US History/Napp Name: _________________ “In 1892 Ida B. Wells, a fiery young African American woman from Tennessee, launched a fearless crusade against lynching. Wells pointed out that greed, not just racial prejudice, was often behind these brutal acts. Writing in the Memphis Free Speech newspaper, she reported that three African American grocers lynched in Memphis had been guilty of nothing more than competing successfully against white grocers.
A mob destroyed the press that printed the Memphis Free Speech and drove Wells out of town, but she settled in Chicago and continued her campaign. Although Congress rejected an anti-lynching bill, the number of lynchings decreased significantly in the 1900s due in great part to the efforts of activists such as Wells. Some African American leaders like Wells chose the path of protest, but others recommended different solutions to discrimination. One such person was the influential educator Booker T. Washington. He proposed that African Americans concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones. In 1895, he summed up his views in a speech before a mostly white audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. Known as the Atlanta Compromise, the address came amid increasing acts of discrimination against African Americans. Washington urged his fellow African Americans to postpone the fight for civil rights and instead concentrate on preparing themselves educationally and vocationally for full equality. The Atlanta Compromise speech provoked a strong challenge from W.E.B. Du Bois, the leader of a new generation of African American activists born after the Civil War. Du Bois pointed out in his 1903 book The Souls of Black Folk that white Southerners continued to strip African Americans of their civil rights. This was true in spite of the progress African Americans were making in education and vocational training. They could regain that lost ground and achieve full equality, Du Bois argued, only by demanding their rights. Du Bois was particularly concerned with protecting and exercising voting rights. In the years that followed, many African Americans worked to win the vote and end discrimination.
The struggle, however, would prove to be a long one.” ~ The American Vision
1. One idea that both Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois supported is that
(1) African Americans should have increased civil rights.
(2) Vocational training was the best approach to education.
(3) Immigration was responsible for racial segregation.
(4) Jim Crow laws were needed to help African Americans.
3. In The Souls of Black Folk, Du Bois identified three paradoxes to Washington’s thinking. One of these was
(1) Washington’s denunciation of higher education for African Americans and his simultaneous lack of acknowledgment of the need for trained black teachers for black common schools and for his own Tuskegee Institute.
(2) Washington’s lack of understanding of how his own experiences were irrelevant to most African Americans’ experience.
(3) Washington’s repudiation of the right to vote for most African Americans while retaining the right to vote himself.
(4) All of the above. 4. W. E. B. Du Bois believed in
(4) The most immediate means for African Americans to achieve equality was to expand their opportunities for vocational education.
7. Who said that African Americans should concentrate their efforts “upon the everyday practical things of life, upon something that is needed to be done, and something which they will be permitted to do in the community in which they reside?”
(1) Grover Cleveland
(2) Booker T. Washington
(3) Mark Twain
(4) Jacob Riis
(5) W.E.B. Du Bois 8. The Tuskegee Institute
(1) Was founded by W. E. B. Dubois.
(2) Was the first graduate school of business for African Americans in the U.S.
(4) Was founded by Ida B. Wells. 9. W.E.B. Dubois’ ideas about the education of African Americans differed from Booker T. Washington’s ideas in the following way: (1) Washington advocated separate education for black youth, while Dubois argued for integrated schools.
(2) Dubois advocated a more academic approach, while Washington encouraged achieving respectability as a trained worker.
(3) Washington focused on achieving civil and political equality through training the best Negro youth as teachers, professionals, and leaders, while Dubois argued for political activism.
(4) Dubois and Washington did not differ in any significant respect regarding education. 10. Ida B. Wells published articles in
Plessy, a racially mixed man, sat in a railroad car where only whites were permitted.
He was arrested for violating a state law that provided “separate but equal” facilities for non-whites.
Plessy said this law violated his “equal protection” rights under the 14th Amendment.
The Supreme Court held that so long as a state provided “equal” facilities, it could legally separate African Americans from whites.
The decision allowed the continuation of “separate but equal” facilities – resulting in whites and African Americans attending different schools, using different water fountains, and bathing in different public beaches.
~ The Key to Understanding U.S. History and Government
Booker T. Washington was born into slavery in 1856.
In 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
In 19011, he wrote Up From Slavery, an autobiography.
Washington believed that African Americans should first concentrate their efforts on trying to achieve economic independence before seeking full social equality.
He believed economic prosperity could best be achieved by vocational training and practical, job-related education.
He wanted young African Americans to develop skills and attitudes that would help them to survive in an environment of increasing violence and discrimination.
W.E.B. DuBois was the first African American to obtain a Ph.D. from Harvard University and became a notable historian and writer.
Unlike Booker T. Washington, DuBois urged the next generation of African Americans to move in a new direction.
DuBois believed African Americans should agitate for full social and political equality immediately and not rest content with an inferior social and economic status.
In his writings, DuBois encouraged African Americans not to define themselves as whites saw them, but to take pride in their dual heritages – as both Africans and Americans.
In 1909, he helped form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.) – to win rights through the courts.
Who was Plessy and why was he arrested? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What Amendment did Plessy state was being violated? Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What did the Supreme Court rule at the time? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What did the Court’s decision allow? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Who was Booker T. Washington and what was significant about his early years? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What book did Booker T. Washington write? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What did Booker T. Washington found? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What did Booker T. Washington believe African Americans should focus on first? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
How did Booker T. Washington believe economic prosperity could be achieved? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Who was W.E.B. DuBois and why was he significant? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What did W.E.B. DuBois believe? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
How did the ideas of W.E.B. DuBois differ from the ideas of Booker T. Washington? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
How did W.E.B. DuBois encourage African Americans to see themselves? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What organization did W.E.B. DuBois help found? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Given the circumstances at the time, who would you have agreed with: Booker T. Washington or W.E.B. Dubois? Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is most surprising about the information presented in the chart? Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________