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3.5 Net Forcings

203. Andreae,M.O. 2007. Atmospheric aerosols versus greenhouse gases in the twenty-first century. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. A 365:1915-1923.

204. Kirkevåg,A, Iversen,T., Kristjánsson et al. 2008. On the additivity of climate response to anthropogenic aerosols and CO2, and the enhancement of future global warming by carbonaceous aerosols. Tellus 60A:513-527.

205. Shindell,D., Faluvegi,G., Lacis,A. et al. 2006. Role of tropospheric ozone increases in 20th-century climate change. JGR 111, D08302, doi:10.1029/2005JD006348, 2006

206. Stendel, M., Mogensen,I.A., Christensen,J.H. 2006. Influence of various forcings on global climate in historical times using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Climate Dynamics, 26, 1-15.

207. Unger,N., Shindell,D.T., Koch,D.M. et al. 2006. Influence of man-made emissions and climate changes on tropospheric ozone, methane and sulfate at 2030 from a broad range of possible futures. JGR 111,D12313, doi:10.1029/2005JD006518, 2006.

208. Wild,M., Grieser,J. and Schar,C. 2008. Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L17706, doi:10.1029/2008GL034842, 2008.

209. Quinn,P.K., Bates,T.S., Baum,E. et al. 2008. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: Their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies. Atmospheric Chemistry and Phsics 8:1723-1735.

210. Shindell D. 2007. Local and remote contributions to Arctic warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L14704, doi:10.1029/2007GL030221,2007.

4.0 Models

4.1 Climate Processes and Model Development

4.1.1 Atmospheric Processes

211. Bony,S., Colman,R., Kattsov,V. et al. 2006. How well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback processes? J. Climate 19:3445-3482.

212. Cess,R.D. 2006. Water vapor feedback in climate models. Science 310:795-796.

213. Dessler,A.E., Zhang,Z. and Yang,P. 2008. Water vapor climate feedback inferred from climate fluctuations, 2003-2008. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20704, doi:10.1029/2008GL035333, 2008.

214. Leroy,S., Anderson,J., Dykema,J. and Goody,R. 2008. Testing climate models using thermal infrared spectra. J. Climate 21:1863-1875.

215. Li.,J.-L.F., Waliser,D., Woods,C. et al. 2008. Comparisons of satellites liquid water estimates to ECMWF and GMAO analyses, 20th century IPCC AR4 climate simulations and GCM simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L19710, doi:10.1029/2008GL035427, 2008.

216. Minschwaner,K., Dessler,A.E. and Sawaengphokhai,P. 2006. Multimodel analysis of the water vapour feedback in the tropical upper atmosphere. J. Climate 19:5455-5464.

217. Pierce,D.W., Barnett,T.P., Fetzer,E.J. and Gleckler,P.J. 2006. Three-dimensional tropospheric water vapor in coupled climate models compared with observations from the AIRS satellite system. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L21701, doi:10.1029/2006GL027060, 2006.

218. Soden,B.J. and Held,I.M. 2006. An assessment of climate feedbacks in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. J. Climate 19:3354-3360.

219. Wagner, T., Beirle,S., Grzegorski,M. and Platt,U. 2006. Global trends (1996-2003) of total column precipitable water observed by Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on ERS-2 and their relation to near-surface temperature. JGR 111, D12102, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006523, 2006.

220. Wang,J.-W., Wang,K., Pielke,R.A. Sr. et al. 2008. Towards a robust test on North America warming trend and precipitable water content increase. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L18804, doi:10.1029/2008GL034564, 2008.

221. Willett,K.M., Gillett,NP., JonesP.D. and Thorne,P.W.. 2007. Attribution of observed surface humidity changes to human influence. Nature 449:710-712.

222. Abbot,D.S. and Tziperman,E. 2008. Sea ice, high-latitude convection and equable climates. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L03702, doi:10.1029/2007GL032286, 2008.

223. Pincus,R., Batstone,C.P., Hofmann,R.J.P. et al. 2008. Evaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation and radiation in climate models. JGR 113,D14209, doi:10.1029/2007JD009334, 2008.

224. Adler,R.F., Gu,G., Wang,J.-J. et al. 2008. Relationships between global precipitation and surface temperature on interannual and longer timescales (1079-2006). JGR 113, D22104, doi:10.1029/2008JD010536, 2008.

225. Chou,C., Tu,J.-Y. and Tan,P.-H. 2007. Asymmetry of tropical precipitation change under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L17708, doi:10.1029/2007GL030327, 2007.

226. Sigmond,M., Scinocca,J.F. and Kushner,P.J. 2008. Impact of the stratosphere on tropospheric climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L12706, doi:10.1029/2008GL033573, 2008.

227. Baldwin,M.P., Dameris,M. and Sheherd,T.G. 2007. How will the stratosphere affect climate change? Science 316-1576-1577.

228. Brasseur,G.P., Schultz,M., Granier,C. et al. 2006. Impact of climate change on the future chemical composition of the global troposphere. J. Climate 19: 3932-3951.

229. Solomon,A. 2006. Impacts of latent heat release on polar climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07716, doi:10.1029/2005GL025607, 2006.

4.1.2 Land Processes

230. Alpert,P., Niyogi.D., Peilke,R.A. Sr. et al. 2006. Evidence for carbon dioxide and moisture interactions from the leaf cell up to global scales: Perspectives on human-induced climate change. Global and Planetary Change 54:202-208.

231. Cox,P.M., Harris,P.P., Huntingford,C. et al. 2008. Increasing risk of Amazonian drought due to decreasing aerosol pollution. Nature 453:212-216.

232. Henderson-Sellers,A., Irannejad,P. and McGuffie,K. 2008. Future desertification and climate change: The need for land-surface system evaluation improvement. Global and Planetary Change 64:129-138.

233. Notaro,M., Vavrus,S. and Liu,Z. 2007. Global vegetation and climate change due to future increases in CO2 as projected by a fully coupled model with dynamic vegetation. J. Climate 20:70-89.

234. Ollinger,S.V., Richardson,A.D., Martin,M.E. et al. 2008. Canopy nitrogen, carbon assimulation and albedo in temperate and boreal forests: Functional relations and potential climate feedbacks. PNAS 105:19335-19340.

235. Purves,D. and Pacala,S. 2008. Predictive models of forest dynamics. Science 320:1452-1453.

236. Steffen,W. 2006. The Arctic in an Earth system context: From brake to accelerator of change. Ambio 35:153-159.

237. Thornton,P.E., Lamarque,J.-F., Rosenbloom,N.A. and Mahowald,N.M. 2007. Influence of carbon-nitrogen cycle coupling in land model response to CO2 fertilization and climate variability. GBC 21, GB4018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002868, 2007.

238. Scheffer,M., Brovkin,V. and Cox,P.M. 2006. Positive feedback beween global warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration inferred from past climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L10702, doi:10.1029/2005GL025044, 2006.

239. Schuur, E.A.G., Bockheim,J., Canadell,J.G. et al. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: Implications for the global carbon cycle. BioScience 58:701-714.

240. Smith,S.L., Burgess,M.M. and Riseborough,D.W. 2008. Ground temperature and thaw settlement in frozen peatlands along the Norman Wells pipeline corridor, NWT Canada: 22 years of monitoring. In: Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds.). Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska, pp. 1665-1670.

241. Achurgers,G., Mikolajewicz,U., Gröger,M. et al. 2008. Long-term effects of biogeophysical and biogeochemical interactions between terrestrial biosphere and climate under anthropogenic climate change. Global and Planetary Change 64:26-37.

242. Friedlingstein, P., Cox, P.M., Betts, R. A. et al. 2006. Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: results from the C4MIP model intercomparison. J. Climate 19:3337-3353.

243. Mikolajewicz,U., Vizcaíno,M., Jungclaus,J. and Schurgers,G. 2007. Effect of ice sheet interactions in anthropogenic climate change simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L18706, doi:10.1029/2007GL031173, 2007.

244. Winton,M. 2006. Surface albedo feedback estimates for the AR4 climate models, J. Climate 19:359-365.

245. Winton,M. 2006. Amplified Arctic climate change: What does the surface albedo feedback have to do with it? Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L03701, doi:10.1029/2005GL025244, 2006.

4.1.3 Ocean Processes

246. Spence,J.P.,and Weaver,A.J. 2006. The impact of tropical Atlantic fresh water fluxes on the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. J. Climate 19:4592-4604.

247. Vizcaíno,M., Mikolajewicz,U., Gröger,M. et al. 2008. Long-term ice sheet-climate interactions under anthropogenic greenhouse forcing simulated with a complex Earth System Model. Climate Dynamics 31:665-690.

248. Zickfeld,K., Elby,M. and Weaver,A.J. 2008. Carbon-cycle feedbacks of changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation under future atmospheric CO2. GBC 22, GB3024, doi:10.1029/2007GB003118, 2008.

249. Hakkinen,S., Proshutinsky,A. and Ashik,I. 2008. Sea ice drift in the Arctic since the 1950s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L19704, doi:10.1029/2008GL034791, 2008.

250. Russell,J.L., Dixon,K.W., Gnanadesikan,A. et al. 2006. The Southern Hemisphere westerlies in a warming world: Propping open the door to the deep ocean. J. Climate 19:6382-6390.

4.2 Model Performance
4.2.1 Climate sensitivity

251. Allen,M.R. and Frame,D.J. 2007. Call off the quest. Science 318:582-583.

252 . Annan,J.D. and Hargreaves,J.C. 2006. Using multiple observationally-based constraints to estimate climate sensitivity. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, LO6704, doi:10.1029/2005GL025259, 2006.

253. Chylek,P., Lohmann,U., Dubey,M. et al. 2007. Limits on climate sensitivity derived from satellite and surface observations. JGR 112, D24S04, doi:10.1029/2007JD008740, 2007.

254. Chylek,P. and Lohmann,U. 2008. Reply to comment by Andrey Ganopolski and Thomas Schneider von Deimling on “Aerosol radiative forcing and climate sensitivity deduced from Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene transition”. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L23704, doi:10.1029/2008GL034308, 2008.

255. Chylek,P. and Lohmann,U. 2008. Aerosol radiative forcing and climate sensitivity deduced from Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene transition. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04804, doi:10.1029/2008GL032759, 2008.

256. Forest,C.E., Stome,P.H. and Sokolov,A.P. 2006. Estimated PDFs of climate system properties including natural and anthropogenic forcings. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L01705, doi:10.1029/2005GL023977, 2006.

257. Forest,C.E., Stone, P.H. and Sokolov,A.P. 2008. Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes. Tellus 60A:911-920.

258. Foster,G., Annan,J.D., Schmidt,G.A. and Mann,M.E. 2008. Comment on “Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth’s climate system” by S.E. Schwartz. JGR 113, D15102, doi:10.1029/2007JD009373, 2008.

259. Ganopolski,A. and Schneider von Deimling,T. 2008. Comment on “Aerosol radiative forcing and climate sensitivity deduced from Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene transition” by Petr Chylek and Ulrike Lohmann. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L23703, doi:10.1029/2008GL033888, 2008.

260. Hegerl,G.C., Crowley,T.J., Hyde,W.T. and Frame,D.J. 2006. Climate sensitivity constrained by temperature reconstructions over the past seven centuries. Nature 440, 1029-1032.

261. Kiehl,J.T., Shields,C.A., Hack,J.J. and Collins,W.D. 2006. The climate sensitivity of the Community Cimate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). J. Climate 19:2584-2596.

262. Knutti,R. and Hegerl,G.C. 2008. The equilibrium sensitivity of the Earth’s temperature to radiation changes. Nature Geoscience 1:735 - 743.

263. Knutti,R., Krähenmann,S., Frame,D.J. and Allen,M.R. 2008. Comment on “Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth’s climate system” by S.E. Schwartz. JGR 113, D15103, doi:10.1029/2007JD009473, 2008.

264. Roe,G.H. and Baker,M.B. 2007. Why is climate sensitivity so unpredictable? Science 318:629-632.

265. Royer,D.L., Berner,R.A. and Park,J. 2007. Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past420 million years. Nature 446:530-532.

266. Scafetta,N. 2008. Comment on “Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth’s climate system” by S.E. Schwartz. JGR 113, D15104, doi:10.1029/2007JD009586, 2008.

267. Schneider von Deimling,T., Held,H., Ganopolski,A., and Rahmstorf,S. 2006. Climate sensitivity estimated from ensemble simulations of glacial climate. Climate Dynamics 27:149-163.

268. Schwartz,S.E. 2007. Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth’s climate sensitivity. JGR 112, D24S05, doi:10.1029/2007JD008746, 2007.

269. Schwartz,S.E. 2008. Reply to comments by G. Foster et al., R. Knutti et al., and N. Scafetta on “Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth’s climate sensitivity”. JGR 113, D15105, doi:10.1029/2008JD009872, 2008.

270. Shukla,J., DelSole,T., Fennessy,M. et al. 2006. Climate model fidelity and projections of climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07702, doi:10.1029/2005GL025579, 2006.

271. Stott,P.A., Mitchell,J.F.B., Allen,M.R. et al. 2006. Observational constraints on past attributable warming and predictions of future global warming. J. Climate 19:3055-3069.

272. Stowasser,M., Hamilton,K. and Boer,G.J. 2006. Local and global climate feedbacks in models with differing climate sensitivities. J. Climate 19:193-209.

273. Torn,M.S. and Harte,J. 2006. Missing feedbacks, asymmetric uncertainties, and the underestimation of future warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L10703, doi:10.1029/2005GL025540, 2006.

274. Williams,K.D., Ingram,W.J. and Gregory,J.M. 2008. Time variation of effective climate sensitivity in GCMs J. Climate 21:5076-5090.

275. Wu,Q., Karoly,D.J. and North,G.R. 2008. Role of water vapor feedback on the amplitude of season cycle in the global mean surface air temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L08711, Doi:10.1029/2008GL033454, 2008.

4.2.2 Model Evaluation
276. Kiehl,J.T. 2007. Twentieth century climate model response and climate sensitivity. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L22710, doi:10.1029/2007GL031383, 2007.

277. Mysak,L.A. 2008. Glacial inceptions: Past and future. Atmosphere-Ocean 46:317-341.

278. Reichler,T. and Kim,J. 2008. Uncertainties in the mean state of global observations, reanalysis and the GFDL climate model. JGR 113 D05106, doi:10.1029/2007JD009278, 2008.

279. Reichler,T., and Kim,J. 2008. How do coupled models simulate today’s climate? BAMS 89:303-311.

280. Brogniez,H. and Pierrehumbert,R.T. 2007. Intercomparison of tropical tropospheric humidity in GCMs with AMSU-B water vapor data. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L17812, doi:10.1029/2006GL029118, 2007.

281. Collins,W.D., Ramaswamy,V., Schwarzkopf,M.D. et al. 2006. Radiative forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases: Estimates from climate models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment report (AR4). JGR 111, D14317, doi:10.1029/2005JD006713, 2006.

282. Dufresne,J.-L. and Bony,S. 2008. An assessment of the primary sourcve of spread of global warming estimates from coupled atmosphere-ocean models. J. Climate 21:5135-5144.

283. John,V.O. and Sowden,B.J. 2007. Temperature and humidity biases in global climate models and their impact on climate feedbacks. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L18704, doi:10.1029/2007GL030429, 2007.

284. Su,H., Waliser,D.E., Jiang,J.H. et al. 2006. Relationships of upper tropospheric water vapor, clouds and SST: MLS observations, ECMWF analyses and GCM simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L22802, doi:10.1029/2006GL027582, 2006.

285. Waliser,D., Seo,K.-W., Schubert,S. and Njoku,E. 2007. Global water cycle agreement in the climate models assessed in the IPCC AR4. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L16705, doi:10.1029/2007GL030675, 2007.

286.Wild,M., Long,C.N. and Ohmura,A. 2006. Evaluation of clear-sky solar fluxes in GCMs participating in AMIP and IPCC-AR4 froma surface perspective. JGR 111, D1104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006118, 2006.

287. Williams,K.D. and Tselioudis,G. 2007. GCM intercomparison of global cloud regimes: Present-day evaluation and climate change response. Climate Dynamics 29:231-250.

288. AchutaRao,K.M., Ishii,M., Santer,B.D. et al. 2007. Simulated and observed variability in ocean temperature and heat content. PNAS 104:10768-10773.

289. Kattsov,V.M. and Sporyshev,P.V. 2006. Timing of global warming in IPCC AR4 AOGCM simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L23707, doi:10.1029/2006GL027467, 2006.

290. Monaghan,A.J., Bromwich,D.H., Chapman,W. and Comiso,J.C. 2008. Recent variability and trends of Antarctic near-surface temperature. JGR 113,D04105, doi:10.1029/2007JD009094, 2008.

291. Sutton,R.T., Dong,B. and Gregory,J.M. 2007. Land/sea ratio in response to climate change: IPCC AR4 model results and comparison with observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L02701, doi:10.1029/2006GL028164, 2007.

292. Dai,A. 2006. Precipitation characteristics in eighteen coupled climate models. J. Climate 19:4605-4629.

293. Douville,H., Sala-Mélia,D. and Tyteca,S. 2006. On the tropical origin of uncertainties in the global land precipitation response to global warming. Climate Dynamics 26:367-385.

294. Kim,H.-J., Wang,B. and Ding,Q. 2008. The global monsoonal variability simulated by CMIP3 coupled climate models. J. Climate 21:5271-5294.

295. Lambert,F.H. and Webb,M.J. 2008. Dependency of global mean precipitation on surface temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L16706, doi:10.1029/2008GL034838, 2008.

296. Lau,K.M., Shen,S.S.P., Kim,K.-M. and Wang,H. 2006. A multimodel study of the twentieth-century simulations of Sahel drought from the 1970s to 1990s. JGR 111:,D07111, doi:10.1029/2005JD006281,2006.

297. Lin,J.-L., Mapes,B.E., Weickman,K.M. et al. 2008. North American monsoon and convectively coupled equatorial waves simulated by IPCC AR4 coupled GCMs. J. Climate 21:2919-2937.

298. Wang,H. and Lau,K.M. 2006. Atmospheric hydrological cycle in the tropics in the twentieth century coupled climate simulations. Int. J. Climatology 26:655-678.

299. Wentz,F.J., Ricciardulli,L., Hilburn,K. and Mears,C. 2007. How much rain will global warming bring? Science 317:233-235.

300. Kharin,V.V., Zwiers,F.W., Zhang,X. and Hegerl,G.C. 2007. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the IPCC ensemble of global coupled model simulations. J. Climate 20:1419-1444.

301. Kiktev,D., Caesar,J., Alexander,L.V. et al. 2007. Comparison of observed and multimodeled trends in annual extremes of temperature and precipitation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L10702, doi:10.1029/2007GL029539, 2007.

302. AchutaRao,K. and Sperber,K.R. 2006. ENSO simulations in coupled atmosphere-ocean models: Are the current models better? Climate Dynamics 27:1-15.

303. Kripalani,R.H., Oh,J.H., Kulkarni, A. et al. 2007. South Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability: Coupled climate model simulations and projections under IPCC AR4. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 90:133-159.

304. Lin,J.-L. 2007. Interdecadal variability of ENSO in 21 IPCC AR4 coupled GCMs. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L12702, doi:10.1029/2006GL02937, 2007.

305. Seidel,D.J., Fu,Q., Randel,W.J. and Reichler,T.J. 2008. Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nature Geoscience 1:21-24.

306. Ye,Z. and Hsieh,W.W. 2008. Changes in ENSO and associated overturning circulations from enhanced greenhouse gases by the end of the twentieth century. J. Climate 21:5745-5763.

307. Bender,F.A.M., Rodhe,H., Charson,R.J. et al. 2006. 22 views of the global albedo – comparison between 20 GCMs and two satellites. Tellus 58A:320-330.

308. Brown,R.D. and Frei,A. 2007. Comment on “Evaluation of surface albedo and snow cover in AR4 coupled models” by A. Roesch. JGR 112, D22102, doi:10.1020/2006JD008339, 2007.

309. Roesch,A. 2007. Reply to comment by Ross D. Brown and Allan Frei on “Evaluation of surface albedo and snow cover in AR4 coupled models”. JGR 112, D22103, doi:10.1020/2006JD008964, 2007.

310. Arzel, O., Fichefet, T. and Goosse, H. 2006. Sea ice evolution over the 20th and 21st centuries as simulated by current AOGCMs. Ocean Modelling 12: 401-415.

311. Bonsal,B.R. and Prowse,T.D. 2006. Regional assessment of GCM-simulated current climate over northern Canada. Arctic 59:115-128.

312. Chapman,W.L. and Walsh,J.E. 2006. Simulations of Arctic temperature and pressure by global coupled models. J. Climate 19:609-632.

313. Connolley,W.M. and Bracegirdle,T.J. 2007. An Antarctic assessment of IPCC AR4 coupled models. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L22505, doi:10.1029/2007GL031648, 2007.

314. Gerdes,R. and Koberle,C. 2007. Comparison of Arctic sea ice thickness variability in IPCC climate of the 20th century experiments and in ocean-sea ice hindcasts. JGR 112, C04S13, doi:10.1029/2006JC003616, 2007.

315. Liu,J., Zhang,Z., Hu,Y. et al. 2008. Assessment of surface air temperature over the Arctic Ocean in reanalysis and IPCC AR4 model simulations with IABP/POLES observations. JGR 113, D10105, doi:10.1029/2007JD009380, 2008.

316. Monaghan,A.J., Bromwich,D.H. and Schnieder,D.P. 2008. Twentieth century Antarctic air temperature and snowfall simulations by IPCC climate models. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L07502, doi:10.1029/2007GL032630, 2008.

317. Zhang,X. and Walsh,J.E. 2006. Toward a seasonally ice covered Arctic Ocean: Scenarios from the IPCC AR4 model simlations. J. Climate 19:1730-1747.

318. Cai,W. and Cowan,T. 2007. Trends in Southern Hemisphere circulation in IPCC AR4 models over 1950-99: Ozone depletion versus greenhouse forcing. J. Climate 20:681-693.

319. Dibike,Y.B., Gachon,P., St.-Hilaire,A. et al. 2008. Uncertainty analysis of statistically downscales temperature and precipitation regimes in Northern Canada. Theor. Applied Climatology 91:149-170.

320. Liang,X.-Z., Kunkel,K.E., Meehl,G.A. et al. 2008. Regional climate models downscaling analysis of general circulation models present climate biases propogation into future change projections. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L08709, doi:10.1029/2007GL032849, 2008.

321. Sushama,L., Laprise,R., Caya,D. et al. 2006. Canadian RCM projected climate-change signal and its sensitivity to model errors. Int. J. Climatology 26:2141-2159.

322. Wyser,K, Jones,C.G., Du,P. et al. 2008. An evaluation of Arctic cloud and radiation processes during the SHEBA year: simulation results from eight Arctic regional climate models. Climate Dynamics 30: 203-223.

323. Hegerl,G.C., Karl,T.R., Allen,M. et al. 2006. Climate change detection and attribution: Beyond mean temperature signals. J. Climate 19:5058-5077.

324. Semenov,M.A. 2008. Simulation of extreme weather events by a stochastic weather generator. Climate Research 35:203-212.

325. De Weaver,E.T., Hunke,E.C. and Holland,M.M. 2008. Comment on “On the reliability of simulated Arctic sea ice in global climate models” by I. Eisenman, N. Untersteiner and J.S. Wettlaufer. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04501, doi:10.1029/2007GL031325, 2008.

326. Knutti,R. 2008. Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well? Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L18704, doi:10.1029/2008GL034932, 2008.

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