Social Studies Unit Plan: First Nations People and Early European Explorers



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EDUC 8Y29

Social Studies Unit Plan: First Nations People and Early European Explorers

Camille Rutherford

Karen Baulke 3145794

Meghan Brien 3729134

Lisa Crewe 2205557

Tammy Guiler 3744158

Carli Rota 3732757


Due Date: Thursday, February, 22, 2007

Table of Contents
Unit Plan Overview 3
Lesson Summaries 4
Lesson # 2 – Introductory/Pre Contact (3 periods) 6
Lesson # 3 – European Explorers - Vikings (1 period) 24
Lesson # 4 – European Explorers – 16th and 17th Century (3 periods 32
Lesson # 5 – European Explorers Review and Quiz (1 period) 50
Lesson # 6 – Post Settlement Conflict (1 period) 55
Lesson # 7 – Building a Trading Post (2 periods) 61
Lesson # 8 – Building a Trading Post (2 periods) 66
Lesson # 9 – Modern Day Issues (3 periods) 70
Physical Education Connections
Lesson # 1 – Aboriginal Games (1 period) 78
Lesson # 2 – Aboriginal Athletes/Lacrosse (1 period) 81
Lesson # 3 – Lacrosse/Quiz (2 periods) 87
Unit Plan Resources 90

OVERVIEW
Students will learn about the main characteristics of North American First Nation culture, including the close relationship of the First Nations peoples with the natural environment. They will investigate the motivating factors for early European exploration and the prevailing attitudes of the explorers. They will also examine the positive and negative effects of interactions between the Europeans and First Nation peoples, from first Viking contact to the time of permanent European settlement in the early seventeenth century.

-Ministry of Education


The purpose of this Heritage and Citizenship unit for grade six students is for them to become knowledgeable about the North American First Nation People as well as the European settlers that inhabited Canada in the early seventeen hundreds.

This unit is a continuation of previous learning from the Ontario Ministry of Education curriculum and is an important part of Canadian National Identity. It is imperative that the students continue to develop their essential knowledge and skills through engaging historical investigation that will lend itself to further development in social studies success.


To meet the overall expectations that include describing the characteristics of First Nations cultures across Canada, including their close relationship with the natural environment; the motivations and attitudes of the European explorers; and the effects of contact on both the receiving and incoming parties, the students will use a variety of different resource and tools to investigate different historical perspectives about the positive and negative effects of early contact, as well as analyse examples of interaction between First Nation peoples and European explorers to identify and report on the effects of cooperation and the reasons or disagreements between the two groups.

Throughout the six week unit (20-50minute classes) , students will be provided with a number of hands on learning experiences that will facilitate the development of inquiry/research and communication skills. The unit will commence with a field trip to St. Marie Among the Hurons in Midland ON, where the students will gain an understanding of aboriginal life to provide context for the upcoming unit. The students will undertake a research assignment in which they will orally present on a selected European explorer. They will be required to create a model of an early trading post, and the unit will culminate in a debate that centers upon current issues stemming from First Nation and European contact.




Lesson Synopsis
Lesson One (1 period)
Students will be introduced to the topic of First Nations and European Explorers through a field trip to St. Marie on the Huron, located in Midland, Ontario. During this excursion, students will gain first-hand experience and knowledge of Canada’s First Nations peoples and their traditional lifestyles. Students will be expected to contribute knowledgably to a class discussion of their experience at the conclusion of the trip.
Lesson Two (3 periods)
Canada's First Nation peoples will be studied according to their connections to the environment and also on the environment's ability to provide for their basic needs of survival (food, shelter, and clothing). These groups will include First Nation Peoples who were hunters, fishers, gatherers, and farmers. In addition, their culture, traditions, and beliefs in connection with nature and the environment will be explored, mainly in relation to native symbolism in both folklore and totem poles.
Lesson Three (1 period)
Beginning with a class conversation of the term “explorer”, students will follow a teacher-led lesson discussing the first Europeans to reach and explore the North American continent. Students will complete a graphic organizer, read a handout explaining the Viking explorations and complete a correlating map to show the courses and times of exploration.
Lesson Four (3 periods)
Working in groups, students will build on previous knowledge to research and present information on an explorer that significantly impacted the course of exploration in North America. Student work will include an explorer profile, a correlating timeline and map of the journeys taken, and a one-page handout for the class. Students will be expected to complete both group and peer assessments, with teacher evaluation being rubric based.
Lesson Five (1 period)
Students will be divided into teams for a review game based on information from the student handouts created in the previous lesson. Students will be expected to use their handouts to learn about other explorers and will complete a short quiz following the conclusion of the review game.
Lesson Six (1 period)
In this lesson, students will translate the information provided on a handout into a group discussion which will educate them on both the positive and negative effects of the initial contact between First Nations people and the European Explorers. Students will also have the opportunity to infer the reasons behind the situations that arose after contact, and express their personal beliefs in terms of the injustices and benefits that the Europeans and First Nations people experienced.
Lesson Seven (2 periods)
Students will learn about the North American fur trade and the characteristics of the resulting trading posts. Students will use a map of Canada and the Hudson Bay website to choose sites for five (5) trading posts. Teacher will need to ensure students access to both a large map of Canada and to computers. Completed assignments will be evaluated by a rubric.
Lesson Eight (2 periods)
Students will use knowledge acquired in their previous trading post assignment to create an artistic representation of what a trading post would look like. Students will be required to list advantages and disadvantages to their site as well as research trading supplies for the site. Students will require computer/internet access and art supplies. Evaluation will be an artistic representation rubric.
Lesson Nine (3 periods)
Students will research a modern issue that is relevant to the First Nations people. They will use their research to formulate a well-organized argument to support one side of the issue at hand and conduct a class debate using the evidence they have gathered. This activity allows students to gain insight into the long term effects of First Nation and European contact.
Lesson Ten (2 periods)
The unit will conclude with a guest speaker presentation from the local First Nations community. Students will have the opportunity to hear first-hand about the issues and concerns facing the people of today’s First Nations. Prior to the presentation, students will use the knowledge they have accumulated throughout the unit to formulate appropriate questions for the guest speaker that will compliment the debate completed in the previous lesson.

Physical Education Connections
Lesson One (1 period)
Students will be introduced to games played by First Nations peoples. This will expose students to different activities that students participate in from different cultures while encouraging physical activity.

Lesson Two (1 period)
Students will be introduced to Aboriginal athletes and will be able to identify and understand the achievements and contributions of these athletes to present-day Canadian sport. Students will also be introduced to the game of lacrosse and actively review structure, rules, and history of the game. Students will participate in playing lacrosse in the following lessons.
Lesson Three (2 periods)
Students will participate in a round robin tournament of lacrosse before completing a true and false quiz on the rules and history of lacrosse.


First Nation Peoples & European Explorers

Lesson # 2
1. Identification:

Candidate: Lisa Crewe, Karen Baulke, Tammy Guiler, Carli Rota, Meghan Brien

Grade: 6 No. of Students: Undetermined

Associate:

Subject/Strand: Social Studies- Heritage and Citizenship: First Nation Peoples and European Explorers

School:

Lesson Type: Introductory – Pre Contact First Nations People

Date: February, 2007 Duration: 3 (50 minute periods)

Students Absent for this Lesson:



2. Lesson Topic: First Nation Peoples (Pre-Contact)

Canada's First Nation peoples will be studied according to their connections to the environment and also on the environment's ability to provide for their basic needs of survival (food, shelter, and clothing). These groups will include First Nation Peoples who were hunters, fishers, gatherers, and farmers. In addition, their culture, traditions, and beliefs in connection with nature and the environment will be explored, mainly in relation to native symbolism in both folklore and totem poles.


3. Specific Expectations: Mark with an x: Concepts: [ X ] Skills: [ ] Attitudes: [ ]

At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to:

  • describe the attitude to the environment of various First Nation groups and show how it affected their practices in daily life (e.g. with respect to food, shelter, and clothing);

  • use and construct a graphic organizer to clarify and interpret information (e.g. descriptions of each Aboriginal group in terms of how they obtained their food);


4. Assessment and/or Evaluation of Student Achievement:

4.a. Tasks for the Students: Mark with an x:

Oral Report:

Portfolio:

Conference:

Multi-media:

Other:

Journal:

Projects:

Presentation:

Work Samples: X

Unit Folder







4.b. Tools for the Teacher: Mark with an x:

Observation: X

Checklist:

Rubric:

Quiz, Test:

Other: X (work samples)

Self-assess.: X

Rating Scale:

Notes:

Peer Assess:





4.c. Teacher’s Routine for Marking, Tracking, and Reporting:

Anecdotal observation will be done for all students during the time spent in work stations (see attached).

When all work centres have been completed, the students will perform a self-assessment (see attached).
5. Lesson Modifications: (Where applicable, provide student names.)_________________________________

5.a. Mark with an x:


Increase Time: X

Challenge:

Decrease No./Difficulty:




Alternate Assignment:

Oral Explan.: X

Repeat: X

Re-teach:

Scribe:

E. A. Assistance:

Peer Tutor:

Visuals:

Manipulatives:

Other:

Instruct. Technologies:


5.b. Teacher’s Routine for Lesson Modifications:

While students are working in their groups, circulate the room to identify any modifications that arise. Respond by accommodating individual needs and circumstances with the aforementioned lesson modifications.


6. Materials and Equipment Required:

6.a. For the Students: topic cards, comparison chart, geographical region map, folklore resources, handouts on “TOTEM POLES” and “NATIVE SYMBOLISM”, dry art medium- chalk and oil pastels, crayons, pencil crayons, and markers, newsprint- for sketches, large cartridge paper- for finished pieces, self-assessment forms

6.b. For the Teacher: teacher key (for comparison chart and geographical region map), anecdotal observation worksheets
7. Instructional Strategies:

7.a. Student-Centred: Mark with an x:

Cooperative: X

Centres: X

Inquiry; Problem-solving: X

Computer-Assisted:

Other:


7.b. Teacher-Directed: Mark with an x:

Drill:

Lecture:

Guided Inquiry: X

Demonstration:

Other:


8. Presentation Steps (Teacher Actions): Indicate: W: Whole Class; S: Small Group; I: Independent

8.a. Introduction: …………………………………………………………………………..………………Minutes

Include reviewing, motivating, and providing a context.

The entire class will engage in a discussion about the introductory field trip.

A KWL chart will then be completed on the board to assess what students already knew, what they would like to know, and what they have learned from the trip.
8.b. A Sequence of Teaching and Learning:……………………………………………………………Minutes

Include checking for understanding and reviewing key points.

Inform the students that they will be completing a special mission for the Government of Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, collecting information to compile a comprehensive book about all of the different First Nation Peoples in Canada prior to European contact.

The teacher will review the routine for working in centres, reminding students of the pre-established protocols.
8.c. Application:………………………………………..........…………………………………………….Minutes

Include facilitating guided and/or independent practice.

Students will travel to each of the four work centres over the course of 3 periods (giving them approximately 30 minutes at each centre).

Each centre will have a direction sheet (see attached) to ensure that they know what to do at each centre.

CENTRE #1: Aboriginal Group Overview

Present general descriptions of each of these Aboriginal groups (hunters, fishers, gatherers, and farmers) in terms of how they obtained their food (see attached topic cards). Each member of the group will use a different topic card to gather the information needed to complete the appropriate section of the comparison chart (see attached). Once each member has gathered their information, they will share their information and complete the comparison chart with the rest of their group. These comparison charts will become part of the unit folder.



Resources

Irwin, A. (1997). First Nations in Canada. Ottawa: The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development



http://www.ocup.org/public/units55/AbPeEuEx.pdf (for comparison charts)
CENTRE #2: Mapping

Provide the students with a blank map, with which they will link the Aboriginal people who inhabited North America to a geographical region of the country (see attached map and teacher’s key)—the various Aboriginal peoples traditional ways of life were largely based on the environment's ability to provide their basic needs of survival including food, shelter, and clothing. These groups would include the hunters, the fishers, gatherers and hunters of the plateau, the hunters and gatherers of the plains, the farmers and hunters, and the hunters and fishers.

Using a physical map from their atlases, students will label & colour their maps, as well as describe the land associated with each of the areas they have indicated in their legend. This will help the students recognize the habitation regions described and understand the link between the environment and the settlement of the Aboriginal people. These maps and descriptions will become part of the unit folder.

Resources

Irwin, A. (1997). First Nations in Canada. Ottawa: The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development



http://www.ocup.org/public/units55/AbPeEuEx.pdf (for maps of Canada)
CENTRE #3: Language Arts Connection

Study Aboriginal peoples' folklore (myths and legends), focusing on primary documents. Students will first read at least 2 examples of early native folklore (myths and legends)provided by the teacher, and then respond to the pieces by creating their own folktale. Students will not only focus on the writing process (as outlined in previous language arts lessons), but also on their ideas and voice (as learned in 2 of their “Write Traits” units). This exposure will give the students a feeling for First Nation’s culture, traditions, and beliefs in connection with nature and the environment. All rough work and the finished product will become part of the unit folder.



Language Expectations

Reading

  • read a wide variety of texts from diverse cultures, including literary texts, graphic texts, and informational texts.

Writing

  • generate ideas about a potential topic and identify those most appropriate for the purpose.

  • establish a distinctive voice in their writing appropriate to the subject and audience.

Resources

Bruchac, J. (1991). The Native Stories from Keepers of the Earth. Saskatoon: Fifth House Publishers.

Bruchac, J. & Caduto, M. (1991). Keepers of the Animals: Native Stories and Wildlife Activities for Children. Calgary: Fifth House Ltd.

Melancon, C. (1974). Indian Legends of Canada. Toronto: Gage Publishing Limited.



CENTRE #4: Visual Arts Connection

Provide the students with pictures of totem poles as visual evidence of the traditional ways of the Aboriginal peoples' lives. Provide students with the handouts (see attached handouts on “TOTEM POLES” and “NATIVE SYMBOLISM”). Students will then design totem poles representing their own personal, or family history- First in pencil, and then in a dry medium of their choice (to be provided by the teacher). Once completed, their rough sketch and their final piece will become part of the unit folder.



Visual Arts Expectations

  • produce two- and three-dimensional works of art that communicate a range of thoughts, feelings, and ideas for specific purposes and to specific audiences.

Resources

Stewart, H. (1993). Looking at Totem poles. Vancouver: Douglas & MacIntyre



http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/205/301/ic/cdc/totems/default.htm (To the Totem Forests: Emily Carr and Contemporaries Interpret Coastal Villages)
8.d. Closure and Assessment:……………………I & W..……….15.…...................………………..Minutes

Include sharing, reflecting, and considering next steps.

When all work centres have been completed, the students will perform a self-assessment (see attached).

The self assessment, along with the completed projects from each of the 4 work centres will become part of the unit folder.

The entire class will then engage in a reflective discussion about the learning that took place in each of the four centres.


9. Post-lesson Reflections and/or Notes:

These should be written by the candidate. Additional comments from teacher associates are appreciated.


RESEARCH MISSION

You have been hired by the Government of Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, to research early First Nation groups. You will need to:



  1. Present general descriptions of each of these Aboriginal groups (hunters, fishers, gatherers, and farmers) in terms of how they obtained their food.

  2. Each member of your group will use a different topic card to gather the information needed to complete one section of the comparison chart you have been provided with.

  3. Once each of your group’s members has gathered their information, you will share your information, and complete the comparison chart with the rest of your group.

These comparison charts will then become a part of your mission folder.





INFORMATION CARDS

CANADA’S ABORIGINAL PEOPLES

The Subarctic - Hunters

- lived in the northern forests, a land made up of rocks, rivers, lakes, and

coniferous forests

- soil is thin (not good for farming)

- winters are long and cold, summers are short

- food, clothing, shelter, and tools are obtained through the use of small

and large game animals, fish (freshwater), and birds

- generally lived in families or small groups

- gathered in larger groups for seasonal hunting

CANADA’S ABORIGINAL PEOPLES

Pacific Coast - The Fishers

- lived on the Northwest Coast, a land made up of mountains, oceans,

and rainforests (mild climate)

- oceans are the main source of food providing fish, sea mammals,

shellfish, birds

- birds, deer, and other game were found on the coast

- berries and plants were used for food and medicine

- cedar trees provided the material for lodging and sea-going canoes

- canoes used for travel and trade

- lived in villages



CANADA’S ABORIGINAL PEOPLES

The Plateau - Gatherers and Hunters

- lived in the interior of what is now British Columbia, a land made up of

mountains, valleys, and many rivers and small streams

- most food was gathered from the environment (nuts, berries, and plant

roots) but they also hunted

- freshwater fish (especially salmon), game animals, and birds were

available

- summers were hot and dry in valleys but cooler on mountain slopes

- heavy snow in winter
CANADA’S ABORIGINAL PEOPLES

The Plains - Hunters and Gatherers

- lived on the Plains, an open grass land with limited water sources which

supported some trees and shrubs

- winters were cold and summers were hot with clouds of biting insects

- hunted game for meat, mainly buffalo (of which they used every part to

meet their various needs)

- gathered berries and plants for medicines

- migratory life (they followed the buffalo herds)



CANADA’S ABORIGINAL PEOPLES

The Eastern Woodland - Farmers and Hunters

- lived in the Eastern Woodland, good soil for crop growing

- main crops were corn, beans, and squash

- hunted, fished, and gathered plants

- built canoes from wood and bark

-traveled and traded on the rivers

- lived in semi-permanent villages

CANADA’S ABORIGINAL PEOPLES

The Arctic - Hunters and Fishers

- lived in the Arctic in a treeless cold desert (tundra) with sparse low

growing vegetation

- winters are long and cold, summers short

- little plant food provided by the tundra

- no trees to provide wood for building

- caribou, musk-oxen, ocean mammals, and fish provided food, clothing,

and shelter









MAPPING MISSION

You have been hired by the Government of Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, to link the Aboriginal people who inhabited North America to a geographical region of the country—the various Aboriginal peoples traditional ways of life were largely based on the environment's ability to provide their basic needs of survival including food, shelter, and clothing. These groups include the hunters, the fishers, gatherers and hunters of the plateau, the hunters and gatherers of the plains, the farmers and hunters, and the hunters and fishers.



  1. Using a physical map from your atlas, you will label, colour and create a legend for your map.

  2. You will then describe the land associated with each of the areas you have indicated in your legend.

This will help your fellow Canadians recognize the habitation regions described and understand the link between the environment and the settlement of the Aboriginal people.

These maps and descriptions will become a part of your mission folder.











NATIVE FOLKLORE

You have been hired by the Government of Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, and are working collaboratively with the Department of Canadian Studies at Brock University. Your job is to study Aboriginal peoples' folklore (myths and legends), focusing on primary documents.



  1. First, you will read at least 2 examples of early native folklore (myths and legends) provided by your supervisor.

  2. You will then respond to the pieces by creating your own folktale.

  3. You will not only focus on the writing process, but also on your ideas and voice.

This exposure will give you a feeling for First Nation’s culture, traditions, and beliefs in connection with nature and the environment.

All of your rough work, as well as your finished product will become part of your mission folder.




TOTEM POLE DESIGN

You have been hired by the Government of Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, to study totem poles as visual evidence of the traditional ways of the Aboriginal peoples' lives.



  1. Examine the visual and written evidence to determine the purpose of totem poles, and their symbolic significance to First Nation Peoples.

  2. You will then design your own totem pole to represent your own personal, or family history. Referring to the “Native Symbolism” handout, choose different totems that represent something about either you, or your family.

  3. Start with a rough pencil sketch, and then make a final copy with the materials provided.

Once completed, your rough sketch and final piece will become part of your mission folder.



TOTEM POLES
Totem poles are monumental sculptures carved from great trees, typically Western Redcedar, by a number of Native cultures along the Pacific northwest coast of North America. The word "totem" is derived from the Algonkian word Dodem, originally meaning "to be related to someone". Totem poles are made up of groups of faces and figures piled one on top of the next, woven into patterns with repeating shapes. totem poles were once carved and raised to represent a family-clan, and served as the emblem of that family or clan and often as a reminder of its ancestry. In general totem poles mean: "This is who we are; these carvings symbolically show what we stand for."

COMMONLY USED CANADIAN TOTEMS


Eagle

Aristocratic lord of the Sky Realm; occasionally transforms into a human dancer

Hawk

Transforms regularly into Hawk Woman or Hawk Man; hates Mosquitoes; quite regal; stand-offish but will assist humans

Raven

Powerful, ever-transforming trickster; ever hungry; ever curious; deviant; compulsive; crooked, corrupt and deceptive but somehow likeable

Whale

Ruler of His own Underwater City

Bear

Can easily transform into a human; must not be insulted/cursed; lumbering, caring figure; able to make fires with wet sticks (Bear wood)

Beaver

Vengeful creature; if provoked digs underground tunnels that cause earthquakes and landslides; constructs fine arrows

Wolf

Powerful; generally avoids humans; able to heal human sickness but this healing is costly; powerful ones are pure white

Frog

Much misunderstood and underestimated; associated with great wealth; survives volcanic eruptions; must not be insulted

Mosquito

Loves blood


NATIVE SYMBOLISM



BEAVER

Creative, Artistic and Determined

BEAR

Strength, Learned Humility, Motherhood, Teaching

BUMBLEBEE

Honesty, Pure Thinking - Willingness and Drive

DOGFISH

Persistence and Strength - A Born Leader

DOVE

Love, Gentleness and Kindness

DRAGON FLY

Ever-changing Life

EAGLE

Great Strength, Leadership and Prestige

EAGLE FEATHER

Good Luck to Both Giver and Receiver

FROG

Spring & New Life - Communicator, Stability

HALIBUT

Life protector, Strength and Stability

HAWK

Strength Far Sighted

HERON

Patience, Graceful and Easy Going

HUMMINGBIRD

Love, Beauty, Intelligence, Spirit Messenger

KILLER WHALE

Traveler & Guardian - Symbol of Good

KINGFISHER

Luck, Patience, Speed and Agility

LOON

Peace, Tranquility - Generous Giving Nature

MOON

Protector and Guardian of the Earth by Night

OTTER

Trusting, Inquisitive and Bright - Loyal Friendship

OWL

Wisdom

RAVEN

Creation & Knowledge - Bringer of the Light

SALMON

Dependability and Renewal - A Provider

SEAL

Bright, Inquisitive, Organized

SUN

Healing Energy, Guardian of the Earth by Day

THUNDERBIRD

Powerful & Mystical - A Leader

WOLF

Intelligence & Leadership - Strong Sense of Family
   
Anecdotal Observations

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Student Self-Assessment: Work Centres Name:________________________

RATE YOURSELF IN RELATION TO EACH QUESTION/STATEMENT

1 REPRESENTS A JOB POORLY DONE, AND 5 A JOB WELL DONE

Did I complete all assignments on time and with care?

1 2 3 4 5

Was I able to stay on task and use my time effectively?

1 2 3 4 5

My unit folder was complete and handed in on time.

1 2 3 4 5

Comments

My overall comments of how I worked in the various centres.







I think my work would have been even better if I ...........






Student Self-Assessment: Work Centres Name:________________________

RATE YOURSELF IN RELATION TO EACH QUESTION/STATEMENT

1 REPRESENTS A JOB POORLY DONE, AND 5 A JOB WELL DONE

Did I complete all assignments on time and with care?

1 2 3 4 5

Was I able to stay on task and use my time effectively?

1 2 3 4 5

My unit folder was complete and handed in on time.

1 2 3 4 5

Comments

My overall comments of how I worked in the various centres.







I think my work would have been even better if I ...........







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