Semester–i design and analysis of algorithms (mece 101)

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M. Tech. ECE Course Description Batch 2013-15









Algorithm Analysis – Time Space Tradeoff – Asymptotic Notations – Conditional asymptotic notation – Removing condition from the conditional asymptotic notation - Properties of big-Oh notation – Recurrence equations – Solving recurrence equations –Analysis of linear search.

Divide and Conquer: General Method – Binary Search – Finding Maximum and Minimum– Merge Sort – Greedy Algorithms: General Method – Container Loading – Knapsack Problem.

Dynamic Programming: General Method – Multistage Graphs – All-Pair shortest paths –Optimal binary search trees – 0/1 Knapsack – Travelling salesperson problem

Backtracking: General Method – 8 Queens problem – sum of subsets – graph coloring –Hamiltonian problem – knapsack problem.

Graph Traversals – Connected Components – Spanning Trees – Biconnected components – Branch and Bound: General Methods (FIFO & LC) – 0/1 Knapsack pproblem – Introduction to NP-Hard and NP-Completeness.

Suggested Books:
1. Ellis Horowitz, Sartaj Sahni and Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Computer Algorithms/ C++, Second Edition, Universities Press, 2007. (For Units II to V)

2. K.S. Easwarakumar, Object Oriented Data Structures using C++, Vikas Publishing House pvt. Ltd., 2000 (For Unit I)

1. T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R.L.Rivest, and C. Stein, "Introduction to Algorithms", Second Edition, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 2003.

2. Alfred V. Aho, John E. Hopcroft and Jeffrey D. Ullman, "The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms", Pearson Education, 1999.










Discrete Random Signal Processing

Discrete Random Processes, Expectations, Variance, Co- variance, Scalar Product, Energy of Discrete Signals- Parseval’s theorem, Wiener Khintchine Relation- Power Spectral Density, Periodogram - Sample Autocorrelation, Sum Decomposition Theorem, Spectral Decomposition Theorem, Spectral Factorization Theorem, Discrete Random Signal Processing by linear systems – Simulation of White Noise - Low pass filtering of White Noise.

Spectrum Estimation

Non- parametric Methods- Correlation Method, Co- variance estimator, Performance Analysis of Estimators- Unbiased, Consistent Estimators – Periodogram Estimator- Barlett Spectrum Estimation- Welch Estimation- Model based Approach- AR, MA, ARMA Signal Modelling- Parameter Estimation using Yule Walker Method.

Linear Estimation and Prediction

Maximum likelihood crieterion – efficiency of estimator – least mean squared error criterion- Wiener Filter – Discrete Winer Hoff equations, Recursive Estimators- Kalman Filter, Linear Prediction, Prediction error whitening filter, inverse filter – Levinson recursion, Lattice realization and Levinson recursion algorithm for solving Toeplitz system of equations.

Adaptive Filters

FIR adaptive filters- Newton’s steepest descent method – adaptive filter based on steepest descent method Windrow Hoff LMS adaptive algorithm – Adaptive channel equalization – Adaptive echo cancellation –Adaptive noise cancellation – RLS adaptive filters –Exponentially weighted RLS – sliding window RLS- Simplified IIR LMS adaptive filter.

Multirate Digital Signal Processing

Mathematical Description of change of sampling rate –Interpolation and Decimation, continuous time model, Direct digital domain approach, Decimation by an integer factor, Interpolation by an integer factor, Single and multistage realization- polyphase realization

Digital Signal Processors

Introduction to DSP architecture - Harvard architecture - Dedicated MAC unit - Multiple ALUs, Advanced addressing modes, Pipelining, Architectures of ADSP and TMS series of processor.

Suggested Books:

  1. Monson H. Hayes, “Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modelling”, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1996.

  2. Sopocles J. Orfanidis, “Optimum Signal Processing”, McGraw Hill, 1990.

  3. John G. Proakis, Dimitris G. Manolakis, “Digital Signal Processing”, Prentice Hall of India, 1995.

  4. B.Venkataramani & M. Bhaskar, Digital Signal Processor Architecture, Programming and Application, TMH 2002. (UNIT - V)











Light propagation in optical fibers – Loss & bandwidth, System limitations, Non-Linear effects; Solutions; Optical Network Components – Couplers, Isolators & Circulators, Multiplexers & Filters, Optical Amplifiers, Switches, Wavelength Converters.


Introduction to Optical Networks; SONET / SDH, Metropoliton-Area Networks, Layered Architecture ; Broadcast and Select Networks – Topologies for Broadcast Networks, Media-Access Control Protocols, Testbeds for Broadcast & Select WDM; Wavelength Routing Architecture.


The optical layer, Node Designs, Optical layer cost tradeoff, Routing and wavelength assignment,Virtual topology design, Wavelength Routing Testbeds, Architectural variations.


Photonic Packet Switching – OTDM, Multiplexing and Demultiplexing, Synchronisation, Broadcast OTDM networks, Switch-based networks; Access Networks – Network Architecture overview, Future Access Networks, Optical Access Network Architectures; and OTDM networks.


Transmission System Engineering – System model, Power penalty - transmitter, receiver, Optical amplifiers, crosstalk, dispersion; Wavelength stabilization ; Overall design considerations; Control and Management – Network management functions, Configuration management, Performance management, Fault management, Optical safety, Service interface.

Suggested Books:
1. Rajiv Ramaswami and Kumar N. Sivarajan, “Optical Networks : A Practical Perspective”, Harcourt Asia Pte Ltd., Second Edition 2004.

2. Siva Ram Moorthy and Mohan Gurusamy, “WDM Optical Networks : Concept, Design and Algorithms”, Prentice Hall of India, Ist Edition, 2002.

3. P.E. Green, Jr., “Fiber Optic Networks”, Prentice Hall, NJ, 1993.










Introduction And Examples Of Embedded Systems, Concept Of Embedded System

Design: Design challenge, Processor technology, IC technology, Design technology, Trade-offs

Custom single purpose processor hardware, general-purpose processor:

Introduction, basic architecture, operation, super-scalar and VLSIIW architecture, application specific instruction set processors (ASIPS), microcontrollers, digital signal processors, selecting a microprocessor.

Memory: Introduction, Memory write ability, Storage performance, Tradeoff s, Common memory types Memory hierarchy and cache

AVR 8515 microcontroller: Architecture and Programming in assembly and C.

Interfacing Analog and digital blocks: Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs), Digital to- Analog, Converters (DACs)., Communication basics and basic protocol concepts, Microprocessor interfacing: I/O addressing, Port and Bus based, I/O, Memory mapped I/O, Standard I/O interrupts, Direct memory access, Advanced communication principles parallel, serial and wireless, Serial protocols I2C, Parallel

protocols PCI bus, Wireless protocol IrDA, blue tooth.

Different peripheral devices: Buffers and latches, Crystal, Reset circuit, Chip select logic circuit, timers and counters and watch dog timers, Universal asynchronous receiver, transmitter (UART), Pulse width modulators, LCD controllers, Keypad controllers.

Design tradeoffs: due to thermal considerations and Effects of EMI/ES etc.

Software aspect of embedded systems: Challenges and issues in embedded software development, Co-design

Embedded software development environments: Real time operating systems, Kernel architecture: Hardware, Task/process control subsystem, Device drivers, File subsystem, system calls, Embedded operating systems, Task scheduling in embedded systems: task scheduler, first in first out, shortest job first, round robin, priority based scheduling, Context switch: Task synchronization: mutex, semaphore,

Timers, Types of embedded operating systems, Programming languages: assembly languages, high level languages

Development for embedded systems: Embedded system development process, Determine the requirements, Design the system architecture, Choose the operating system, Choose the processor, Choose the development platform, Choose the programming language, Coding issues, Code optimization, Efficient input/output, Testing and debugging, Verify the software on the host system, Verify the software on the embedded system.
Suggested Books
Frankvahid/Tony Givargis, “ Embedded System Design- A unified Hardware/software Introduction”.

David E Simon, " An embedded software primer ", Pearson education Asia, 2001.

Dreamteach Software team,” Programming for Embedded Systems” AVR 8515 manual

J.W. Valvano, "Embedded Microcomputor System: Real Time Interfacing"

Jack Ganssle, "The Art of Designing Embedded Systems", Newnes, 1999










Analysis of clocked synchronous sequential circuits and modeling- State diagram, state table, state table assignment and reduction-Design of synchronous sequential circuits design of iterative circuits-ASM chart and realization using ASM


Analysis of asynchronous sequential circuit – flow table reduction-races-state assignment-transition table and problems in transition table- design of asynchronous sequential circuit-Static, dynamic and essential hazards – data synchronizers – mixed operating mode asynchronous circuits – designing vending machine controller


Fault table method-path sensitization method – Boolean difference method-D algorithm –Tolerance techniques – The compact algorithm – Fault in PLA – Test generation-DFT schemes – Built in self-test.


Programming logic device families – Designing a synchronous sequential circuit using PLA/PAL – Realization of finite state machine using PLD – FPGA – Xilinx FPGA-Xilinx 4000


VHDL operators – Arrays – concurrent and sequential statements – packages- Data flow – Behavioral – structural modeling – compilation and simulation of VHDL code –Test bench - Realization of combinational and sequential circuits using HDL – Registers – counters – sequential machine – serial adder – Multiplier- Divider – Design of simple microprocessor.

Suggested Books:

1. Charles H.Roth Jr “Fundamentals of Logic Design” Thomson Learning 2004
2. Nripendra N Biswas “Logic Design Theory” Prentice Hall of India,2001
3. Parag K.Lala “Fault Tolerant and Fault Testable Hardware Design” B S Publications,2002
4. Parag K.Lala “Digital system Design using PLD” B S Publications,2003
5. Charles H Roth Jr.”Digital System Design using VHDL” Thomson learning, 2004
6. Douglas L.Perry “VHDL programming by Example” Tata McGraw.Hill – 2006.

7. William I. Fletcher, “An Engineering approach to Digital Design”, Prentice Hall - 1980











Unit I: Microprocessor Architecture

Introduction to 16-bit microprocessors, 8086/8088 CPU architecture, memory segmentation,

physical address generation, addressing modes, Instruction set: data transfer, arithmetic, logical, string

manipulation, control transfer, unconditional branch, conditional branch, flag, processor control, 8087

coprocessor, data formats

Unit II: Assembly Language Programming

Assembler organization, assembler directives and operators, Assembly language programs,

MASM and DEBUG utility, stack structure, PUSH and POP instructions, subroutine, procedure and

macros, timing and delays

Unit III: Interfacing of Peripherals

Programmable peripheral interface 8255, internal architecture, control word register, operating

modes; Timer/counter 8253/8254: functional block diagram, control word register, modes of operation,

timing diagrams; keyboard interface/display controller 8279: internal architecture, 8279 commands,

operating modes; programmable interrupt controller 8259A: architectural block diagram, command words

Unit IV: Architectures of 80x86 processors

Protected mode memory addressing, protected virtual addressing mode (PVAM), architecture,

special features and overview of 80286, 80386 and 80486, Pentium Pro processors, superscalar

architecture, MMX (Multimedia Extension) and SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) technology

Suggested Books:
1. Advanced Microprocessors & Peripherals: A. K. Ray & Bhurchandi, TMH, New Delhi

2. Microprocessor based Systems: N. G. Palan, Tech-Max Publication, Pune

3. Assembly Language Programming: Peter Abel, PHI, New Delhi

4. 8086/8088 Family: Design, Programming and Interfacing: John Uffenbeck, Pearson Education

5. Intel Microprocessors 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium Pro Programming and Interfacing:

Barry and Brey, PHI, New Delhi

6. Modern Digital Electronics: R. P. Jain, TMH, New Delhi

7. The 80x86 Family : Design, Programming and Interfacing: John Uffenbeck, Pearson Education










Introduction to MOS Circuits: MOS Transistors, MOS Transistor Switches, CMOS Logic, Circuit and System Representations, MOS Transistor Theory – Introduction MOS Device Design Equations, The Complementary CMOS Inverter-DC Characteristics, Static Load MOS Inverters, The Differential Inverter, The Transmission Gate, The Tri State Inverter, Bipolar Devices.
Circuit Characterization And Performance Estimation: Introduction, Resistance Estimation Capacitance Estimation, Inductance, Switching Characteristics CMOS Gate Transistor Sizing, Power Dissipation, Sizing Routing Conductors, Charge Sharing, Design Margining, and Reliability.
CMOS Circuit And Logic Design: CMOS Logic Gate Design, Basic Physical Design of Simple Gate, CMOS Logic Structures, Clocking Strategies, I/O Structures, Low Power Design.
Systems Design And Design Method: Design Strategies CMOS Chip Design Options, Design Methods, Design Capture Tools, Design Verification Tools, Design Economics, Data Sheets, CMOS esting - Manufacturing Test Principles, Design Strategies for Test, Chip Level Test Techniques, System Level Test Techniques, Layout Design for Improved Testability.
CMOS Sub System Design: Data Path Operations-Addition/Subtraction, Parity Generators, Comparators, Zero/One Detectors, Binary Counters, ALUs, Multiplication, Shifters, Memory Elements, Control-FSM, Control Logic Implementation.
Suggested Books
1. SuN. Weste and K. Eshranghian, "Principles of CMOS VLSI Design", Addison Wesley, 1998.

2. Jacob Backer, Harry W. Li and David E. Boyce, " CMOS Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation ", Prentice Hall of India, 1998.

3. L.Glaser and D. Dobberpuhl, "The Design and Analysis of VLSI, Circuits”, Addison Wesley 1993.

4. C.Mead and L. Conway, "Introduction to VLSI Systems", Addison Wesley, 1979.

5. Randel & Geiger, “ VLSI Analog and Digital Circuit Design Techniques” McGraw- Hill,1990.

6. Sahib H.Gerez, “Algorithms for VLSI design automation ”,1998.

7. William M. Penny, Lillian Lau, “ MOS Integrated Circuits- Theory, Fabrication, Design and System Applications of MOS LSI”, Van Nostrand Reihold Company.

8. Sung Ms Kang, Yusuf Lablebici, “CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis & Design”, Tata Mc-Graw Hill.











Cellular systems- Frequency Management and Channel Assignment- types of handoff and their characteristics, dropped call rates & their evaluation -MAC – SDMA – FDMA – TDMA – CDMA – Cellular Wireless Networks


Wireless LAN – IEEE 802.11 Standards – Architecture – Services – Mobile Ad hoc Networks- WiFi and WiMAX - Wireless Local Loop-Bluetooth Technology.


GSM-architecture-Location tracking and call setup- Mobility management- Handover- Security-GSM SMS –International roaming for GSM- call recording functions-subscriber and service data mgt –Mobile Number portability -VoIP service for Mobile Networks – GPRS –Architecture-GPRS procedures-attach and detach procedures-PDP context procedure-combined RA/LA update procedures-Billing


Mobile IP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol-Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols– Multicast routing-TCP over Wireless Networks – Indirect TCP – Snooping TCP – Mobile TCP – Fast Retransmit / Fast Recovery – Transmission/Timeout Freezing-Selective Retransmission – Transaction Oriented TCP- TCP over 2.5 / 3G wireless Networks


WAP Model- Mobile Location based services -WAP Gateway –WAP protocols – WAP user agent profile- caching model-wireless bearers for WAP - WML – WMLScripts – WTA - iMode- SyncML.

Suggested Books:   

1. Jochen Schiller, “Mobile Communications”, Second Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.

2. William Stallings, “Wireless Communications and Networks”, Pearson Education, 2002.

3. Kaveh Pahlavan, Prasanth Krishnamoorthy, “Principles of Wireless Networks”, First Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.

4. Uwe Hansmann, Lothar Merk, Martin S. Nicklons and Thomas Stober, “Principles of Mobile Computing”, Springer, 2003.

5. C.K.Toh, “AdHoc Mobile Wireless Networks”, First Edition, Pearson Education, 2002.










Introduction to microwave transmission lines and matching techniques

Microstrip transmission lines

Single and double stub tuning circuits

Quarter-wave impedance matching circuits

Quadrature and 180 degree hybrid analysis and design

Even- and odd-mode analysis of hybrids

Reciprocal and lossless networks

Cascaded network using ABCD parameters

Frequency responses

Low-pass and high-pass filter analysis and design

Filter design by insertion loss method

Stepped impedance filter

Filter transformation

Filter implementation using microstrip lines

Noise analysis

Noise in devices and systems

Noise figure and noise temperature

Non-linear responses of microwave circuits

Design and fabrication of a microwave amplifier

Gain and stability analysis

Input and output matching circuits

Dynamic range, noise and non-linearity

Microwave systems



Microwave communication systems
Suggested Books

  1. Almudena Suárez, "Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits", 2009.

  2. Nonlinear Microwave and RF Circuits, 2nd Edition, by Stephen A. Maas.

  3. Microwave Solid State Circuit Design, 2nd edition, by Inder Bahl, Prakash Bhartia










INTRODUCTION: Concept of research and its applications in the various functions of management; Types of research. Types of business problems encountered by the research; Problems and precautions to the researcher in India

PROCESS OF RESEARCH: Steps involved in research process; various methods of research design.

DATA COLLECTION: Sampling procedure; Sample size; Determination and selection of sample member; Types of data and various methods of collecting data; Preparation of questionnaire and schedule; Precautions in preparation of questionnaire and collection of data.

ANALYSIS OF DATA: Coding, editing and tabulation of data; various kinds of charts and diagrams used in data analysis; Application of statistical techniques for analyzing the data, Application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Uses of Data Analysis Tools like SPSS and Excel.

REPORT PREPARATION: Types and layout of research report; Precautions in preparing the research report; Bibliography and Annexure in report; Drawing conclusions; Giving suggestions and recommendations to the concerned persons.
Suggested Books:
1) Collis J and Hussey R- Business Research (Palgrave, 2003)

2) Cooper- Business Research (Tata McGraw-Hill)

3) Saunders- Research Methods for Business Students (Pearson Education, 3rd edition)

4) Beri- Marketing Research (Tata McGraw-Hill), 1993, 2nd ed.

5) David J. Luck and Ronald S. Ruben- Marketing Research (Prentice Hall of India), 1987, 7th ed.




(MECE 201 & 203)










Basic Principles of Optical Remote Sensing: Energy sources and radiation principles, Atmospheric

absorption, interaction of energy with various features of the earth's surface.

Digital processing of satellite images: Geometric rectification, spatial and radiometric enhancement,

edge detection, band ratio, false color composites, Principal component analysis, Spectral domain

enhancement, Supervised and unsupervised classification for thematic map generation.

Geographic Information System: Basic concepts, Raster and Vector mode operation.

Microwave Remote Sensing: Basic principles, spatial resolution of SAR system, geometric

characteristics, signature of earth features.

Visual Remote Sensing: Aerial photography, Parallax, Vertical exaggeration, Visual interpretation of

Earth features from aerial photographs and satellite imageries, Application in thematic interpretation,

Stereo photo interpretation, Photogrammetric computation

1. Thomas M. Lillesand, Ralph W. Kiefer, and Jonathan W. Chipman, “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation

2. John A. Richards and Xiuping Jia, “Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis: An Introduction

3. Thomas Martin Lillesand, “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation

4. James B. Campbell, Introduction to Remote Sensing”, Third Edition

5. Roger M. McCoy, “Field Methods in Remote Sensing
Transmission Lines: Basic principles, Structures and Properties of Transmission Lines.
Scattering Parameters and Circuit Analysis, Uncertainty and Confidence in measurements, Using
Coaxial Connectors in Measurement
Attenuation Measurement: Basic principles, Measurement systems, important considerations when making attenuation measurements
RF Voltage Measurement: RF voltage measuring instruments, impedance matching and mismatch errors.

Noise Measurements: Types of noise, types of noise source, measuring noise, measurement accuracy, mismatch effects, automated noise measurements.
Network Analyzers: Spectrum Analyzer Measurements and Applications. Elements of network analyser, MMIC measurement techniques, calibration and verification of automatic network analysers, spectrum analyser basic principle, applications of spectrum


RF Power Measurement: Power sensors, power measurements and calibration, calibration and transfer standards, power splitters, couplers and reflectometers

Suggested Books
1. Richard Collier & Douglas Skinner, “Microwave Measurements” 3rd Edition, IET, 2007.

Introduction to the concept of a SOC

Backgrounder, microprocessor and Microcontroller based systems, Embedded systems. Differences between Embedded systems and SOCs. System design Concept of system, importance of system architectures, introduction to SIMD, SSID, MIMD and MISD architectures, concept of pipelining and parallelism. Designing microprocessor /Microcontroller based system and embedded system. System design issues in SOCs. System buses Introduction to busses used in SOCs. Introduction to AMBA bus. Detailed study of IBM's core connect bus, concept of PLB-processor local bus and OPB-on chip peripheral bus. Processors used in SOCs Introduction to CISC ,RISC, Von Neuman and Harward Architecture. Concept of Soft processors and study of Microblaze RISC processor. Study of IBM's power PC SOC implementation Backgrounder – programmable logic and FPGA Architecture . Concept of embedded processors and study of virtex II PRO Architecture. Study of features like embedded RAMs ,multipliers ,Digital clock management etc. Introduction to tools used for SOC design, Xilinx embedded development kit

Suggested Books:
1) FPGA based system design by Wyne wolf – published by prentice hall.

2) Readings in hardware/software co-design Giovanni De Micheli,Rolf Ernst, and Wayne Wolf – published by Morgan Kaufman.

3) Computers as components:principles of embedded computing system design published by Morgan Kaufman publishers

4) Multiprocessors systems-on-chips by Ahmed jerrya wayne wolf,eds- Morgan Kaufman publishers

5) Core connect architecture at

6) EDK power PC tutorial at

7) Virtexll pro handbook from Xilinx

8) Power PC info http://www.chips power PC/cores/405sde_pb.html.

9) White papers form and http://www.chips

10) Arm processor details at

11) Amba bus architecture at at
Basic CMOS Circuit Techniques, Continuous Time And Low voltage Signal Processing: Mixed-Signal VLSI Chips-Basic CMOS Circuits-Basic Gain Stage-Gain Boosting Techniques-Super MOS Transistor- Primitive Analog Cells-Linear Voltage- Current Converters-MOS Multipliers and Resistors-CMOS, Bipolar and Low-Voltage BiCMOS Op-Amp Design-Instrumentation Amplifier Design-Low Voltage Filters.
Basic BiCMOS Circuit Techniques, Current -Mode Signal Processing: Continuous- Time Signal Processing-Sampled-Data Signal Processing-Switched-Current Data Converters.
Sampled-Data Analog Filters, Over Sampled A/D Converters And Analog Integrated

Sensors: First-order and Second SC Circuits-Bilinear Transformation – Cascade Design-Switched-Capacitor Ladder Filter-Synthesis of Switched-Current Filter- Nyquist rate A/D Converters-Modulators for Over sampled A/D Conversion-First and Second Order and Multibit Sigma-Delta Modulators-Interpolative Modulators – Cascaded Architecture-Decimation Filters-mechanical, Thermal, Humidity and Magnetic Sensors-Sensor Interfaces.
Analog VLSI Interconnects: Physics of Interconnects in VLSI-Scaling of Interconnects-A Model for Estimating Wiring Density-A Configurable Architecture for Prototyping analog Circuits.
Statistical Modeling And Simulation, Analog Computer-Aided Design And Analog And Mixed Analog-Digital Layout: Review of Statistical Concepts - Statistical Device Modeling- Statistical Circuit Simulation-Automation Analog Circuit Design-automatic Analog Layout-CMOS Transistor Layout-Resistor Layout-Capacitor Layout-Analog Cell Layout-Mixed Analog -Digital Layout.

Suggested Books
Paul R. Gray and Robert G.Meyer, “ Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits”, John Wiley & Sons.

Mohammed Ismail, Terri Fiez, " Analog VLSI signal and Information Processing ", 1994, McGraw-Hill International Editons.

Behzad Razavi, “ Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”, Tata Mc-Graw Hill.

Y. Tsividis, “ Mixed Analog-Digital Devices and Technology”, Mc-Graw Hill.

Alan B. Gnebene, “ Bipolar and MOS analog integrated circuit design“,John Wiley & Sons.

Low power Basics: Need for low power VLSI chips, Sources of power dissipation on Digital

Integrated circuits. Emerging Low power approaches. Physics of power dissipation in CMOS devices.

Device & Technology Impact on Low Power: Dynamic dissipation in CMOS, Transistor sizing & gate

oxide thickness, Impact of technology Scaling, Technology & Device innovation.

Power estimation Simulation Power analysis: SPICE circuit simulators, gate level

logic simulation, capacitive power estimation, static state power, gate level

capacitance estimation, architecture level analysis, data correlation analysis in DSP

systems. .

Low Power Design Circuit level: Power consumption in circuits. Flip Flops & Latches design, high

capacitance nodes, low power digital cells library

Logic level: Gate reorganization, signal gating, logic encoding, state machine encoding, pre-computation


Low power Architecture & Systems: Power & performance management, switching activity

reduction, parallel architecture with voltage reduction, flow graph transformation, low power

arithmetic components, low power memory design.

Low power Clock Distribution: Power dissipation in clock distribution, single

driver Vs distributed buffers, Zero skew Vs tolerable skew, chip & package co

design of clock network

Algorithm & architectural level methodologies: Introduction, design flow,

Algorithmic level analysis & optimization, Architectural level estimation &


Reference Books:

1. Gary K. Yeap, “Practical Low Power Digital VLSI Design”, KAP, 2002

2. Rabaey, Pedram, “Low power design methodologies” Kluwer Academic, 1997

3. Kaushik Roy, Sharat Prasad,“Low-Power CMOS VLSI Circuit Design” Wiley,2000

Introduction to AI

Roots and Scope of AI, Definition, Turing Test, Application Areas of AI

AI as Representation and Search

Predicate Calculus

Structures and Strategies for State Space Search
Heuristic Search
Control and Implementation of State Space Search

Representation and Inference

Knowledge Representation

Strong Methods for Problem Solving
Reasoning in Uncertain Situations

Machine Learning

Symbol-Based: Framework for Symbol – Based Learning, Version Space Search, ID3 Algorithm, Un-supervised learning, Reinforcement Learning

Connectionist: Perceptron Learning, Backpropagation Learning, Competitive Learning, Hebbian Coincidence Learning, Attractor Networks

Advanced Topics of AI Problem Solving

Automated Reasoning: Weak Methods in Theorem Proving, GPS and Difference Table, Resolution for Theorem Proving, Automated reasoning with PROLOG

Understanding Natural Language: Role of Knowledge, Symbolic Analysis, Syntax, ATN Parsers, Stochastic Tools for Language Analysis, Natural Language Applications

Text Book:

"Artificial Intelligence – Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving", George F. Luger, 4th Edition, Pearson Education , 2003.

Reference Books:

"Artificial Intelligence", Knight, Tata McGraw Hill

"Artificial Intelligence ‘a Modern Approach" Russell & Norvig, second edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
Unit 1: RF Passive Components and Transmission Line Analysis

High frequency Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors – Transmission Line Analysis – line equation –

Micro stripe line – SWR voltage reflection co-efficient propagation constant, phase constant, phase

velocity – smith chart – parallel RL and RC circuits – ABCD parameters and S parameters.

Unit 2: RF Active Components and RF Amplifier Design

RF Diode, PIN diode, GUNN diode, RF Bipolar junction Transistor, RF Field Effect Transistor –

Modeling of Diode, transistor and FET - RF Amplifier: characteristics, power relational and stability

considerations – LNA, Power amplifiers, Differential amplifiers, Distributed power amplifiers and

Broad band amplifiers.

Unit 3: RF Circuits Design

RF Oscillator Design, Fixed frequency oscillator – Dielectric resonant oscillator, Voltage controlled

oscillator- sun element oscillator – RF mixer design – single ended mixer – double ended mixer – RF

filter resonator and filter configuration – Butterworth and chebyshev filters – Design of micro stripe


Unit 4: RF IC Design

Introduction to RFIC – Analog and Microwave design versus RFIC design – noise performance

estimate – RF technology – receiver with single IF stage metallization – sheet resistance – skin effect

–parasitic capacitance and inductance – current handling – metal capacitors – Spiral inductors –

quality factor – layout in IC – mutual inductance – multilevel – measurement – packaging.

Unit 5: RF System Design

Link design – Fading design – Protected and non protected microwave systems – Path calculation –

Spread spectrum microwave system – Compatibility – Safety co-ordinate systems – Datam’s & GPS –

Receiver design – receiver architecture dynamic range – frequency conversion and filtering –

examples of practical receivers – FM broadcast, Digital cellular, Multimeter wave point to point,

Direct conversion GSM receiver-RF MEMS: Concept, Implementation and Applications.

Text Books:

1. Reinhold Ludwig and Pavel Bretchko, “RF circuit design,” Pearson Education, 2007.

2. David Pozar, “Microwave and RF design of Wireless systems,” Johnwiley, 2008.

Reference Books:

1. Josn Rogers and Calvin Plett, “Radio frequency Integrated circuit design,” Artech house, 2002.

2. Ferri Losee, “RF systems, Components and Circuits handbook,” Artech house, 2002.

3. Joseph.J.Carr, “Secrets of RF circuit design,” Tata McGraw Hill, 2004.

4. Vivek Varadhan,” RF MEMS and their applications”, Wiley Eastern edition, 2003.

Physical Characterization: Thin Film Thickness- Measurements-ellipsometry, surface profiling, spectrophotometry, FTIR

Critical Dimension Measurements: Optical microscope, Scanning Electron

Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope

Material and Impurity Characterization: SIMS, XRD, EDAX

Electrical Characterization: Four-probe technique, Hall effect, sheet resistance C-V

measurements, DLTS, Carrier lifetime, impurity profiling, I-V measurements

Process and SPICE model parameter Extraction.
Suggested Books
W.R. Reunyan, “ Semiconductor Measurements And Instrumentation”, Mc-Graw Hill.

Schroder, “Semiconductor Material And Device Characterization”

Philips F. Kare and Greydon B. Lauabee, “ Characterization of semiconductor Materials”, Mc-Graw Hill.

K.V. Ravi, “Imperfections And Impurities In Semiconductor Silicon”, John Wiley And Sons.



Information – Entropy, Information rate, classification of codes, Kraft McMillan inequality, Source coding theorem, Shannon-Fano coding, Huffman coding, Extended Huffman

coding - Joint and conditional entropies, Mutual information - Discrete memoryless channels – BSC, BEC – Channel capacity, Shannon limit.


Text: Adaptive Huffman Coding, Arithmetic Coding, LZW algorithm – Audio: Perceptual coding, Masking techniques, Psychoacoustic model, MEG Audio layers I,II,III, Dolby AC3 - Speech: Channel Vocoder, Linear Predictive Coding


Image and Video Formats – GIF, TIFF, SIF, CIF, QCIF – Image compression: READ, JPEG – Video Compression: Principles-I,B,P frames, Motion estimation, Motion compensation, H.261, MPEG standard


Definitions and Principles: Hamming weight, Hamming distance, Minimum distance decoding - Single parity codes, Hamming codes, Repetition codes - Linear block codes, Cyclic codes - Syndrome calculation, Encoder and decoder – CRC


Convolutional codes – code tree, trellis, state diagram - Encoding – Decoding: Sequential search and Viterbi algorithm – Principle of Turbo coding

Suggested Books:
1. R Bose, “Information Theory, Coding and Crptography”, TMH 2007

2. Fred Halsall, “Multidedia Communications: Applications, Networks, Protocols and Standards”, Perason Education Asia, 2002

3. K Sayood, “Introduction to Data Compression” 3/e, Elsevier 2006

4. S Gravano, “Introduction to Error Control Codes”, Oxford University Press 2007

5. Amitabha Bhattacharya, “Digital Communication”, TMH 2006

The PIC18 Microcontrollers: History and Features

PIC18 Architecture & Assembly Language Programming

Branch, Call, and Time Delay Loop

PIC18 I/O Port Programming

Arithmetic, Logic Instructions and Programs

Bank Switching, Table Processing, Macros, and Modules

PIC18 Programming in C

PIC18 Hardware Connection and ROM Loaders

PIC18 Timer Programming in Assembly and C

PIC18 Serial Port Programming in Assembly and C

Interrupt Programming in Assembly and C

LCD and Keyboard Interfacing

ADC, DAC, and Sensor Interfacing

SPI Protocol and DS1306 RTC Interfacing

Motor Control: Relay, PWM, DC, and Stepper Motors

Introduction to ARM and AVR 8515 microcontroller: Architecture and Programming

in assembly and C
Suggested Books
1. Daniel Tabak, "Advanced Microprocessors", McGraw Hill. Inc., 1995

2. James L. Antonakos, "The Pentium Microprocessor", Pearson Education, 1997

3. Steave Furber, "ARM system - on - chip architecture", Addison Wesley, 2000

4. John.B..Peatman, "Design with PIC Micro controller", Pearson Education, 1988

5. Gene. H.Miller, "Micro Computer Engineering", Pearson Education, 2003

6. James L Antonakos, "An Introduction to the Intel family of Microprocessors", Pearson Education, 1999

7. Barry B.Breg,, "The Intel Microprocessors Architecture, Programming and Interfacing", PHI, 2002


Data Communications: Components – Direction of Data flow – networks – Components and

Categories – types of Connections – Topologies –Protocols and Standards – ISO / OSI model –

Transmission Media – Coaxial Cable – Fiber Optics – Line Coding – Modems – RS232

Interfacing sequences.

Data Link Layer: Error – detection and correction – Parity – LRC – CRC – Hamming code

low Control and Error control - stop and wait – go back-N ARQ – selective repeat ARQ- sliding

window – HDLC - LAN - Ethernet IEEE 802.3 - IEEE 802.4 - IEEE 802.5 - IEEE 802.11 – FDDI

- SONET – Bridges.

Network Layer: Internetworks – Packet Switching and Datagram approach – IP addressing

methods – Subnetting – Routing – Distance Vector Routing – Link State Routing – Routers.

Transport Layer: Duties of transport layer – Multiplexing – Demultiplexing – Sockets – User

Datagram Protocol (UDP) – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – Congestion Control – Quality

of services (QOS) – Integrated Services.

Application Layer: Domain Name Space (DNS) – SMTP – FTP – HTTP - WWW – Security



1. Behrouz A. Forouzan, “Data communication and Networking”, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2004.

2. James F. Kurose and Keith W. Ross, “Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach

Featuring the Internet”, Pearson Education, 2003.

3. Larry L.Peterson and Peter S. Davie, “Computer Networks”, Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd.,

Second Edition.

4. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks”, PHI, Fourth Edition, 2003.

5. William Stallings, “Data and Computer Communication”, Sixth Edition, Pearson

Education, 2000.

Unit I

Introductory matrix algebra and linear vector space. State space representation of systems. Linearization

of a non - linear System. Solution of state equations. Evaluation of State Transition Matrix (STM) -

Simulation of state equation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK program.

Unit II

Similarity transformation and invariance of system properties due to similarity transformations. Minimal

realization of SISO, SIMO, MISO transfer functions. Discretization of a continuous time state space

model. Conversion of state space model to transfer function model using Fadeeva algorithm.

Unit III

Fundamental theorem of feedback control - Controllability and Controllable canonical form - Pole

assignment by state feedback using Ackermann’s formula – Eigen structure assignment problem.

Unit IV

Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem and solution of algebraic Riccati equation using eigenvalue

and eigen vector methods, iterative method. Controller design using output feedback.

Unit V

Observability and observable canonical form - Design of full order observer using Ackermann’s formula -

Bass Gura algorithm.

Unit VI

Duality between controllability and observability - Full order Observer based controller design. Reduced

order observer design.

Unit VII

Internal stability of a system. Stability in the sense of Lyapunov, asymptotic stability of linear time

invariant continuous and discrete time systems. Solution of Lyapunov type equation.


Model decomposition and decoupling by state feedback. Disturbance rejection, sensitivity and

complementary sensitivity functions.
Reference Books:
1. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall, India 1997

2. T. Kailath, T., Linear Systems, Perntice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980.

3. N. K. Sinha , Control Systems, New Age International, 3rd edition, 2005.

4. Panos J Antsaklis, and Anthony N. Michel, Linear Systems, New - age international (P) LTD.

Publishers, 2009.

5. John J D’Azzo and C. H. Houpis , “Linear Control System Analysis and Design Conventional

and Modern”, McGraw - Hill Book Company, 1988.

6. B.N. Dutta, Numerical Methods for linear Control Systems - , Elsevier Publication, 2007.

7. C.T.Chen Linear System Theory and Design - PHI, India.

8. Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 11th Edition, Pearson Edu,

India, 2009.



Introduction - Advantages of Digital control systems - Practical aspects of the choice of sampling rate

and multirate sampling - Basic discrete time signals - Quantization – Sampling theorem - Data

conversion and Quantization - Sampling process - Mathematical modeling - Data reconstruction and

filtering of sampled signals – zero - order hold.


z - transform and inverse z - transform, Relationship between s - plane and z - plane - Difference

equation - Solution by recursion and z - transform - pulse transfer functions of the zero - order Hold and

relationship between G(s) and G(z)– Bilinear transformation .


Digital control systems - Pulse transfer function - z transform analysis of open loop, closed loop

systems - Modified z Transform - transfer function - Stability of linear digital control systems -

Stability tests.


Root loci - Frequency domain analysis - Bode plots - Gain margin and phase margin - Design of

Digital Control Systems based on Root Locus Technique.


Cascade and feedback compensation by continuous data controllers - Digital controllers - Design using

bilinear transformation - Realization of Digital PID controllers.


State equations of discrete data systems, solution of discrete state equations, State transition Matrix: z -

transform method. Relation between state equations and transfer functions.


Concepts on Controllability and Observability - Digital state observer: Design of the full order and

reduced order state observer - Pole placement design by state feed back.


Design of Dead beat Controller - some case studies - Stability analysis of discrete time systems based on

Lyapunov approach.
Reference Books:
1. K. Ogata, Discrete Time Control Systems, PHI/Addison - Wesley Longman Pte. Ltd., India,

Delhi, 1995.

2. B.C Kuo, Digital Control Systems, 2nd Edition, Oxford Univ Press, Inc., 1992.

3. F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, and M.L. Workman, Digital control of Dynamic Systems,

Addison - Wesley Longman, Inc., Menlo Park, CA , 1998.

4. Gopal, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Tata McGraw Hill, India, 1997.

5. C. H. Houpis and G.B. Lamont, Digital Control Systems, McGraw Hill, 1985.

6. John S. Baey, Fundamentals of Linear State Space Systems, Mc. Graw – Hill, 1st edition

7. Bernard Fried Land, Control System Design, Mc. Graw – Hill, 1st edition

8. Dorsay, Continuous and Discrete Control Systems, McGraw - Hill.


Unit I: Introduction-Robot Anatomy

Coordinate frames-mapping- mapping Between rotated frames-mapping between translated

frames-mapping between rotated and translated frames-description of objects in spacetransformation

of vectors—inverting homogeneous transform-fundamental rotation matrices

Unit-II: Symbolic Modeling of Robots –Direct Kinematic Model

Mathematical structure and notations-description of links and joints-kinematic modeling of the

manipulator- Denavit-Hatenberg notation-kinematic relationship between adjacent linksmanipulator

transformation matrix

Unit III: The Inverse Kinematics

Manipulator work space – Solvability of kinematic model- -Solution techniques- closed form

solution-guidelines to obtain closed form solution.

Unit IV: Manipulator Differential Motion and Statics

Linear and angular velocity of a rigid body - Relationship between transformation Matrix and

angular velocity - Mapping velocity vector-Velocity propagation along links-Manipulator

Jacobian - Jacobian Inverse- Jacobian Singularities- Static Analysis

Unit V: Dynamic Modelling

Lagrangian Mechanics – Two degree of freedom Manipulator-Dynamic Model – Lagrange–

Euler formulation - Newton –Euler Formulation – comparison of Lagrange–Euler & Newton –

Euler Formulations – Inverse Dynamics

Unit VI: Trajectory Planning

Definitions and planning tasks- terminology-steps in trajectory planning- Joint space techniques-

Cartesian space techniques- Joint space Vs Cartesian space Trajectory planning.

Unit VII: Control of Manipulators

Open and close loop control – The manipulator control problem – Linear control schemes-

Characteristics of second order linear systems- Linear Second order-SISO model of a

manipulator joint- Joint Actuators- partitioned PD control scheme –PID control scheme –

computed torque control- force control of robotic manipulators – description of force control

tasks –Force-control strategies-Hybrid position/ force control- Impedance Force/Torque control

Unit VIII: Robotic Sensors and Applications

Sensing- Sensors in robotics – Kinds of sensors used in robotics- -Robotic vision- Robotic

vision- Industrial applications of vision controlled robotic systems- process of Imaging-

Architecture of robotic vision systems- Image Acquisition- Image representation-Image

processing – Industrial applications –material handling – Process applications – Assembly

applications – Inspection application – Principles of Robot applications and application planning,

Justification of robots- Robot safety

Reference Books:

1. Robotics and control –RKMittal And I J Nagrath TMH Publishers-1st edition-2003

2. Mikell P,Weiss G.M.,Nagel R.N., Odrey N.G., Industrial Robotics, McGraw Hill,1986.

3. Deb.S.R- Robotics Technology and flexible automation, Tata McGraw Hill, 1994.

4. Asfahi C.R. - Robotics and manufacturing automation, John wiley ,1992.

5. Klafter R.D.- Chimielewski T.A & Neign M., Robotics engineering: An integrated

approach, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., 1994.

Unit 1: Principles of Code Division Multiple Access

Spread spectrum technique – Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum

communication system – PN codes and Walsh codes – Rake receiver – Capacity – Effects of loading,

sectorization and voice activity – Power control – Hand off – Link structure – Forward link – Pilot,

synchronization, paging and traffic channels – Reverse Link – access and traffic channel.

Unit 2: Call Processing and Traffic

Call processing states – Initialization, idle, access and traffic states – Forward link and Reverse link

analysis - Calculation of Ec/I0 and Eb/N0 – Traffic intensity – Grade of Service – Erlang-B and C models.

Unit 3: OFDM Basics

OFDM principles – system model – Generation of sub carrier using IFFT, guard time and cyclic

extensions – windowing - Choice of OFDM parameters - OFDM signal processing.

Unit 4: Coding, Modulation and Channel Estimation

FEC coding – Interleaving – QAM – Coded modulation – Synchronization – Synchronization using

cyclic extension and special training symbols – Coherent detection – One and two dimensional

channel estimation – Special training symbols – Decision directed channel estimation – Differential

detection in the time and frequency domain.

Unit 5: OFDMA and MC-CDMA

Frequency hopping in OFDMA - OFDMA system description – Channel coding, modulation, time and

frequency synchronization, Combination of OFDM and CDMA - MC-CDMA, MT-CDMA and MC-DS

CDMA systems - Difference between OFDMA and MC-CDMA

Text Books:
1. Samuel C Yang, “CDMA RF System Engineering,” Artech House, 2008.

2. Richard Van Nee and Ramjee Prasad, “OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communication,” Artech

House, 2007.

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