1. The software development cycle involves at least four stages. These are __________________ whose objective is to understand the nature of the problem or task to be performed; __________________ or devising a plan; __________________ or creating an executable version of the plan for implementation on a computer system; and __________________ the program.
2. HLLs belonging to the __________________ programming paradigm divide the program into a series of units that prescribe smaller tasks required to complete the process. In contrast, languages belonging to the __________________ programming paradigm divide the program into units or modules but these specify entities with specific attributes or capabilities.
3. __________________ programming languages are those designed for average users to create programs without the normal complications of professional software development languages.
4. Before the finished version of a software product is released to the general public, several provisional versions are prepared for testing through limited use. __________________ are those that are early version available for use only within the organization. On the other hand, __________________ are those that are released to the public for trial use after meeting minimum testing standards for reliable use.
5. Translation programs come in two varieties. __________________ are programs that translate and execute the text of a program one instruction at a time. __________________ are programs that translate the entire text of the HLL program into an executable program for the host processor.
6. __________________ are programming languages that produce programs which are interpreted by other software resident on a computer system.
(correct choices plus distractors)
alpha versions analysis assembly languages beta versions
coding compilers design end-user
high-level languages imperative procedural interpreters nonprocedural
object-oriented pseudocoding scripting languages testing & correcting
Short Essay Questions
1. What is software and how is it important for computer systems?
2. Describe the basic steps or stages involved in the software development cycle. Why is this called a “cycle” rather than “process” or “series?”
3. Modern software systems are extremely difficult to design and develop because of the inherent complexities involved in the process. Describe the three different brands of complexities and give an instance of each to illustrate your explanation.
4. Software systems are developed by teams rather than individual programmers. Describe the basic roles of the commercial software development team.
5. High-level programming languages are numerous and varied. Even so, there are only a few basic models or paradigms to which these instances belong. Pick any one of the paradigms studied in this chapter and describe its basic features. Cite some instances of languages that belong to that paradigm.