Office of Productivity and Technology, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
5 April 2010
This work is preliminary and incomplete.
The purpose of this paper is to establish a set of quantitative historical facts and their sources about the invention of the airplane and the rise of aircraft-related organizations and industries. This will support the study and analytical modeling of how an invention comes about and leads to a new industry. The facts as presented here will have errors, omissions, and ambiguities, which can be corrected, improved, and clarified over time.
between 1910 and 1939, when his U.S. factory produced its first helicopter. Additional Note 2: IS10. Before the 1917 Revolution, 123
Russia followed the Julian calendar, which in the 20th Century, was 13 days behind the Gregorian or Western calendar. Dates in IS 123
have been converted to the Gregorian calendar. It would appear from one instance in 1913 when a date in WS was 13 days earlier than 123
a date in IS, that for exact dates above, WS used Gregorian dates.Codes for sources specific to Sikorsky:[[IS]] = K.N. Finne, ''Igor 123
Sikorsky,the Russian Years;'' translated and adapted by Von Hardesty; Carl J. Bobrow and Von Hardesty, eds., Washington, D.C.: 123
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987. 123
[[WS]] = Igor I. Sikorsky, ''The Story of the Winged-S,'' New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1967 ed. 123
Appendix D. Patents before 1907 124
Appendix E. References to individuals in Chanute’s 1894 Progress in Flying Machines 149
Appendix F. Counts of letters amongst these innovators 151
Appendix G. References in historical accounts. 153
Appendix H. Authors in Brockett’s aeronautics bibliography up to 1910 154
Appendix I. What the Wrights had read before 1903 155
Appendix J. Education levels of the experimenters and authors 156
Appendix K. Aeronautical clubs 157
Appendix L. Aeronautical journals 167
Appendix L. Aeronautical journals as of 1920….……………………………………………………………162
Appendix A. Sources
References to sources are compressed in the following tables.
The Aeronautical Directory of the World. 1920. London: The Aeroplane & General Publishing Co., Ltd. (abbreviated Dir1920 in tables)
Anderson, John D. 1997 A History of Aerodynamics.
Crouch, Tom. 1981/2002 Dream of Wings: Americans and the Airplane, 1875-1905.
Dale, Henry. 1992. Early Flying Machines. Oxford University Press.
The Flying Book, 1914 edition. 1914. Longmans, Green and Co., London; The Aviation World publishing Co., Ltd., Richmond Hill, Bournemout, Great Britain. (abbreviated FB14 in later tables)
Garber, Lester W. 2005. The Wright Brothers and the Birth of Aviation. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press.
Gibbs-Smith, Charles. 1966. The Invention of the Aeroplane.
Gunston, Bill. 1993. World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers: From the Pioneers to the Present Day. Naval Institute Press: Annapolis, Maryland; and Haynes Publishing/Patrick Stephens Ltd, Sparkford Somerset, UK. (abbreviated simply G in the subsequent tables; e.g.G104 refers to page 104 of this work)
Gunston, Bill. 2005. World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers: From the Pioneers to the Present Day, 2nd edition. The History Press. (abbreviated 2dG in later tables here)
Hallion, Richard P. 2003. Taking Flight: Inventing the Aerial Age from Antiquity through the First World War. Oxford University Press.
Jakab, Peter L. 1990. Visions of a Flying Machine: The Wright Brothers and the Process of Invention. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Jarrett, Philip. 1987. Another Icarus: Percy Pilcher and the Quest for Flight. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Kelly, Maurice. 2006. Steam in the Air: the Application of Steam Power in Aviation during the 19th and 20th Centuries. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, England: Pen & Sword Aviation.
Palmer, Scott W. 2006. Dictatorship of the Air: Aviation Culture and the Fate of Modern Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Penrose, Harald. An Ancient Air: A Biography of John Stringfellow of Chard, The Victorian aeronautical pioneer. First published 1988 by Airlife Publishing Ltd; this edition 2000 by Wrens Park Publishing, an imprint of W.J. Williams & Son, Ltd.
Randolph, Stella. 1966. Before the Wrights flew: the Story of Gustave Whitehead. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Roseberry, C.R. Glenn Curtiss: Pioneer of Flight. 1972 by C.R. Roseberry. My edition: 1991 Syracuse University Press.
Shulman, Seth. 2002. Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the race to invent the airplane. HarperCollins.
Tobin, James. 2003. To Conquer the Air: The Wright Brothers and the Great Race for Flight. New York: Free Press (Simon & Schuster).
Von Kármán, Theodore. 1954. Aerodynamics: Selected topics in the light of their historical development. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.