…You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court’s decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to break laws. One may want to ask: “How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?” The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that “an unjust law is no law at all.”…
~ Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.,
“Letter from Birmingham Jail,” April 16, 1963
25. Which type of action against unjust laws is Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. supporting in this passage?
(1) militant resistance (3) judicial activism
(2) civil disobedience (4) affirmative action 26. Which statement most accurately summarizes the main idea of the passage?
(1) People must obey Supreme Court decisions.
(2) You can never break some laws while obeying others.
(3) Violence brings faster results than peaceful protest.
(4) Following moral principles is sometimes more important than following the law. 27. Which of these events related to space exploration occurred first?
(1) Neil Armstrong walking on the Moon
(2) development of the space shuttle
(3) John Glenn orbiting Earth
(4) launching of Sputnik 32. The policy of assimilating Native American Indians under the Dawes Act (1887) was reversed by 20th-century legislation that
(1) gave Native American Indians greater control over their own reservations
(2) helped relocate Native American Indians to large cities
(3) broke up Native American Indian tribes by giving each family its own land
(4) forced Native American Indian children to be educated away from their families 33. A major way in which the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) are similar is that both laws
(1) were intended to lift Americans out of
(2) failed to pass constitutional review by the
(3) gave a minority group the right to vote after years of protest
(4) provided equal protection to groups that had experienced discrimination 34. The major reason the United States became involved in the Korean War was the
(1) threat of communism spreading throughout Asia
(2) need to prevent war between China and the Soviet Union
(3) demand by the United States for Korean
(4) desire to limit Japanese expansion 35. During the 1950s, the main goal of the civil rights movement was to
(1) create separate African American economic and social institutions
(2) eliminate legal segregation from American life
(3) establish affirmative action programs to
compensate for past wrongs
(4) form a new nation for African Americans
Dear Mr. Barr,
…This letter does not express all that is in my heart, Mr. Barr. But if it says nothing else it says that we do not hate you or rejoice to see your industry destroyed; we hate the agribusiness system [agricultural corporations] that seeks to keep us enslaved and we shall overcome and change it not by retaliation or bloodshed but by a determined nonviolent struggle carried on by those masses of farm workers who intend to be free and human.
Cesar E. Chavez
~ Cesar Chavez, letter to E.L. Barr Jr.,
Good Friday, 1969, in Andrew Carroll, ed.,
Letters of a Nation, Broadway Books 39. Which action did Cesar Chavez take that is most consistent with the theme of this excerpt?
(1) organizing a farmworkers union
(2) calling for stricter enforcement of
(3) asking Congress to pass legislation for low-income housing
(4) promoting the takeover of large corporations by farmworkers 40. Which development resulted from the construction of the interstate highway system?
(4) growth of long-distance passenger train service 41. The Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio (1961) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) directly expanded the rights of which group?
(1) students with disabilities
(2) women in the military
(3) homeless Americans
(4) persons accused of crimes
45. • In the 1940s, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made winning World War II a priority over extending the New Deal.
• In the 1950s, President Harry Truman’s focus shifted from the Fair Deal to the Korean War.
• In the 1960s, President Lyndon B. Johnson’s attention to the Great Society gave way to preoccupation with the Vietnam War.
These presidential actions best support the
(1) presidents prefer their role as commander in chief to that of chief legislator
(2) domestic programs are often undermined by the outbreak of war
(3) Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, and Johnson were not committed to their domestic initiatives
(4) large domestic reform programs tend to lead nations toward involvement in foreign wars 46. Which action was taken by the United States government to help Europe’s economic recovery after World War II?
(1) forming the Alliance for Progress
(2) sending troops to Turkey
(3) creating the Marshall Plan
(4) joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 47. Issuing the Truman Doctrine, defending South Korea, and sending military advisors to Vietnam were actions taken by the United States to
(1) encourage membership in the United Nations
(2) promote American business in Asia
(3) limit the spread of communism
(4) gain additional overseas colonies
51. One way in which President John F. Kennedy’s Peace Corps and President Lyndon Johnson’s Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) are similar is that both programs attempted to
(1) increase domestic security
(2) support United States troops fighting
(3) improve the quality of people’s lives
(4) provide aid to immigrants coming to the
United States 52. Lunch counter sit-ins and the actions of freedom riders are examples of
(1) steps taken in support of the Americans with Disabilities Act
(2) programs dealing with affirmative action
(3) violent acts by the Black Panthers
(4) nonviolent attempts to oppose segregation 53. The president acted as commander in chief in response to which event of the civil rights movement?
(1) refusal of the governor of Arkansas to obey a federal court order to integrate public schools in Little Rock
(2) desegregation of the city bus system in
(3) arrest of Martin Luther King Jr. during
protests in Birmingham, Alabama
(4) assassination of Medgar Evers in Mississippi 54. One way in which the New Deal, the Fair Deal, and the Great Society are similar is that these programs
(1) promoted the idea of “rugged individualism”
(2) increased government commitment to the well-being of the people
(3) reduced the amount of money spent on
(4) encouraged the states to take a more active role in national defense 60. “Eisenhower Sends U.S. Troops to Protect Lebanon”
“Kennedy Places Quarantine on Shipment of Soviet Missiles to Cuba”
“Johnson Increases U.S. Troop Strength in Vietnam by 125,000”
Which statement about the Cold War is illustrated by these headlines?
(1) Rivalries between the superpowers often involved conflicts in other nations.
(2) United States military support was most often deployed in Europe.
(3) Communist forces were frequently victorious in Asia.
(4) Summit talks frequently succeeded in limiting international tensions. 61. “Jackie Robinson Breaks Color Barrier in Major League Baseball”
“President Truman Issues Executive Order
Desegregating Armed Forces”
“NAACP Challenges School Segregation”
These headlines are most closely associated with
(1) a decline in African American participation in political activities
(2) the beginning of the modern civil rights
(3) Southern resistance to the Civil Rights Act of 1964
(4) the effects of affirmative action programs 62. The Anthracite Coal Strike (1902), the Wagner Act (1935), and the founding of the United Farm Workers (1962) were important steps in
(1) limiting the growth of labor unions
(2) creating greater equality for women
(3) ending discrimination directed at African Americans in the South
(4) promoting fair labor practices and collective bargaining for workers
…But this secret, swift, and extraordinary buildup of Communist missiles—in an area well known to have a special and historical relationship to the United States and the nations of the Western Hemisphere, in violation of Soviet assurances, and in defiance of American and hemispheric policy—this sudden, clandestine [secret] decision to station strategic weapons for the first time outside of Soviet soil—is a deliberately provocative and unjustified change in the status quo which cannot be accepted by this country, if our courage and our commitments are ever to be trusted again by either friend or foe…
~ President John F. Kennedy, October 22, 1962 66. This statement is most closely associated with the
(1) Bay of Pigs invasion
(2) Cuban missile crisis
(3) United States-Soviet space race
(4) nuclear test ban controversy 67. What is a valid conclusion based on this statement?
(1) Strategic weapons of the United States should be stationed on foreign soil.
(2) An isolationist foreign policy is the most effective way to preserve peace.
(3) Presidential attempts were made to end military alliances.
(4) Geographic location plays an important role in determining foreign policy. 68. United States foreign policy changed following World War II as the United States
(1) became more involved in world affairs
(2) returned to a policy of isolationism
(3) rejected membership in the United Nations
(4) pursued a policy of appeasement toward the Soviet Union
72. Which pair of Supreme Court cases demonstrates that the Supreme Court can change an earlier decision?
(1) Schenck v. United States and United States v. Nixon
(2) Korematsu v. United States and Miranda v. Arizona
(3) Gideon v. Wainwright and Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
(4) Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka 73. As a result of the Interstate Highway Act of 1956, the United States experienced
(1) increased suburban growth
(2) the elimination of urban renewal programs
(3) less air pollution from motor vehicles
(4) a reduction in United States dependence on foreign oil 74. The Supreme Court decisions in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) resulted in
(1) an increase in the power of the police to
(2) a clarification of rules pertaining to cruel and unusual punishment
(3) a limitation of a citizen’s right to an attorney
(4) an expansion of rights for persons accused of crimes 75. The Marshall Plan (1948) and the Cuban missile crisis (1962) are most closely associated with
(1) the establishment of the Peace Corps
(2) the creation of the Alliance for Progress
(3) United States–Soviet relations during the
(4) an increase in trade between the United
States and Cuba
79. Books such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin, How the Other Half Lives, and The Feminine Mystique all show that literature can sometimes
(1) expose government corruption
(2) cause violent revolution
(3) begin military conflict
(4) encourage social reform 80. What was a central issue in the Supreme Court cases of Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966)?
(4) property rights 81. In 1948, President Harry Truman showed his support for civil rights by issuing an executive order to
(1) end the immigration quota system
(2) assure equal status for women in military service
(3) ban racial segregation in the military
(4) guarantee jobs for Native American Indians 82. The United States began a trade embargo against Cuba in the 1960s to
(1) encourage political change in Cuba
(2) promote domestic industries in Cuba
(3) motivate Cubans to immigrate to the United States
(4) end the domination of the banana industry by Cuba 83.One goal of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society was to
(1) improve the quality of life for the poor
(2) privatize many government programs
(3) send additional troops to Vietnam
(4) reduce the number of nuclear weapons
88. In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to
(1) protect civil rights marchers
(2) help African Americans register to vote
(3) enforce a Supreme Court decision to
desegregate public schools
(4) end race riots resulting from a bus boycott 89. “Batista Driven from Power”
“Bay of Pigs Invasion Fails”
“U-2 Planes Reveal Soviet Missiles”
These headlines refer to the relationship between the United States and
(1) Canada (3) Mexico
(2) Cuba (4) Panama 90. One reason for the creation of the Peace Corps by President John F. Kennedy was to
(1) stop the spread of AIDS in Africa and Asia
(2) gain control of territory in Latin America
(3) provide workers for industrial nations
(4) give support to developing nations 91. A major goal of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program was to
(1) control economic inflation
(2) end poverty in the United States
(3) repeal several New Deal social programs
(4) return responsibility for welfare programs to the states 92. In Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court ruled that
persons convicted of crimes had been
(1) denied due process of law
(2) denied a speedy and public trial
(3) victimized by illegal search and seizure
(4) sentenced to cruel and unusual punishment
…We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world…
To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required—not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.…
— President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, January 20, 1961
6. According to this quotation, President Kennedy wanted to
(1) assert United States leadership in world
(2) follow a policy of neutrality
(3) adopt appeasement as a foreign policy
(4) abandon the policy of containment 7. Which foreign policy action by President Kennedy was intended to relieve the human suffering described in this quotation?
(1) creating the Peace Corps
(2) authorizing a naval blockade of Cuba
(3) meeting with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna
(4) negotiating the Nuclear Test Ban Treat
12. A valid generalization about presidential
elections since 1960 is that
(1) campaign finance laws have reduced
spending by candidates
(2) most of the winning candidates have come from New England
(3) more than 90 percent of eligible voters have participated in each election
(4) candidates have used new forms of mass
media to reach voters 13. The Berlin airlift was used during the Cold War to
(1) rescue people fleeing West Germany
(2) prevent a communist takeover of Greece and Turkey
(3) overcome a blockade created by the Soviet Union
(4) support peacekeeping efforts by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 14. McCarthyism in the 1950s is most closely associated with
(1) claims that communists had infiltrated the federal government
(2) efforts to prevent pro-communist governments in Latin America
(3) formation of the Warsaw Pact
(4) passage of the Interstate Highway Act 15. Which action is the best example of the use of civil disobedience?
(1) passing the Voting Rights Act of 1965
(2) lobbying Congress to eliminate the poll tax
(3) attending a political rally in Iowa
(4) conducting sit-ins at restaurants in the South
21. The Cuban missile crisis was effectively ended when the
(1) Soviet Union agreed to withdraw weapons from Cuba
(2) Bay of Pigs invasion removed Fidel Castro from power
(3) Cuban authorities signed new trade agreements with the United States
(4) United States announced the formation of the Alliance for Progress 22. A result of the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring was that the
(1) Americans with Disabilities Act was passed
(2) 1964 Civil Rights Act was passed
(3) modern environmental movement gained
(4) consumer protection movement began 23. • Ralph Nader – Unsafe at Any Speed
• Betty Friedan – The Feminine Mystique
• Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein – All the President’s Men
Which conclusion can best be drawn from the influence of these books?
(1) Authors often increase public awareness of significant issues.
(2) Writers often promote big business.
(3) Literary works often ignore controversial issues.
(4) Journalists often expose corrupt politicians. 24. “… And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.…”
— President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, January 20, 1961
Which action by President John F. Kennedy was most consistent with the challenge included in this statement?
28. Which statement about the Marshall Plan is most accurate?
(1) It was used to finance rearmament after
World War II.
(2) It was denied to all former World War II enemies.
(3) It was used to rebuild European nations after World War II.
(4) It was given to all African and Asian allies during the Cold War. 29. The Hungarian uprising of 1956, the U-2
incident, and the Cuban missile crisis led to
(1) military actions by the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
(2) increased tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union
(3) international efforts to control communist China
(4) creation of the Warsaw Pact 30. The United States Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953–1969) made several landmark decisions that
(1) drew criticism for supporting States rights
(2) weakened the power of the federal
(3) strengthened the authority of the police
(4) increased the rights of individuals 31. The baby boom after World War II led directly to
(1) a decrease in spending for public education
(2) a return to a rural lifestyle
(3) an increased demand for housing
(4) a decrease in consumer spending
36. Which event was a result of the other three?
(1) sit-ins at whites-only lunch counters in
Greensboro, North Carolina
(2) Martin Luther King Jr.’s March on
Washington, D. C.
(3) signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
(4) bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama 37. …For the war against poverty will not be won here in Washington. It must be won in the field, in every private home, in every public office, from the courthouse to the White House…
~ President Lyndon B. Johnson, State of the Union Address, January 8, 1964
This statement expresses President Lyndon B. Johnson’s view that the
(1) federal government is solely responsible for the war on poverty
(2) court system must be held accountable for poverty
(3) problem of poverty is easily solved
(4) entire country must help fight poverty 38. One way in which the Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) are similar is that each decision
(1) defined the rights of students in public
(2) strengthened the role of the police in the
(3) demonstrated the Court’s disapproval of
increasing crime rates
(4) expanded the constitutional rights of persons accused of crimes
“…With America’s sons in the fields far away, with America’s future under challenge right here at home, with our hopes and the world’s hopes for peace in the balance every day, I do not believe that I should devote an hour or a day of my time to any personal partisan causes or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office—the Presidency of your country.
Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President…”
~ President Lyndon B. Johnson, March 31, 1968 42. The decision announced in this speech was based primarily on the
(1) Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
(2) Growing violence in urban America
(3) Outbreak of terrorist attacks around the world
(4) Involvement of the United States in the
Vietnam War 43. “Security Council Approves Use of Force Against Communist Invaders”
“President Truman Fires General MacArthur”
“Armistice Divides Nation at 38th Parallel”
These headlines refer to which international conflict?
(1) World War I (3) Korean War
(2) World War II (4) Persian Gulf War 44. In the 1960s, which issue was the focus of the Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio, Gideon v. Wainwright, and Miranda v. Arizona?
“This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet Military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere…”
~ President John F. Kennedy, October 22, 1962 48. Which action did President Kennedy take following this statement?
(1) urging Allied forces to remove Soviet
weapons from Cuba
(2) ordering a naval quarantine of Cuba
(3) breaking off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union
(4) asking the United Nations to stop grain
shipments to the Soviet Union 49. The crisis described in this passage was resolved when
(1) Cuba became a capitalist nation
(2) the United States seized control of Cuba
(3) Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev met with President Kennedy
(4) the Soviet Union withdrew its missiles from Cuba 50. The Supreme Court cases of Gideon v.
Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona
(1966) dealt with the constitutional principle of
(1) freedom of religion
(2) freedom from unreasonable search
(3) separation of powers
(4) rights of the accused
55. In the Truman Doctrine, President Harry Truman pledged to
(1) support Greece in its fight against communist aggression
(2) fight hunger in Africa and Asia
(3) strengthen the United States nuclear arsenal
(4) reject a policy of containment 56. Which factor is most closely associated with McCarthyism?
(1) buildup of Soviet missiles in Cuba
(2) fear of communist influence in the United States
(3) rise of the Communist Party in China
(4) creation of the Warsaw Pact by the Soviet Union 57. Which development is most closely associated with the belief in the domino theory?
(1) military involvement in Vietnam
(2) construction of the Berlin Wall
(3) signing of the nuclear test ban treaty
(4) end of the Korean War 58. Which development led to the other three?
(1) The United States government increased funding for science and math education.
(2) The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite.
(3) A joint Soviet-American space mission was announced.
(4) President John F. Kennedy set the goal of landing a man on the Moon. 59. The development of the Marshall Plan and the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) were part of President Harry Truman’s effort to
(1) end the Korean War
(2) limit the spread of communism
(3) provide aid to Asian nations
(4) promote an isolationist foreign policy 63. • Establishment of the Peace Corps
Union 65. “Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers ‘I Have a Dream’ Speech to Civil Rights Demonstrators in D.C.”
“Rachel Carson Awakens Conservationists with Her Book, Silent Spring”
“Cesar Chavez Organizes Migrant Farm Workers”
A valid conclusion based on these headlines is that
(1) individuals have a great impact on
movements for change
(2) social reforms progress faster with support
from big business
(3) the press discouraged efforts at reform in the 1960s
(4) mass movements often continue without
…In 1961, James Farmer orchestrated and led the famous Freedom Rides through the South, which are renowned for forcing Americans to confront segregation in bus terminals and on interstate buses. In the spring of that year, James Farmer trained a small group of freedom riders, teaching them to deal with the hostility they were likely to encounter using nonviolent resistance. This training would serve them well…
~ Senator Charles Robb, “A Tribute to an American Freedom Fighter,” U.S. Senate 69. The principal goal of the activity described in this statement was to
(1) achieve racial integration of public facilities
(2) encourage change through violent means
(3) expand voting rights for African Americans
(4) force the president to send military troops into the South 70. The activities described in this statement helped lead to
(1) President Harry Truman’s order to
desegregate the military
(2) passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
(3) ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment
(4) a decision by the Supreme Court to integrate public schools 71. President Harry Truman’s order requiring loyalty checks and the Senate hearings led by Joseph McCarthy were both responses to
(1) excessive spending by the armed forces after World War II
(2) racial discrimination against African Americans
(3) fear of communist influence in government
(4) control of labor unions by known criminals
76. A goal of the Marshall Plan (1948) was
(1) rebuild Japan after World War II
(2) provide military aid to the Warsaw Pact
(3) establish a Pan-American military alliance system
(4) provide economic aid to European nations threatened by communism 77. Which heading is most appropriate for the partial outline below?
A. The House Un-American Activities
B. Loyalty review boards
C. Bomb shelters
D. Watkins v. United States (1957)
(1) Results of World War I
(2) The Cold War at Home
(3) Problems of Urbanization
(4) Reactions to Immigration …Whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the Executive Branch of the Federal Government to use its powers and authority to uphold Federal Courts, the President’s responsibility is inescapable.
In accordance with that responsibility, I have today issued an Executive Order directing the use of troops under Federal authority to aid in the execution of Federal law at Little Rock, Arkansas. This became necessary when my Proclamation of yesterday was not observed, and the obstruction of justice still continues…
~ President Dwight D. Eisenhower,
September 24, 1957
78. The situation described in this statement grew out of efforts to
(2) pass a constitutional amendment ending poll taxes
(3) enforce the decision in Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka
(4) extend the Montgomery bus boycott to Little Rock
84. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was intended to end
(1) loyalty oaths for federal employees
(2) affirmative action programs in education
(3) unfair treatment of the elderly
(4) discrimination based on race or sex You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to speak to an attorney, and to have an attorney present during any questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at government expense.
~ www.usconstitution.net 85. The requirements included in this passage are part of the Supreme Court’s effort to protect the rights of
(1) individuals accused of crimes
(2) students from unreasonable searches
(3) defendants from double jeopardy
(4) criminals from cruel and unusual punishment 86. This passage resulted from which Supreme Court decision?
(1) Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
(2) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
(3) Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
(4) Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) 87. A major goal of the women’s movement over the past twenty years has been to gain
(1) full property rights
(2) the right to vote
(3) equal economic opportunity
(4) better access to Social Security
93. One similarity in the presidential administrations of Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Lyndon Johnson is that each
(1) maintained a foreign policy of neutrality
(2) expanded the power of the presidency
(3) removed Supreme Court Justices from office
(4) decreased the size of the military 94. During the early 1950s, the tactics of Senator Joseph McCarthy were criticized because he
(1) violated important constitutional liberties
(2) displayed racial prejudice in his questions
(3) opposed the use of loyalty oaths
(4) ignored evidence of Soviet spying 95. Which strategy did African-American students use when they refused to leave a “whites only” lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960?
(1) economic boycott
(2) hunger strike
(3) petition drive
(4) civil disobedience 96. United States involvement in the Vietnam War was based in part on a desire to
(1) prevent renewed Japanese expansionism in the Pacific