. Discretization of a continuous time state space
model. Conversion of state space model to transfer function model using Fadeeva algorithm.
Unit III
Fundamental theorem of feedback control  Controllability and Controllable canonical form  Pole
assignment by state feedback using Ackermann’s formula – Eigen structure assignment problem.
Unit IV
Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem and solution of algebraic Riccati equation using eigenvalue
and eigen vector methods, iterative method. Controller design using output feedback.
Unit V
Observability and observable canonical form  Design of full order observer using Ackermann’s formula 
Bass Gura algorithm.
Unit VI
Duality between controllability and observability  Full order Observer based controller design. Reduced
order observer design.
Unit VII
Internal stability of a system. Stability in the sense of Lyapunov, asymptotic stability of linear time
invariant continuous and discrete time systems. Solution of Lyapunov type equation.
Unit VIII
Model decomposition and decoupling by state feedback. Disturbance rejection, sensitivity and
complementary sensitivity functions.
Reference Books:
1. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall, India 1997
2. T. Kailath, T., Linear Systems, Perntice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980.
3. N. K. Sinha , Control Systems, New Age International, 3rd edition, 2005.
4. Panos J Antsaklis, and Anthony N. Michel, Linear Systems, New  age international (P) LTD.
Publishers, 2009.
5. John J D’Azzo and C. H. Houpis , “Linear Control System Analysis and Design Conventional
and Modern”, McGraw  Hill Book Company, 1988.
6. B.N. Dutta, Numerical Methods for linear Control Systems  , Elsevier Publication, 2007.
7. C.T.Chen Linear System Theory and Design  PHI, India.
8. Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 11th Edition, Pearson Edu,
India, 2009.
DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
UNIT I:
Introduction  Advantages of Digital control systems  Practical aspects of the choice of sampling rate
and multirate sampling  Basic discrete time signals  Quantization – Sampling theorem  Data
conversion and Quantization  Sampling process  Mathematical modeling  Data reconstruction and
filtering of sampled signals – zero  order hold.
UNIT II:
z  transform and inverse z  transform, Relationship between s  plane and z  plane  Difference
equation  Solution by recursion and z  transform  pulse transfer functions of the zero  order Hold and
relationship between G(s) and G(z)– Bilinear transformation .
UNIT III:
Digital control systems  Pulse transfer function  z transform analysis of open loop, closed loop
systems  Modified z Transform  transfer function  Stability of linear digital control systems 
Stability tests.
UNIT IV:
Root loci  Frequency domain analysis  Bode plots  Gain margin and phase margin  Design of
Digital Control Systems based on Root Locus Technique.
UNIT V:
Cascade and feedback compensation by continuous data controllers  Digital controllers  Design using
bilinear transformation  Realization of Digital PID controllers.
UNIT VI:
State equations of discrete data systems, solution of discrete state equations, State transition Matrix: z 
transform method. Relation between state equations and transfer functions.
UNIT VII
Concepts on Controllability and Observability  Digital state observer: Design of the full order and
reduced order state observer  Pole placement design by state feed back.
UNIT VIII:
Design of Dead beat Controller  some case studies  Stability analysis of discrete time systems based on
Lyapunov approach.
Reference Books:
1. K. Ogata, Discrete Time Control Systems, PHI/Addison  Wesley Longman Pte. Ltd., India,
Delhi, 1995.
2. B.C Kuo, Digital Control Systems, 2nd Edition, Oxford Univ Press, Inc., 1992.
3. F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, and M.L. Workman, Digital control of Dynamic Systems,
Addison  Wesley Longman, Inc., Menlo Park, CA , 1998.
4. Gopal, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Tata McGraw Hill, India, 1997.
5. C. H. Houpis and G.B. Lamont, Digital Control Systems, McGraw Hill, 1985.
6. John S. Baey, Fundamentals of Linear State Space Systems, Mc. Graw – Hill, 1st edition
7. Bernard Fried Land, Control System Design, Mc. Graw – Hill, 1st edition
8. Dorsay, Continuous and Discrete Control Systems, McGraw  Hill.
ROBOTICS AND CONTROL
Unit I: IntroductionRobot Anatomy
Coordinate framesmapping mapping Between rotated framesmapping between translated
framesmapping between rotated and translated framesdescription of objects in spacetransformation
of vectors—inverting homogeneous transformfundamental rotation matrices
UnitII: Symbolic Modeling of Robots –Direct Kinematic Model
Mathematical structure and notationsdescription of links and jointskinematic modeling of the
manipulator DenavitHatenberg notationkinematic relationship between adjacent linksmanipulator
transformation matrix
Unit III: The Inverse Kinematics
Manipulator work space – Solvability of kinematic model Solution techniques closed form
solutionguidelines to obtain closed form solution.
Unit IV: Manipulator Differential Motion and Statics
Linear and angular velocity of a rigid body  Relationship between transformation Matrix and
angular velocity  Mapping velocity vectorVelocity propagation along linksManipulator
Jacobian  Jacobian Inverse Jacobian Singularities Static Analysis
Unit V: Dynamic Modelling
Lagrangian Mechanics – Two degree of freedom ManipulatorDynamic Model – Lagrange–
Euler formulation  Newton –Euler Formulation – comparison of Lagrange–Euler & Newton –
Euler Formulations – Inverse Dynamics
Unit VI: Trajectory Planning
Definitions and planning tasks terminologysteps in trajectory planning Joint space techniques
Cartesian space techniques Joint space Vs Cartesian space Trajectory planning.
Unit VII: Control of Manipulators
Open and close loop control – The manipulator control problem – Linear control schemes
Characteristics of second order linear systems Linear Second orderSISO model of a
manipulator joint Joint Actuators partitioned PD control scheme –PID control scheme –
computed torque control force control of robotic manipulators – description of force control
tasks –Forcecontrol strategiesHybrid position/ force control Impedance Force/Torque control
Unit VIII: Robotic Sensors and Applications
Sensing Sensors in robotics – Kinds of sensors used in robotics Robotic vision Robotic
vision Industrial applications of vision controlled robotic systems process of Imaging
Architecture of robotic vision systems Image Acquisition Image representationImage
processing – Industrial applications –material handling – Process applications – Assembly
applications – Inspection application – Principles of Robot applications and application planning,
Justification of robots Robot safety
Reference Books:
1. Robotics and control –RKMittal And I J Nagrath TMH Publishers1st edition2003
2. Mikell P,Weiss G.M.,Nagel R.N., Odrey N.G., Industrial Robotics, McGraw Hill,1986.
3. Deb.S.R Robotics Technology and flexible automation, Tata McGraw Hill, 1994.
4. Asfahi C.R.  Robotics and manufacturing automation, John wiley ,1992.
5. Klafter R.D. Chimielewski T.A & Neign M., Robotics engineering: An integrated
approach, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., 1994.
CDMA AND OFDM FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
Unit 1: Principles of Code Division Multiple Access
Spread spectrum technique – Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum
communication system – PN codes and Walsh codes – Rake receiver – Capacity – Effects of loading,
sectorization and voice activity – Power control – Hand off – Link structure – Forward link – Pilot,
synchronization, paging and traffic channels – Reverse Link – access and traffic channel.
Unit 2: Call Processing and Traffic
Call processing states – Initialization, idle, access and traffic states – Forward link and Reverse link
analysis  Calculation of Ec/I0 and Eb/N0 – Traffic intensity – Grade of Service – ErlangB and C models.
Unit 3: OFDM Basics
OFDM principles – system model – Generation of sub carrier using IFFT, guard time and cyclic
extensions – windowing  Choice of OFDM parameters  OFDM signal processing.
Unit 4: Coding, Modulation and Channel Estimation
FEC coding – Interleaving – QAM – Coded modulation – Synchronization – Synchronization using
cyclic extension and special training symbols – Coherent detection – One and two dimensional
channel estimation – Special training symbols – Decision directed channel estimation – Differential
detection in the time and frequency domain.
Unit 5: OFDMA and MCCDMA
Frequency hopping in OFDMA  OFDMA system description – Channel coding, modulation, time and
frequency synchronization, Combination of OFDM and CDMA  MCCDMA, MTCDMA and MCDS
CDMA systems  Difference between OFDMA and MCCDMA
Text Books:
1. Samuel C Yang, “CDMA RF System Engineering,” Artech House, 2008.
2. Richard Van Nee and Ramjee Prasad, “OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communication,” Artech
House, 2007.
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