Sources for the study of mesoamerican ritual cave use



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(1226)Rue, David Jason


1986 A Palynological Analysis of Pre-Hispanic Human Impact in the Copan Valley, Honduras. Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University.

see pp. 78-81, 97-102, Aoyama (46), Ballinger (80), Brady (176), (178), (180), Gatschet (506), Gordon (540), Rue et al. (1227) Thomas (1469)


(1227)Rue, David J., AnnCorinne Freter and Diane A. Ballinger

1989 The Caverns of Copan Revisited: Preclassic Sites in the Sesesmil River Valley, Copan, Honduras. Journal of Field Archaeology 16:395-404.

see Aoyama (46), Ballinger (80), Brady (176), (178), (180), Gatschet (506), Gordon (540), Rue (1226), Thomas (1469)
(1228)Ruiz, Cesar A.

1992 El Culto de Cuevas. Nuestra Palabra, Vol. 3, No. 5, May 29. Mexico.


(1229)Ruiz de Alarcón, Hernando

1984 Treatise on the Heathen Superstitions. Translated and edited by J. Richard Andrews and Ross Hassig. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

see pp. 21, 172, 176, 178, 183, 201, 223
(1230)Ruíz Gordillo, P. A. J. Omar

1982 Cueva Huayateno, un Rescate en la Sierra Norte de Puebla. Cuaderno de Centro Regional de Veracruz 1:47-74. Mexico.


(1231)Ruíz Gordillo, P. A. J. Omar

1989 Pintura Rupestre en la Región de Cuauhtochco, Veracruz. Arqueología, Segunda Época, 1(1):3-12. Instituto de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.


(1232)Ruíz Gordillo, P. A. J. Omar

1991 Manifestaciones Culturales en Cavidades Subterraneas y su Conservación. In Miscelánea Veracruzana, pp. 7-12. Centro Regional de Veracruz, Instituto de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.


(1233)Ruíz Gordillo, P. A. J. Omar

1991 Restos Oseos en Cuevas. In Miscelánea Veracruzana, pp. 13- 18. Centro Regional de Veracruz, Instituto de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.


(1234)Ruíz Gordillo, J. Omar

1995 Acerca del Hallazgo de Restos Oseos en Cuevas. In Búsquedas y Hallazgos: Estudios Antropológicos en Homenaje a Johanna Faulhaber, edited by Sergio López Alonso and Carlos Serrano, pp. 209-214. Universidad Autónoma de México, Mexico.


(1235)Ruíz Silva, José A.

1999 La Ruta del Oriente/The Eastern Route. In Cenotes y Grutas de Yucatán, edited by Luis Armando Ruíz Sosa, pp. 88-101. Secretaría de Ecología del Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán, Merida.

see Ruíz Sosa (1236)
(1236)Ruíz Sosa, Luis Armando

1999 Cenotes y Grutas de Yucatán. Secretaría de Ecología del Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán, Merida.

see Antochiw, Barrera Rubio, Camargo Zanoguera, Evia Cervantes, Gamboa Vargas and González Herrera, Matthes, Morales, Pérez Aguilar, Ruíz Silva, Uc González
(1237)Ruppert, K., E. M. Shook, A. L. Smith, and R. E. Smith

1954 Chichen Itza, Dzibiac, and Balam Canche, Yucatan. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 53:286-289.

see p. 289
(1238)Rush, Timothy

1970 Treasure Hunts in the Highlands of Chiapas. Unpublished paper in the archives of the Harvard Chiapas Project.


(1239)Rushin-Bell, CarolJo

1982 The Living Caves of the Dead. Caving International 14:12-18.


(1240)Russell, S. Robert

1954 A New Type of Archaic Ruins in Chiapas, Mexico. American Antiquity 20:62-64.

see pp. 63-64
(1241)Russell, William H.

1964 The Caves of Mexico. National Speleological Society News 22 11):155.


(1242)Ruz Lhuillier, Alberto

1965 Tombs and Funerary Practices of the Lowland Maya. In Handbook of Middle American Indians, Volume 2: Archae-ology of Southern Mesoamerica, Part 1, edited by Gordon R. Willey, pp. 441-461. University of Texas Press, Austin.

see pp. 448, 450-451, 452, 457-458
(1243)Ruz Lhuillier, Alberto

1968 Costumbres Funerarias de los Antiguos Mayas. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.

see pp. 80, 92, 102, 105, 106, 107, 108, 112, 132, 134, 140, 151, 165; Maps 1, 2
Sachse, Frauke

2008 Over Distant Waters: Places or Origin and Creation in Colonial K’iche’an Sources. In Precolumbian Landscapes of Creation and Origin, edited by John Edward Staller, pp. 123-160. Springer, New York.


(1244)Sáenz, César A.

1975 Xochicalco, Morelos. In Los Pueblos y Señoríos Teocráticos, edited by Román Piña Chán, pp. 55-102. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.

see pp. 81-82
Saffa, Sarah

2009 In The Womb of the Earth: Sex in the Maya Cave Setting. M.A. thesis, Latin American Studies Program, University of Kansas, Lawrence.


(1245)Safford, W. E.

1915 An Aztec Narcotic. Journal of Heredity VI (7): 291-311.

see pp. 291-292
(1246)Sahagún, Bernardino de

1981 General History of the Things of New Spain, Book 2: The Ceremonies, translated by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

see pp. 5, 58 n. 5, 141, 204, 230
(1247)Sahagún, Bernardino de

1969 General History of the Things of New Spain, Book 6: Rhetoric and Moral Philosophy, translated by Charles E. Dibble and Arthur J. O. Anderson. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

see p. 137
(1248)Sahagún, Bernardo de

1961 General History of the Things of New Spain, Book 10: The People, translated by Charles E. Dibble and Arthur J. O. Anderson. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

see pp. 195-197
(1249)Sahagún, Bernardo de

1963 General History of the Things of New Spain, Book 11: Earthly Things, translated by Charles E. Dibble and Arthur J. O. Anderson. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

see pp. 262, 275-277
(1250)Sánchez, José Rómulo

1993 Un Reporte sobre la Cueva de los Huesos, Región de Naj Tunich, Petén. III Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, edited by Juan Pedro Laporte, Héctor L. Escobedo and Sandra Villagrán de Brady, pp. 163-168. Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Instituto de Antropología e Historia, Asociación Tikal, Guatemala.


(1251)Sánchez Balderas, A. Fabiola

2005 Arte Rupestre de Metzabok: Una Descripción Preliminar. Bolom 2: 41-69.


(1252)Sánchez de Aguilar, Pedro

1937 Informe Contra Idolorum Cultures del Obispo de Yucatan. 3rd ed. E. G. Triay e Hijos, Merida. (original 1639)

see pp. 34, 38-39
(1253)Sánchez Martínez, Fernando, José Luis Alvarado, and Luis Morett Alatorre

1998 Las Cuevas del Gallo y de la Chagüera. Inventario Arqueobotánico e Inferencias. Arqueología Mexicana 19: 81-89.


(1254)Sanders, William T.

1955 An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Northern Quintana Roo. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Current Report No. 24, Washington, D.C.

see pp. 191-192
(1255)Sanders, William T., Michael West, Charles Fletcher and Joseph Marino

1975 The Teotihuacan Valley Project: Final Report – Volume 1: The Formative Period Occupation of the Valley. Department of Anthropology, Occasional Papers in Anthropology No. 10. Pennsyl-vania State University, University Park.

see p. 158
Sandoval, Julieta

2007 La puerta al inframundo maya. Prensa Libre, Rivista D, pp. D-18 – DD-21. October 7. Guatemala.


(1256)Sandstrom, Alan R.

1981 Traditional Curing and Crop Fertility Rituals Among Otomi Indians of the Sierra de Puebla, Mexica: The Lopez Manuscripts. Indiana University Publication, Occasional Papers and Monographs No. 3.

see pp. 58-59, 64-65, 70-71, 72-73, 74-75
(1257)Sandstrom, Alan R.

1982 The Tonantsi Cult of the Eastern Nahua. In Mother Worship: Themes and Variations, edited by James J. Preston, pp. 25-50. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

see p. 37
(1258)Sandstrom, Alan R.

1986 Paper Spirits of Mexico. Natural History 95(1):66-73.

see pp. 67, 71
(1259)Sandstrom, Alan R.

1991 Corn Is Our Blood: Culture and Ethnic Identity in a Contemporary Aztec Indian Village. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

see pp. 78-79, 236, 240-41, 244-245, 246, 247, 249-250, 300
(1260)Sandstrom, Alan R.

1998 The Nahua Newsletter. The Nahua Newsletter No. 26:1-2.


(1261)Sandstrom, Alan R.

2005 The Cave-Pyramid Complex among the Contemporary Nahua of Northern Veracruz. In In the Maw of the Earth Monster: Mesoamerican Ritual Cave Use, edited by James E. Brady and Keith M. Prufer, pp. 35-68. University of Texas Press, Austin.


(1262)Sandstrom, Alan R. and Pamela Effrein Sandstrom

1986 Traditional Papermaking and Paper Cult Figures of Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

see pp. 64, 68, 76, 77, 138, 157, 253, 288-289, 290-291
(1263)Sanmiguel, Inés

1994 A Ceremony in the 'Cave of Idolatry': An Eighteenth-Century Document from the Diocesan Historic Archive, Chiapas, Mexico. In Sacred Sites, Sacred Places, edited by David L. Carmichael, Jane Hubert, Brian Reeves and Audhild Schanche, pp. 163-171. Routledge, London.


(1264)Santa María, Diana and Joaquín García-Bácena

1984 Raspadores Verticales de la Cueva de los Grifos, Ocozocoautla, Chiapas. Departamento de Prehistoria, Cuaderno de Trabajo, No. 22. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.


(1265)Santa María, Diana and Joaquín García-Bácena

1989 Puntas de Proyectil, Cuchillos y Otras Herramienas Sencillas de los Grifos. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.


(1266)Santillán S., Patricia and Ernesto Vargas Pacheco

1992 Patrón de Asentamiento en Tulum: La Casa del Cenote o Estructura 35. Antropológicas No. 2:13-19.


(1267)Sapper, Karl

1897 Das Nördliche Mittelamerika Nebst Einem Ausflug nach dem Hochland von Anahuac. Druck und Verlag, Brunswick.

see pp. 282-283
(1268)Sapper, David E.

1925 Costumbres y Creencias Religiosas de los Indios Queckchí. Anales de la Sociedad de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala 2: 189-197.

see pp. 191-192
(1269)Satterthwaite, Linton, Jr.

1943 Piedras Negras Archaeology: Architecture, Part 1, No. 1, Introduction. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

see pp. 27-28
Saul, Julie Mather, Keith M. Prufer, and Frank P. Saul

2005 Nearer to the Gods: Rockshelter Burials From the Ek Xux Valley, Belize. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 297-322. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.


(1270)Saunders, Nicholas J.

1994 At the Mouth of the Obsidian Cave: Deity and Place in Aztec Religion. In Sacred Sites, Sacred Places, edited by David L. Carmichael, Jane Hubert, Brian Reeves and Audhild Schanche, pp. 172-183. Routledge, London.


(1271)Saunders, Nicholas J.

1998 Architecture of Symbolism: The Feline Image. In Icons of Power: Feline Symbolism in the Americas, edited by Nicholas J. Saunders, pp. 12-52. Routledge, London.

see pp. 16, 17, 36,
(1272)Savage, Howard G.

1971 Faunal Material. In Excavations at Eduardo Quiroz Cave, by David M. Pendergast, pp. 78-111. Art and Archaeology Occassional Paper, No. 21. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.


(1273)Sayther, Terry, Deborah Stuart, and Allan Cobb

1998 Pictographic Rock Art in Actun Kaua, Yucatan, Mexico. American Indian Rock Art 22: 95-102.


(1274)Scarborough, Vernon L.

1998 Ecology and Ritual: Water Management and the Maya. Latin American Antiquity 9:135-159.

see 148-150, 152-153
(1275)Schackt, Jon

1981 A Kekchi Account of an Encounter with the Chol Indians. Belizean Studies 9(3):21-24.

see p. 22
(1276)Schackt, Jon

1984 The Tzuultak'a: Religious Lore and Cultural Processes among the Kekchi. Belizean Studies 12 (5): 16-29.

see pp. 18-19, 23
(1277)Schaeffer, Phillip

1974 Lake Atitlán. Phillip Schaffer Productions, Panajachel, Guatemala.

see p. 31
Schávelzon, Daniel

1978 Templos, Cuevas o Monstruos: Notas Sobre las Fachadas Zoomorfas en la Arquitectura Prehispanica. Ediciones de la Revista Punto de Partida, No. 15, Dirección General de Difusión Cultural. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.


(1278)Schavelzon, Daniel

1980 Temples, Caves, or Monsters? Notes on Zoomorphic Facades in Pre-Hispanic Architecture. In Third Palenque Round Table, 1978, Part 2, edited by Merle Greene Robertson, pp. 151-162. University of Texas Press, Austin.


(1279)Scheel Aguilar, Francisco

1955 El Descubrimiento de la Zona Arqueológica de Poptún. Anales de la Sociedad de Geografía e Historia 28: 38-41. Guatemala.

see pp. 39-40
(1280)Scheffler, Lilian

1985 Magia y Brujería en México. Panorama Editorial, S.A., Mexico.

see pp. 94, 95, 96, 114, 116, 126, 130-131
(1281)Schele, Linda

1987 Sacred Landscape and Maya Kingship. Symbols June issue:12-16.

see pp. 12, 16
(1282)Schele, Linda

1995 The Olmec mountain and Tree of Creation in Mesoamerican Cosmology. In The Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership, pp. 105-117. The Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton.

see pp. 109, 111
(1283)Schele, Linda and David Freidel

1990 A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya. William Morrow and Co., New York.

see pp. 66-67, 71-72, 98, 385, 423, 427, 488, 500, 502, 508
(1284)Schele, Linda and Mary Ellen Miller

1986 The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art. George Braziller, Inc., New York.

see pp. 42-43, 46, 193, 284, 302, 308
(1285)Schmidt, Peter J.

1977 Post Classic Finds in the Cayo District, Belize. Estudios de Cultura Maya 10: 103-114.

see pp. 107-111
(1286)Schmidt, Peter J.

1988 La Entrada del Hombre a la Península de Yucatán. In Origenes del Hombre Americano, compiled by Alba González Jácome, pp. 245-261. SEP, Mexico.


(1287)Schnell, Anton

1983 Im Maul des Ungeheuers: Lotun und andere Maya Hihlen Merikos. Reise-Kurier, No. 74: 7-8. Munich


(1288)Schnell, Anton

1990 Oxtotitlan Cave Revisited. Mexicon 12 (3):42.


(1289)Scholes, France V. and Eleanor B. Adams

1938 Don Diego Quijada, Alcalde Mayor de Yucatan, 1561-65. Bibliotecta Historica Mexicana de Obras Ineditas, Vols. 14-15. Mexico.

see pp. 25, 78-81, 88, 89, 95, 104, 116-119, 137, 162
(1290)Scholes, France V. and Ralph L. Roys

1938 Fray Diego de Landa and the Problem of Idolatry in Yucatan. In Cooperation in Research, pp. 585-620. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 501. Washington, D.C.

see pp. 592, 608
(1291)Schuster, Angela M. H.

1997 Rituals of the Modern Maya. Archaeology 50 (4):50-53.


(1292)Schuster, Angela M. H.

1998 Burnt Offerings. The Explorers Journal 76 (3): 8-11.


Schwartzkopf, Stacey

2009 Ritual Cave Use among Q'anjob'alan Peoples in Colonial Northern Huehuetenango. In Exploring Highland Maya Ritual Cave Use: Archaeology & Ethnography in Huehuetenango, Guatemala, edited by James E. Brady, pp. 91-97. Association for Mexican Cave Studies, Bulletin 20, Austin, TX.


Science Illustrated

2009 Into the Mayan Underworld. Science Illustrated May/June pp. 42-47.


(1293)Scott, Ann M.

1992 Cave Reconnaisance in the Copan Valley. Report presented to the Instituto Hondureño de Antropología e Historia, Copan.


(1294)Scott, Ann M.

1999 Texas, Cave Archaeology, and You. The Texas Caves 44 (6): 99-101.


Scott, Ann Marie

2009 Communicating with the Sacred Earthscape: An Ethnoarchaeological Investigation of Kaqchikel Maya Ceremonies in Highland Guatemala. Ph.D. dissertation, Latin American Studies, The University of Texas at Austin.


Scott, Ann M. and James E. Brady

2005 Formative Cave Utilization: An Examination of Mesoamerican Ritual Foundations. In New Perspectives on Formative Mesoamerican Cultures, edited by Terry G. Powis, pp. 147-157. British Archaeological Records International Series S1377. Archaeopress, Oxford.


Scott, Ann M. and James E. Brady

2005 Human Remains in Lowland Maya Caves: Problems of Interpretation. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 263-284. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.


(1295)Seele, E.

1986 Die Petroglyphen von Las Cuevas, Tlax. Mexicon 8(2):24-25.


(1296)Segovia Pinto, Victor

1966 Cueva de Balamkú, Yucatán. Report to the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.


(1297)Segovia Pinto, Víctor

1981 La Cabeza Antropomorfa de Loltún, Yucatán. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Universidad de Yucatán 48/49: 32-35.


(1298)Seler, Eduard

1901 Die Alten Ansiedlungen von Chaculá, im Distrikte Nentón des Departments Huehuetenango der Republik Guatemala. Dietrich Reiner Verlag, Berlin.

see pp. 146-185
(1299)Seler, Eduard

1904 Antiquities of Guatemala. In Mexican and Central American Antiquities, Calendar Systems and History, edited by Charles P. Bowditch, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 28: 77-121.

see pp. 88-90, 101-103
(1300)Seler, Eduard

1904 Wall Paintings of Mitla. In Mexican and Central American Antiquities, Calendar Systems and History, edited by Charles P. Bowditch, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 28: 243-257.

see pp. 247, 248
(1301)Seler, Eduard

1960 Alterthumer aus Guatemala. In Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Spach- und Altertumskunde. Akademishe Druck-u. Verlanganstalt, Graz. (original 1895)

see p. 616
(1302)Seler, Eduard

1991 Where Was Aztlan, the Home of the Aztecs? In Collected Works in Meso-american Linguistics and Archaeology, Vol. 2:18-27. Labyrinthos, Culver City.

see pp. 19, 25
(1303)Seler, Eduard

1991 Idolatry Among the Modern Indians of Mexico. In Collected Works in Meso-american Linguistics and Archaeology, Vol. 2:48-51. Labyrinthos, Culver City.


(1304)Seler, Eduard

1991 Three Traveling Letters from Pueblo Viejo (Quen Santo) and Chacula. In Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology, Vol. 2:120-128. Labyrinthos, Culver City. (letter dated 21/07/1896)

see pp. 121, 123
(1305)Seler, Eduard

1991 The Ancient Town of Chacula. In Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology, Vol. 2:129-134. Labyrinthos, Culver City.

see pp. 133-134
(1306)Seler, Eduard

1991 A Winter Term in Mexico and Yucatan. In Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology, Vol. 2:135-151. Labyrinthos, Culver City.

see pp. 146-147
(1307)Seler, Eduard

2003 The Ancient Settlements of Chaculá in the Nentón District of the Department of Huehuetenango, Republic of Guatemala. Labyrinthos, Lancaster, CA.

see pp. 45, 131-159, 193, 206-209, 219-222
(1308)Sempowski, Martha L.

1994 Mortuary Practices at Teotihuacan. In Mortuary Practices and Skeletal Remains at Teotihuacan, by Martha L. Sampowski and Michael W. Spence, pp. 1-314. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

pp. 13, 56, 129,132, 137, 147-148
(1309)Sepúlveda, María Teresa

1973 Petición de Lluvias en Ostotempa. Boletín del Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Historia, Época II, 4:9-20.

see p. 18
(1310)Sepúlveda, María Teresa

1977 Ritos y Ceremonias Paganas en el Ciclo Agricola: La Peticion de Lluvias. In Religión en Mesoamerica, edited by Jaime Litvak King and Neomi Castillo Tejeros, pp. 537-541. XII Mesa Redonda de la Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología, Mexico.

see p. 539
(1311)Sepúlveda y H., María Teresa

1977 Ceremonias de Petición de Lluvias. Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropológicos 23 (3): 345-363.

see pp. 346-350
(1312)Sharer, Robert J.

1989 The Olmec and the Southeastern Periphery. In Regional Perspectives on the Olmec, edited by Robert J. Sharer and David C. Grove, pp. 247-271. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

see pp. 255-256, 264-265, 269, 271
(1313)Sharer, Robert J. and David W. Sedat

1987 Archaeological Investigations in the Northern Maya Highlands, Guatemala: Interaction and the Development of Maya Civilization. The University Museum, Philadelphia.

see p. 248
(1314)Shaw, Justine M.

2004 Sites with Caves in the Ejido of Sacalaca. In Final Report of the Cochuah Regional Archaeological Survey’s 2004 Field Season, edited by Justine M. Shaw, pp. 134-146. College of the Redwoods, Eureka, CA.


(1315)Shaw, Leslie C.

2000 The Maax Na Archaeological Project: Documentation of Stelae, Altats, and Cave Entrances in the West Ceremonial Group. Electronic document, http://www.famsi.org/ reports/00100. Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc.


(1316)Shaw, Mary

1971 According to the Ancestors: Folk Texts from Guatemala and Honduras. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields, No. 32. Guatemala.

see pp. 16, 32, 33
(1317)Sheptak, Russell N.

1987 Interaction Between Belize and the Ulua Valley. In Interaction on the Southeast Mesoamerican Frontier, edited by Eugenia J. Robinson, pp. 247-266. BAR International Series 327. Oxford.

see Ceramics of Black Rock Caves, pp. 255, 256, 257; Gifford (515)
(1318)Sheseña H., Alejandro

2002 Análisis Epigráfico del Grupo 5 de la Cueva de Joloniel, Chiapas. Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez.


(1319)Shesena H., A.

2003 Πeщeρʜƅıe ρocπиcи: дρевних майя (Pinturas Mayas en Cuevas). Βоронеж, Moscow


(1320)Sheseña, Alejandro

2004 La Antigüedad del Gropo 2 de la Cueva de Joloniel, Chiapas. Bolom 1: 19-54.


(1321)Sheseña Hernández, Alejandro

2005 Ritos de Fuego Nuevo en Cuevas Mayas. Bolom 2: 91-125.


Sheseña, Alejandro

2005 Pinturas Mayas en Cuevas: Semsntica y Patrones de Elaboración. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 13: 512-517


Sheseña, Alejandro

2006 Pinturas Mayas en Cuevas. Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez.


(1322)Shook, Edwin M.

1947 Guatemala Highlands. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 46: 179-184.

see p. 183
(1323)Shook, Edwin M.

1949 Guatemala Highlands. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 48: 219-224.

see p. 223
(1324)Shook, Edwin M.

1952 The Great Wall and Other Features of Mayapan. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 51:247-251.

see pp. 248, 250
(1325)Shook, Edwin M.

1955 Yucatan and Chiapas. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 54: 289-295.

see pp. 289-290
(1326)Shook, Edwin M.

1956 Review of: Faunal and Archaeological Researches in Yucatan Caves, by Robert T. Hatt, Harvey I. Fisher, Dave A. Lange-Bartel, and George W. Brainerd. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills (1953). American Antiquity 21: 321-322.

see Hatt et al. (612)
(1327)Shook, Edwin M. and Robert E. Smith

1950 Descubrimentos Arqueológicos en Poptún. Antropología e Historia de Guatemala 2 (2): 3-15.

see pp. 10, 12
Shook, Edwin M. and Robert E. Smith

1954 Chichen Itza, Dzibiac, and Balam Canche, Yucatan. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 53: 286-289.


(1328)Shumann G., Otto

1973 La Lingua Chol, de Tila (Chiapas). Centro de Estudios Maya, Cuaderno 8. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.

see pp. 52, 79
(1329)Siegal, Morris

1941 Religion in Western Guatemala: A Product of Acculturation. American Anthropologist 43:62-76.

see p. 73
(1330)Siemens, Alfred H.

1978 Karst and the pre-Hispanic Maya in the Southern Lowlands. In Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, edited by Peter D. Harrison and B. L. Turner II, pp. 117-143. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

see pp. 117, 136, 137, 138
(1331)Siemens, Alfred H.

1979 Possible Karstic Constraints on Prehispanic Mayan Land Use and Transportation in the Southern Lowlands. Actas du XLII Congrès des Américanistes,Vol. VIII:373-388.


(1332)Sierra O'Reilly, Justo

1968 Xtacumbilxunaan. In Xtacumbilxunaan Dzitbalché, Bécal, by Francisco Martínez de Arredondo, John L. Stephens, Justo Sierra O'Reilly, Gustavo Martínez Alomía, José Felipe Castellot, José T. Cervera, pp.11-17. Publicaciones del Gobierno del Estado de Campeche, No. 6. Campeche. (originally published 1845)


(1333)Sierra Sosa, Thelma Noemí

1994 Contribuciónal Estudio de los Asentamientos de San Gervasio, Isla de Cozumel. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.

see p. 80
(1334)Sievert, April Kay

1992 Maya Ceremonial Specialization: Lithic Tools from the Sacred Cenote at Chichen Itza, Yucatan. Prehistory Press, Madison.


(1335)Siffre, Michel

1979 L'or des Gouffres: Decouvertes dans les Jungles Mayas. Flammarion, France.


(1336)Siffre, Michel

1979 A la Recherche de L'Art des Cavernes du Pays Maya. Editions Alain Lefeuvre, Nice.


(1337)Siffre, Michel

1993 Déscouvertes dans les Grottes Mayas. Arthaud, France.


(1338)Siffre, Michel and Gerard Cappa

1981 Cave Explorations and Archaeological Discoveries in the Cockpit Karst of Peten, Guatemala. In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Speleology, edited by Barry F. Beck, p. 286. Huntsville, Alabama.


(1339)Siller, Juan Antonio

1989 Viajes de Reconocimiento Arquitectónico a la Región Maya: Reciente Localización de las Cuevas de San Miguel en el Petén, Guatemala. Memorias del Segundo Coloquio Internacional de Mayistas, pp. 167-177. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.


(1340)Silva Rhoads, Carlos and Eliseo Linares Villanueva

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(1341)Silva Rhoads, Carlos and Concepción María del Carmen Hernández

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see p. 33
(1342)Silver, Daniel Ben

1966 Zinacanteco Shamanism. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.

see pp. 29, 45, 73, 74-75
(1343)Sinclair, Anthony

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(1344)Sivelli, Michele

1997 Expedición Espeleológica a las Montañas de Colón, Gracias a Dios. Yaxkin XVI:104-111.


(1345)Slocum, Marianna C. and Florencia L. Gerdel

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see pp. 37, 136
(1346)Slusser, Mary Catherine

1982 Mayan Spatial Cognition: Verbal and Non-Verbal Models of Space in a Yucatecan Community. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York, Binghamton.

see pp. 31-32
(1347)Smith, A. Ledyard

1929 Report of A. Ledyard Smith on the Map of Environs of Uaxactun. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 28:325-327.

see p. 326
(1348)Smith, A. Ledyard

1946 Guatemala Highlands Project. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 45: 199-201.

see pp. 200-201
(1349)Smith, A. Ledyard

1955 Archaeological Reconnaissance in Central Guatemala. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 608. Washington, D.C.

see pp. 7, 33, 43, 45, 64
(1350)Smith, A. Ledyard

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see pp. 210-211
(1351)Smith, James H. and C. William Steele

1990 Huatla '88 and '89: Studying the Hydrology and Making the Movie. Explorers Journal 68(1):14-21.


(1352)Smith, Mary C.

1979 Esquipulas. Américas 31(1):26-31.

see p. 27
(1353)Smith, Mary Elizabeth

1973 Picture Writing from Ancient Southern Mexico: Mixtec Place Signs and Map. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

see pp. 46, 47
(1354)Smith, Philip E.

1954 Excavation in Ceremonial Structures at Mayapan. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 53:273-276.


(1355)Smith, Philip E.

1955 Excavations in Three Ceremonial Structures at Mayapan. Department of Archaeology, Current Reports, No. 21. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.


(1356)Smith, Robert E.

1952 Pottery at Mayapan. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 51:251-256.

see pp. 251-255
(1357)Smith, Robert E.

1953 Pottery of Mayapan and Vicinity. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 52:279-282.

see p. 280
(1358)Smith, Robert E.

1953 Cenote X-Coton at Mayapan. Department of Archaeology, Current Report 5: 67-81. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.


(1359)Smith, Robert E.

1954 Cenote Exploration at Mayapan and Telchaquillo. Department of Archaeology, Current Report 12: 222-233. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.


(1360)Smith, Robert E.

1954 Explorations on the Outskirts of Mayapan. Department of Archaeology, Current Report 18:53-69. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.

see p. 58
(1361)Smith, Robert E.

1956 Ceramic Studies in Yucatan. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 55: 338-339.

see p. 339
(1362)Smith, Robert E.

1971 The Pottery of Mayapan: Including Studies of Ceramic Material From Uxmal, Kabah, and Chichen Itza. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 66. Cambridge.

see pp. 106, 110-111, 125, 127
(1363)Smyth, Michael P.

2000 A New Study of the Gruta de Chac, Yucatán, México. Electronic document, http://www.famsi.org/ reports/97011. Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc.


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(1364)Snavely, Ralph, Janet Steele and Adrian Garcia

1988 Cueva Cheve: A Preliminary Report. Unpublished manuscript.


(1365)Sorenson, John L.

1956 An Archaeological Reconnaissance of West-Central Chiapas, Mexico. New World Archaeological Foundation, Publication 1. Provo.

see p. 9
(1366)Soruco Sáenz, Enrique

1991 Una Cueva Ceremonial en Teotihuacán y sus Implicaciones Astronómicas Religiosas. In Arqueoastronomía et Etnoastronomía en Mesoamérica, edited by Johanna Broda, Stanislaw Iwaniszewski, and Lucrecia Mauponé, pp. 291-296. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.


(1367)Sosa, John Robert

1985 The Maya Sky, The Maya World: A Symbolic Analysis of Yucatec Maya Cosmology. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York, Albany.

see pp. 247, 410, 411, 412-413, 413-414, 414-415, 417, 422, 423, 424, 425, 427, 444, 447, 448
(1368)Soustelle, Georgette

1961 Observaciones sobre la Religión de los Lacandones de México Meridional. Guatemala Indígena 1 (1): 31-105.

see pp. 41, 42-43, 44-45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50-51, 58-59, 60-61, 62, 66-67, 74, 75, 81, 90-91
(1369)Soustelle, Jacque

1937 La Cultura Materielle des Indiens Lacondons. Journal Société des Américanistes 29:1-95.

see p. 52
(1370)Soustelle, Jacque

1988 Los Adoradores del Sol. In Viajes al Desierto de la Soledad: Cuando la Selva Lacandona aún Era Selva, edited by Jan De Vos, pp. 217-237. Secretaría de Educación Pública, Mexico. (original 1934)

see pp. 227-231
(1371)Soza, José María

1957 Pequeña Monografía del Petén. Ministerio de Educación Publica, Guatemala.

see pp. 41-43, 43-44
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(1372)Spence, Michael W.

1994 Human Skeletal Material from Teotihuacan. In Mortuary Practices and Skeletal Remains at Teotihuacan, by Martha L. Sampowski and Michael W. Spence, pp. 315-427. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

see pp. 339, 344-345, 414, 415
(1373)Spinden, Herbert J.

1913 A Study of Maya Art: Its Subject Matter and Historical Development. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. IV. Harvard University, Cambridge.

see p. 136
(1374)Spores, Ronald

1965 The Zapotec and Mixtec at Spanish Contact. In Handbook of Middle American Indians, Volume 2: Archaeology of Southern Mesoamerica, Part 1, edited by Gordon R. Willey, pp. 962-987. University of Texas Press, Austin.

see pp. 977, 982
(1375)Spores, Ronald

1967 The Mixtec Kings and Their People. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

see pp. 22-23, 24, 32, 96-97
(1376)Spores, Ronald

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see pp. 84, 152-153
(1377)Šprajc, Ivan

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see pp. 408, 410, 412
(1378)Šprajc, Ivan

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(1379)Spranz, Bodo

1967 Descubrimiento en Totimehuacan, Puebla. Boletín del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia 27:19-22.


Spranz, Bodo

1968 Die präklassischen Pyramiden von Totimehuacan, Puebla (Mexico). Tribus 17:17-26.


(1380)Squier, E. G.

1858 The States of Central America. Harper and Brothers, Publishers, New York.

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(1381)Squier, E. G.

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Staller, John E.

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(1382)Starr, Frederick

1901 Notes Upon the Ethnology of Southern Mexico. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Sciences Vol. 8: 102-198.

see pp. 117, 121, 155, 156-157, 158, 161
(1383)Starr, Frederick

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see pp. 256-257, 314-315
(1384)Steele, Janet Fitzsimmons

1987 Blade Cave: An Archaeological Preservation Study in the Mazatec Region, Oaxaca, Mexico. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, San Antonio.


(1385)Steele, Janet F. and Ralph Snavely

1997 Cueva Cheve Tablet. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 59 (1):26-32.


(1386)Stephens, John Lloyd

1962 Incidents of Travel in Yucatan. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. (original 1843).

see Vol. 1: 84-85, 227-231, 358-359; Vol. 2: 16-20, 36, 37-39, 47, 91-100
(1387)Stephens, John Lloyd

1969 Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. (original 1841).

see Vol. 1: 84-85, Vol. 2: 408-409, 423-425
(1388)Stephens, John Lloyd

1979 The Remarkable Well of Bolonchen. Caving International Magazine No. 3: 26-27.


(1389)Sterner, Bob

1997 The Cenotes of Cozumel. Immersed 2 (3): 52-56.


(1390)Stirling, Matthew W.

1945 Letter to the Editor. American Antiguity 11:137.


(1391)Stirling, Matthew W.

1947 On the Trail of La Venta Man. National Geographic 91:137- 172.

see pp. 137-139
(1392)Stocker, Terry and Scott Lamb

1985 Mysteries of the Mexican Codices. Explorers Journal 63:2-7.

see pp. 2, 3, 6, 7
(1393)Stone, Andrea

1982 Recent Discoveries from Naj Tunich. Mexicon 4 (5/6):93-98.


(1394)Stone, Andrea

1983 Epigraphic Patterns in the Inscriptions of Naj Tunich Cave. In Contributions to Maya Hieroglyphic Decipherment, edited by Stephen D. Houston, pp. 88-103. HRAFlex Book, New Haven.


(1395)Stone, Andrea

1985 The Moon Goddess at Naj Tunich. Mexicon 7(2):23-29.


(1396)Stone, Andrea

1987 Cave Painting in the Maya Area. Latin American Indian Literatures Journal 3(1):95-108.


(1397)Stone, Andrea

1987 Commentary. Mexicon 9(2):37.


(1398)Stone, Andrea

1988 Report on Dzibih Actun, Municipio of Dzimin. Unpublished manuscript


(1399)Stone, Andrea

1989 Actun Ch'on, Oxkutzcab, Yucatán: Una Cueva Maya con Pinturas del Clásico Tardío. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Univerdidad de Yucatán 99:24-34.


(1400)Stone, Andrea

1989 The Painted Walls of Xibalba: Maya Cave Painting as Evidence of Cave Ritual. In Word and Image in Maya Culture: Exploration in Language, Writing, and Representation, edited by William F. Hank and Don S. Rice, pp. 319-335. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.


(1401)Stone, Andrea

1990 Portraits of a Sacred Maya Cave: Photographs of Naj Tunich, Guatemala by Chip and Jennifer Clark. University of Wisconsin/ Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee.


(1402)Stone, Andrea

1991 Las Pinturas y Petroglifos de Naj Tunich, Petén: Investigaciones Recientes. II Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicos en Guatemala, 2nd ed., pp. 182-200. Ministerio de Cultura y Desportes, Instituto de Antropología e Historia, Asociación Tikal, Guatemala.


(1403)Stone, Andrea

1992 From Ritual Landscape to Capture in the Urban Center: The Recreation of Ritual Environment in Mesoamerica. Journal of Ritual Studies 6(1):109-132.


(1404)Stone, Andrea J.

1995 Images from the Underworld: Naj Tunich and the Tradition of Maya Cave Painting. University of Texas Press, Austin.

see Arrata (57), Brady (186), Brotherston (245), Coe (313), Joyce (713), Mixon (945), Pohl (1113), Reents-Budet (1167), Sinclair (1343)
(1405)Stone, Andrea

1997 Precolumbian Cave Utilization in the Maya Area. In The Human Uses of Caves, edited by Clive Bonsall and Christopher Tolan-Smith, pp. 201-206. BAR International Series, No. 667, Oxford.


(1406)Stone, Andrea

1997 Regional Variation in Maya Cave Art. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 59 (1):33-42.


(1407)Stone, Andrea

1998 Estudios Epigráficos de Naj Tunich, Petén. XI Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, edited by Juan Pedro Laporte and Héctor Escobedo, pp. 151-164. Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Instituto de Antropología e Historia, Asociación Tikal, Guatemala.


(1408)Stone, Andrea

2005 Divine Stalagmites:Modified Speleothems in Maya Caves and Aesthetic Variation in Classic Maya Art. In Aesthetics and Rock Art, edited by Thomas Heyd and John Clegg, pp. 215-233. Ashgate, Hampshire.


(1409)Stone, Andrea

2005 A Cognitive Approach to Artifact Distribution in Caves in the Maya Area. In In the Maw of the Earth Monster: Mesoamerican Ritual Cave Use, edited by James E. Brady and Keith M. Prufer, pp. 249-268. University of Texas Press, Austin.


Stone, Andrea

2005 Scribes and Caves in the Maya Lowlands. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 135-147. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.


(1410)Stone, Andrea and Paul Bahn

1993 A Comparison of Franco-Cantabrian and Maya Art in Deep Caves: Spatial Stratigies and Cultural Considerations. In Time and Space: Dating and Spatial Considerations in Rock Art Research, Papers of Symposia F and E, Second AURA Congress, Cairns 1992, edited by Paul Faulstich and Paul S. C. Tacon, pp. 111-120. Austrialian Rock Art Research Association, Occasional Publication No. 8. Melbourne.


(1411)Stone, Andrea and Martin Künne

2004 Rock Art of Central America and Maya Mexico. In Rock Art Studies: News of the World 2: Developments in Rock Art Research 1995-1999, edited by Paul G. Bahn and Angelo Fossati, pp. 196-213. Oxbow Books, Oxford.


(1412)Stone, Bill

1985 The 1984 Peña Colorado Cave Expedition. Explorers Journal 63 (2):58-68.

see Wm. Stone (1420)
(1413)Stone, Doris

1941 The Archaeology of the North Coast of Honduras. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. 9, No. 1. Cambridge.

see pp. 23-24
(1414)Stone, Doris

1948 The Basic Cultures of Central America. In Handbook of South American Indians, Vol. 4: The Circum-Caribbean Tribes, edited by Julian H. Steward, pp. 169-193. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143. Washington, D.C.

see p. 178
(1415)Stone, Doris

1948 The Northern Highland Tribes: The Lenca. In Handbook of South American Indians, Vol. 4: The Circum-Caribbean Tribes, edited by Julian H. Steward, pp. 205-217. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143. Washington, D.C.

see p. 215
(1416)Stone, Doris

1957 The Archaeology of Central and Southern Honduras. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. 49, No. 3. Cambridge.

see pp. 47-48, 50, 53-54, 56, 56, 63, 75-76, 89-90, 95, 97, 112-113, 114-115
(1417)Stone, Doris

1966 Synthesis of Lower Central American Ethnohistory. In Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 4: Archaeological Frontiers and External Connections, edited by Gordon F. Ekholm and Grodon R. Willey, pp. 209-233. University of Texas Press, Austin.

see p. 230
(1418)Stone, Doris

1984 A History of Lower Central American Archaeology. In The Archaeology of Lower Central America, edited by Frederick W. Lange and Doris Z. Stone, pp. 13-32. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

see p. 21
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(1419)Stone, Martha

1975 At the Sign of Midnight: The Concheros Dance Cult of Mexico. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

see pp. 94-107
(1420)Stone, William C.

1995 Huautla Cave Quest. National Geographic 188 (3): 78-93

see Bill Stone (1412)
(1421)Strecker, Matthias

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(1422)Strecker, Matthias

1977 Yucatan Caves with Rock Art. Katunob 9 (4): 84-86.


(1423)Strecker, Matthias

1981 Exploraciones Arqueológicas de Teobert Maler en Cuevas Yucatecas. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Univerdidad de Yucatán 49: 20-31.


(1424)Strecker, Matthias

1982 Representaciones de Manos y Pies en el Arte Ruprestre de Cuevas de Oxkutzcab, Yucatán. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Universidad de Yucatán 52: 47-57.


(1425)Strecker, Matthias

1982 Rock Art of East Mexico and Central America: An Annotated Bibliography, Second, Revised Edition. UCLA Institute of Archaeology, Monograph X.


(1426)Strecker, Matthias

1984 Cuevas Mayas en el Municipio de Oxkutzcab, Yucatán (I): Cuevas Mis y Petroglifos. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Universidad de Yucatán 68: 21-28.


(1427)Strecker, Matthias

1985 Cuevas Mayas en el Municipio de Oxkutzcab (II): Cuevas Ehbis, Xcosmil, Cahum. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Universidad de Yucatán 70: 16-21.


(1428)Strecker, Matthias

1985 Cuevas Mayas en el Municipio de Oxkutzcab (III): Una Mascara de Madera Proveniente de una Cueva. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Universidad de Yucatán 71: 52-53.


(1429)Strecker, Matthias

1987 Rock Art Research near Oxkutzcab, Yucatan. Mexicon 9(1):6.


(1430)Strecker, Matthias

1987 Representaciones Sexuales en el Arte Ruprestre de la Región Maya. Mexicon 9 (2): 34-37.


(1431)Stresser-Pean, Guy

1952 Montagnes Calcarires et Sources Vauclusiennes Dans la Religión des Indians Huateques de la Región de Tampico. Revue de L'Histoire des Religiones 141: 84-90.


(1432)Strómsvik, Gustav

1942 Substela Caches and Stela Foundations at Copan and Quirigua. Contributions to American Anthropology and History, No. 37. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 528. Washington, D.C.

see pp. 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, Fig. 11d
(1433)Strómsvik, Gustav

1953 Exploration, Excavation, and Reconstruction in Mayapan and Vicinity. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 52:276- 279.

see p. 276
(1434)Strómsvik, Gustav

1955 Exploration and Reconstruction in Mayapan and Vicinity. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 54:284-285.

see p. 285
(1435)Strómsvik, Gustav

1956 Exploration of the Cave of Dzab-Na, Tecoh, Yucatan. Department of Archaeology, Current Reports 35: 463-470. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.


(1436)Strong, William Duncan

1935 Archaeological Investigations in the Bay Islands, Spanish Honduras. Smithsonian Miscellanious Collections Vol. 92, No. 14.

see pp. 21, 30-34, 37, 40-41, 74-84
(1437)Strong, William Duncan

1948 The Archaeology of Honduras. In Handbook of South American Indians, Vol. 4: The Circum-Caribbean Tribes, edited by Julian H. Steward, pp. 69-120. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143. Washington, D.C.

see p. 106
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1994 Maya Creation: A Shamanic Perspective. In U Mut Maya V: A Collection of Reports from Attendants of the Xth and XIth Advanced Seminars held at the University of Texas, March16-21, 1992 and March 15-20, 1993, edited by Carolyn and Tom Jones, pp. 159-170. U Mut Maya, Arcata, CA.

see pp. 161, 163
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Stross, Brian

2008 Representation, Memory and Power: Pre-Columbian Landscapes of Creation and Origin. In Precolumbian Landscapes of Creation and Origin, edited by John Edward Staller, pp. 357-378. Springer, New York.

see pp. 357, 358, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367
(1440)Stuart, George E.

1981 Maya Art Treasures Discovered in Cave. National Geographic 160(2):220-235.


(1441)Stuart, George and R. A. Housley

1995 The Timeless Vision of Teotihuacan. National Geographic 188 (6):2-35.

see pp. 10-11, 22, 24
(1442)Stuart, George E. and R. A. Housley

1999 A Maya Wooden Figure from Belize. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing 42. Washington, D.C.


(1443)Stuart, George E. and Gene S. Stuart

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see p. 53; Graham (551)
(1444)Suárez Jácome, Cruz

1978 Petición de Lluvia en Zitlala, Guerrero. Boletín del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Epoca III, No. 22: 3-13. Mexico.

see p. 5
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see pp. 53-54
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see p. 106
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1972 Tlaloc: A New Etymological Interpretation of the God's Name and What it Reveals of his Essence and Nature. Atti XL Congresso Internazionale degli Americanisti, Vol. 2:213-219. Rome.


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1993 Las Cuevas como Espacio Ritual entre los Mayas. Actas Latinoamericanas de Varsovia 15: 117-132. Universidad de Varsovia, Warsaw.


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(1450)Taggert, James M.

1983 Nahuatl Myth and Social Structure. University of Texas Press, Austin.

see pp. 59, 60-61
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see p. 74
(1453)Tate, Carolyn

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see pp. 6, 91, 132, 150-151, 230, 250
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see pp. 46, 48, 49, 55, 56, 57
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(1455)Taube, Karl A.

1988 A Prehispanic Maya Katun Wheel. Journal of Anthropological Research 44:183-203.

see p. 193
(1456)Taube, Karl A.

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see pp. 194-195, 196, 197
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see pp. 99, 100
(1458)Tax, Sol

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see p. 471
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1978 The Cauac Monster. Tercera Mesa Redonda de Palenque, Vol. 4, edited by Merle Greene Robertson and Donnan Call Jeffers, pp. 79-89. Pre-Columbian Art Research, Monterey.

see p. 83
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(1462)Tedlock, Barbara

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see pp. 148-149, 173
(1463)Tedlock, Barbara

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see p. 159
(1464)Tedlock, Dennis

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see pp. 57-58, 321-322, 360
(1465) Terga, Ricardo and Emilio Vásquez Robles

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see pp. 193-194
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(1467)Termer, Franz

1957 Etnología y Etnografía de Guatemala. Seminario de Integración Social Guate-malteca, Publicacion 5, Guatemala.

see pp. 153, 160, 164-165, 165-166, 167-168, 169-170, 170-171, 172, 174, 175, 178, 179, 184-185
(1468)Terrones González, Enrique

1990 Proyecto Salvamento Arqueológico Rancho Ina, Quintana Roo. Mexicon 12:89-92.

see p. 91, Martos López (875), (876)
Thomas, Cyrus

1896 Review of: The Hill-Caves of Yucatan, by Henry C. Mercer. Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Company, 1895. American Anthropologist o.s. 9:60-61.

see Mercer (922)
(1469)Thomas, Cyrus

1898 Researches in the Uloa Valley, Honduras, and Caverns of Copan, Honduras. American Archaeologist 2(12):309-310. Columbus, Ohio.

see Aoyama (46), Ballinger (80), Brady (176), (178), (180), Gatschet (506), Gordon (540), Rue (1226), Rue et al. (1227)
(1470)Thomas, Norman Dwight

1967 The Nexus of Envy, Witchcraft, and Ceremonial Organization in a Zoque Indian Pueblo. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

see p. 57
(1471)Thomas, Norman Dwight

1975 Elementos Pre-Colombinos y Temas Modernos en el Folklore de los Zoques de Rayón. In Los Zoques de Chiapas, by Alfonso Villa Rojas, José M. Velasco Toro, Felix Báez-Jorge, Francisco Córdoba, Norman Dwight Thomas, pp. 219-235. Instituto Nacional Indigenista, Mexico.

see pp. 221-223
(1472)Thompson, Camilo, Gabriel Merino and Gabriel Camacho

2005 La Exploración de las Cuevas de la Laguna de Metzaboc. Bolom 2:71-89.


(1473)Thompson, Edward H.

1897 Cave of Loltun. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Volume 1:52-72. Cambridge.


(1474)Thompson, Edward H.

1904 Archaeological Researches in Yucatan. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Volume 3, No. 2. Cambridge.

see pp. 5, 6-7
(1475)Thompson, Edward H.

1938 The High Priest's Grave, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico. Prepared for publi-cation, with notes and introduction by J. Eric Thompson. Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropology Series 27, No.1.


(1476)Thompson, Edward H.

1965 The People of the Serpent. Capricorn Books, New York. (original 1932)

see pp. 89-99, 160-167, 259-267, 280-289
(1477)Thompson, J. Eric

1930 Ethnology of the Mayas of Southern and Central British Honduras. Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropology Series, Vol. XVIII (2).

see p. 141
(1478)Thompson, J. Eric

1939 Excavations at San Jose, British Honduras. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.

see cave sites pp. 278-282
(1479)Thompson, J. Eric S.

1950 Maya Hieroglyphic Writing: An Introduction. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.

see pp. 73-74, 111, 175, 236, 238
(1480)Thompson, J. Eric

1957 Dieties Portrayed on Censers at Mayapan. Contributions to American Anthropology and History, No. 40:599-632. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.

see p. 620
(1481)Thompson, J. Eric S.

1959 The Role of Caves in Maya Culture. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Völkerkunde im Hamburg 25:122-129.


(1482)Thompson, J. Eric

1963 Maya Archaeologist. Robert Hale, Ltd., London.

see pp. 19-20, 35-36, 103, 106, 133, 148-149, 199, 203
(1483)Thompson, J. Eric

1965 Archaeological Synthesis of the Southern Maya Lowlands. In Handbook of Middle American Indians, Volume 2: Archaeology of Southern Mesoamerica, Part 1, edited by Gordon R. Willey, pp. 331-359. University of Texas Press, Austin.

see pp. 337, 339, 347
(1484)Thompson, J. Eric S.

1965 Maya Creation Myths, Part I. Estudios de Cultura Maya 5:13-32.

see pp. 15, 17, 19, 20, 30
(1485)Thompson, J. Eric

1966 The Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

see pp. 268-272, 281
(1486)Thompson, J. Eric

1970 Maya History and Religion. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

see pp. 10, 173, 181, 183-184, 185, 188, 189, 196, 202, 245, 256, 261, 266-267, 267-268, 270, 273-274, 286, 293, 313, 314, 315, 316, 319, 323, 326, 327, 328, 336, 344, 346
(1487)Thompson, J. Eric S.

1975 Introduction to the Reprint Edition. In The Hill-Caves of Yucatan, by Henry C. Mercer, pp. vii-xliv. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.


Thompson, Sir J. Eric S.

2005 Introduction to the Reprint Edition. In The Hill-Caves of Yucatan, by Henry C. Mercer, pp. vii-xliv. Association for Mexican Cave Studies, Austin.


(1488)Thompson, Raymond H.

1951 Yucatan. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 50:232- 236.

see p. 235
Tiesler, Vera

2005 What Can Bones Really Tell Us? The Study of Human Skeletal Remains from Cenotes. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 341-363. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.


(1489)Tibón, Gutierre

1961 Pinotepa Nacional: Mixtecos, Negros y Triques. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.

see pp. 145-146
(1490)Tobriner, Stephen

1972 The Fertile Mountain: An Investigation of Cerro Gordo's Importance to the Town Plan and Iconography of Teotihuacan. In Teotihuacan, pp. 103-115. XI Mesa Redonda de la Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología, México.


(1491)Tolstoy, Paul

1989 Western Mesoamerica and the Olmec. In Regional Perspectives on the Olmec, edited by Robert J. Sharer and David C. Grove, pp. 275-302. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

see pp. 287, 289
(1492)Toor, Frances

1947 A Treasury of Mexican Folkways. Crown Publishers, New York.

see pp. 34-36, 473-474, 501-502, 514-515, 516-517, 536-537
(1493)Toscano, Salvador

1954 Los Murales Prehispanicos. Artes de México No. 3:29-38.

see p. 33
(1494)Tourtellot, Gair III, Amanda Clarke, and Norman Hammond

1993 Mapping La Milpa: A Maya City in Northeastern Belize. Antiquity 67:96-108.

see p. 102
(1495)Townsend, Richard F.

1979 State and Cosmos in the Art of Tenochtitlan. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology, No. 20. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.

see pp. 41, 43, 71
(1496)Townsend, Richard F.

1982 Malinalco and the Lords of Tenochtitlan. In Art of Late Post-Classic Central Mexico. edited by Elizabeth P. Benson, pp. 111-140. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.

see pp. 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 137
(1497)Townsend, Richard F.

1982 Pyramid and Sacred Mountain. In Ethnoastronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics, edited by Anthony F. Aveni and Gary Urton, pp. 37-62. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 385, New York.

see pp. 48, 54, 59
(1498)Townsend, Richard F.

1987 Coronation at Tenochtitlan. In The Aztec Temple Mayor, edited by Elizabeth Hill Boone, pp. 373-410. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.

see pp. 389, 394-95, 397-398
(1499)Townsend, Richard F.

1992 The Aztecs. Thanes and Hudson, New York.

see pp. 101-104, 142-143, 204-205, 207, 210-211
(1500)Townsend, Richard F.

1992 Introduction: Landscape and Symbol. In The Ancient Americas: Art from Sacred Landscapes, edited by Richard F. Townsend, pp. 29-47. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

see pp. 36-37
(1501)Tozzer, Alfred M.

1907 A Comparative Study of the Mayas and the Lacandones. Archaeological Institute of America, New York.

see pp. 81, 94, 95, 96, 148, 149
(1502)Tozzer, Alfred M.

1941 Landa's Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 18. Cambridge.

see pp. 44 n. 217, 76 n. 339, 108, 116 n. 533, 117 n. 535, 119-120 n. 545, 180 n. 948, 181-182 n. 949, 188
(1503)Tozzer, Alfred M.

1957 Chichen Itza and its Cenote of Sacrifice: A Comparative Study of Contemporaneous Maya and Toltec. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vols. 11-12. Cambridge

see pp. 40, 47, 55, 59, 85, 86, chapt. V, VI..
(1504)Triedo, Nicolás

1999 Real de Arriba: Antiguo Pueblo Minero. México Desconocido No. 269 (Julio): 28-35.

see p. 30
(1505)Trujillo, Axel

1984 El Santuario Secreto del Nayar. Mexico Desconocido No. 98:29-32.

see p. 30
(1506)Tudela, José

1956 Relación de Michoacán. Transcription, prolog, introduction, and notes by José Tudela, revision of Tarascan words by José Corona Nuñez. Aguilar, S.A., Madrid.

see pp. 121-124
(1507)Tuggle, David

1967 Caves in Ancient Mexican Religion. 1965 Speleo Digest, 2- 65-2-70. Vienna, VA.


(1508)Turner, Paul R.

1972 The Highland Chontal. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

see pp. 59, 82-83
(1509)Turner, Paul and Shirley

1971 Chontal to Spanish – English, Spanish to Chontal Dictionary. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

see pp. 237, 268
(1510)Turner, Victor and Edith L. B. Turner

1978 Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives. Columbia University Press, New York.

see pp. 53-57
(1511)Uc González, Eunice

1991 Algunas Consideraciones para la Conservación de los Vestigios Arqueológicos en las Cuevas del Sur de Yucatán. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Universidad de Yucatán 18: 3-14.


(1512)Uc González, Eunice

1999 El Puuc en Yucatán/The Puuc in Yucatán. In Cenotes y Grutas de Yucatán, edited by Luis Armando Ruíz Sosa, pp. 132-141. Secretaría de Ecología del Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán, Merida.

see Ruíz Sosa (1236)
(1513)Uc González, Eunice

1999 Retrospectiva de los Trabajos de Henry Mercer … 100 Años Después. Temas Antropológicos 21 (2): 248-263.


Uc González, Eunice, Rafael Arjonilla Carballo, Mario Novelo Dorantes, Susana Echeverría Castillo and Geogina Delgado Sánchez

1999 Informe del registro de evidencias culturales prehispánicas en cenotes de la amurallada Mayapän. In Trabajos de Mantenimiento y Conservación Arquitectónica en Mayapán, Yucatán, edited by Carlos Peraza Lope, Pedro Delgado Kú, Bárbara Escamilla Ojeda, and Mario Garrido Euán, Vol. 3, pp.520-550. Informe de Actividades al Consejo de Arqueología del Institito Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mérida, Yucatán.


(1514)Uc González, Eunice and Elena Canché Manzanero

1988 Calcehtok desde la Perspectiva Arqueológica. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Universidad de Yucatán 89:17-24.


(1515)Uc González, Eunice and Elena Canché Manzanero

1989 Calcehtok desde la Perspectiva Arqueológica. Memorias del Segundo Coloquio Internacional de Mayistas, pp. 287-301. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.


(1516)Uc González, Eunice and Elena Canché Manzanero

1996 Las Grutas de Monte Bravo, Campeche. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 3: 305-310. Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Campeche.


(1517)Uc González, Eunice y Carlos Evia Cervantes

1991 "Los Sombreros" de las Grutas de Calcehtok. I'INAJ, No. 3: 52-54. Yucatan.


(1518)Uc González, Eunice y José Huchim Herrera

1994 Las Formas de Almacenamiento de Agua en Algunas de las Cuevas del Puuc. Boletín de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropológicas de la Universidad de Yucatán 117: 5-17.


(1519)Uc González, Eunice y José Luis Vera Poot

1996 Atlas Espeleologico de Yucatan …Avances. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 3: 329-335. Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Campeche.


(1520)Uchmany, Eva Alexandra

1976 Los Llamadores de Lluvia: Super-vivencias Religiosas Prehispanicas en Mesoamerica. In Las Fronteras de Mesoamerica, Tomo 2:341-351. XIV Mesa Redonda de la Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología, Mexico.

see pp. 348, 349
(1521)Uke, Tugrul

1970 Cutting the Hour. Westways 62 (5): 30-33, 57.


(1522)Urquizú Sánchez, Mónica Claudina

1995 Las Cuevas del Cerro Este de Ixkun. Reporte No. 9: Reconocimientos y Excavaciones Arqueológicas en el Municipio de Dolores, Petén, pp. 171-178. Instituto de Antropología e Historia/Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala.


(1523)Urquizú Sánchez, Mónica Claudina

1996 Una Aplicación Metodológica para la Recuperación e Interpretación de Rasgos Culturales en Cuevas. Tesis de Licenciatura, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala.


Urquizú, Mónica

1997 Una aplicación metodológica para la recuperación e interpretación de rasgos culturales en cuevas. In X Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 1996, edited by Juan Pedro Laporte and Hector Escobedo, pp. 731-742. Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Guatemala.


(1524)Valadez A., Raúl

1989 Restos Animales. In Las Máscaras de la Cueva de Santa Ana Teloxtoc, edited by Ernesto Vargas, pp. 142-150. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.

see Vargas (1537)
(1525)Valázquez Muñoz, Juan Luis

1993 Cerámica de las Cuevas Investigadas por el Proyecto Arqueológico Izabal. In Informe sobre la Cerámica y las Figurillas de la Cuena del Lago de Izabal: Temporada 1992-1993, pp. 106-124. Proyecto Arqueológico Izabal, Guatemala.


Velázquez Valadéz, Ricardo

1980 Recent discoveries in the Caves of Loltun, Yucatan, Mexico. Mexicon 2 (4):53-55.


Velázquez Valadéz, Ricardo

1981 Etapas de funcionalidad de las Grutas de Loltun. Memorias del Congreso Interno 1979, pp 139-143. Centro Regionaldel Sureste, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.


(1526)Valdés, Juan Antonio

1997 Tamarindito: Archaeology and Regional Politics in the Petexbatun Region. Ancient Mesoamerica 8 (2):321-335.

see p. 329
(1527)Valdés, Juan Antonio and José Suasnávar

1992 La Arquetectura Maya y sus Implicaciones: Consideraciones Iniciales sobre la Zona de Petexbatún, Petén, Guatemala. Trace No. 21:9-21.

see p. 18
Valdizón, W. Mariana

2003 Las cuevas del río Poxte en Poptun, Petén: Reporte de las cuevas Sebanal o Balam Na, 1992. En Reporte 17, Atlas Arqueológico de Guatemala, pp.140-144. Instituto de Antropología e Historia, Guatemala.


(1528)Valdizón Burmester, Wanda Mariana

1995 Reconocimiento en la Cuenca del Río Poxte, Petén: Un Aceramiento a la Organización Política del Area. Tesis de Licenciatura, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala.

see pp. 76-80, Fig. 16
(1529)Valdizón, W. Mariana, Federico Reyes y Juan Pedro Laporte

1992 Reconocimiento en la Cuenca Superior del Río Poxte. Reporte No. 6: Reconocimiento Arqueológico en el Noreste de las Montañas Mayas y Algunas Materiales Arqueológicos de Ixtonton, pp. 62-81. Instituto de Antropología e Historia/Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala.


(1530)Valentine, J. Manson

1965 The Discovery and Possible Significance of X-Kukican, Ancient Mayan Site. Alabama Museum of Natural History, Report 1. Tuscaloosa.


(1531)Valentine, J. Manson

1965 X-Kukican, Ancient Maya Site. Katunob 5(2/3):35-37.


(1532)Valentine, J. Manson

1979 Loltun Cavern's Ancient Artifacts. Explorers Journal 57: 172-175.


(1533)Valladares, León A.

1957 El Hombre y el Maíz: Etnografía y Etnopsicología de Colotenango. Editorial B. Costa-Amic, Mesones, Mexico.

see p. 206
(1534)Valle Trujillo, Rony Meliton

1988 El Río de la Cueva. La Palabra Maya 1 (1): 5-6. Poptún, Petén, Guatemala.


(1535)Van der Loo, Peter L.

1991 Vamos a Rezar a San Marcos: A Tlapanec Pilgrimage. In To Change Place: Aztec Ceremonial Landscapes, edited by Davíd Carrasco, pp. 212-218. University Press of Colorado, Niwot.

see p. 213
(1536)Varela Torrecilla, Carmen and Juan Luis Bonor Villarejo

2003 Cronología y Función de las Cavernas en el Área Maya: ¿Espacio Ritual o Profano? In Espacios Mayas: Usos, Representaciones, Creencias, edited by Alain Breton, Aurore Monod Becquelin and Mario Humberto Ruz, pp. 111-141. Centro de Estudios Mayas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México/Centre D'Étudies Mexicaines et Centraméricaines, Mexico.





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