About the Compiler Christopher Anglim is a native of St. Paul, Minnesota. He was educated at St. Thomas College (now the University of St. Thomas) in St. Paul, Minnesota for his Bachelor of Arts; Arizona State University for both his Master of Arts in History and his Juris Doctor; and the University of Arizona for his Master of Library of Science. His career included work at South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas, St. Thomas University in Houston Texas, St. Mary’s University in San Antonio, Texas, Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View Texas, and the University of the District of Columbia, in Washington, DC. His publications include: Special Collections Policies, Procedures and Guidelines: A Model Plan for Management for Special Legal Collections (Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein, 1993).
Christopher's paternal grandfather, Edward Thomas Anglim (1890 1976) came to the United States from Ireland in 1902 to join his twin brother, John (1890-1925). Their passage was provided by their aunt, Mrs. Hynes, the wife of Mr. Patrick Hynes, a Wisconsin lumberman. Both brothers came from County Limerick where they were born to a farming family. The two brothers came to the United States because the old farm could not reasonably subdivided any further than it already was. Note that in Ireland, Primogeniture was understood to be the right of succession or inheritance belonging to the first born of children of the same parents. The property and title – if there were one – descended to the eldest son, provided there was a son. If there were no sons the eldest daughter could succeed. Both brothers eventually settled in Duluth Minnesota. Both became accountants. Edward spent most of his life in Northern Minnesota. He worked for Cudahy Packing and later the Internal Revenue Service.
Christopher's father, Richard, was born in Duluth. His elder brother, Edward Michael, was born in Rock Island, Illinois. Edward Michael eventually moved to Portland Oregon and became an
accountant with Peerless Pacific. Richard's career including working with the Minnesota Civil Defense and as an administrative analyst for Ramsey County (St. Paul, Minnesota).
Christopher has had a lifetime interest in genealogy and has produced three earlier versions of the Anglim family history. Please contact him at (w) (202) 274-5843 or (h) 443-847-4036 if you have any questions, suggestions, or additions to this work. Christopher hopes that you will enjoy this family history.
Acknowledgement of Source Material.
Correspondence: A very special thank you all of those who have been so generous in contributing material for this work.
Sr. Agnes Anglim, Derbyshire, England.
Charts A 5.
Mr. David Anglim, Melbourne (Australia).
Chart H 1.
Mr. Edward Anglim, Portland, Oregon (USA).
Chart C 48.
Ms. Elizabeth Anglim, Dunkirk, New York (USA).
Chart A 18.
Mr. Harold R. Anglim, St. Louis, Missouri (USA).
Chart A 17.
Mr. James Anglim, London (England).
James J. (Jay) Anglim, Carteret, New Jersey (USA).
Charts B-10, B-15 through B-21.
Mr. James R. (Jimmie) Anglim, Orchard Park, Tagoat, Co.Wexford (Eire).
Chart 6. .
Mr. Jeremiah Anglim III, Columbus, Ohio (USA).
Charts C 35, C-36 and C 37.
Fr. Jeremiah J. Anglim, Carrig on Bannow, Co. Wexford (Eire).
Charts B-1, B-4, C-1 through C 5, and, C-7, C-8, and Charts C-11 through C-23.
Mr. Jerome Anglim, Lyndon Station, Wisconsin (USA).
Mr. John J. Anglim, Concord, California (USA).
Charts C 52.
Mr. John J. Anglim, Madison, New Jersey (USA).
Charts B 2 to B 5.
Mr. John J.(Jay) Anglim, Cateret, New Jersey (USA).
Charts B 10, to B-15 through B-21..
Mr. John R. Anglim, Ft. Worth, Texas (USA).
Chart VIII (G-1).
Ms. Mary Anglim, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania (USA).
Charts C 44 and C-45.
Sr. Mary Perpetua Anglim, Convent of Mercy, London (England).
Chart s A 1, A-2, and A-3
Mr. Michael Anglim, Bolton Hall Estate, Rathfarnham,
II. Introduction and Origins of the Anglim Family Name. This genealogical study of the Anglim (also spelled Anglin) family attempts to provide comprehensive coverage of this family’s history throughout the world, especially in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States. The Anglim, (or Anglin) family name
is an old one, and originates in Ireland. Some of the variations of the Anglim name include O'Anglim, Anglin, or O'hAngluinn. It is also a family most traditionally associated with County Cork in the southwestern part of Ireland. In fact, Edward McLysaght, in his Irish Families, wrote that the Anglim surname "has always been associated with Co. Cork" (McLysaght,p. 10). The Anglim/Anglin family has also been mentioned in the ancient Book of Kells as tympanists for the old Irish royal court.
Several family members have achieved prominence in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Timothy Warren Anglin, was a leading Canadian Parliamentary leader and publisher of the
Freeman. Margaret Fitzgerald and Joseph King perceptively describe the importance of this journal, as follows:
Until Cork-born Timothy Warren Anglin began writing as the first editor of the
Weekly Freemanin St. John [New Foundland, Canada] in 1849, there had been no
Strong voice expressing the viewpoint of the Irish, especially Irish Catholics, nor any
Medium through which a voice could counter the prevailing prejudices. The Weekly
Freeman itself was established as a consequence of the bloody Orange Riot at York Point in July 12, 1849. [Source: Margaret Fitzgerald and Joseph King, The Uncounted Irish in
Canada and the United States, Toronto: P.D. Meany, Pub., 1990] Timothy Anglin’s daughter, Margaret Anglin (who died in 1958), was a great Canadian stage actress. She, however, chose against acting in motion pictures.
In northern Minnesota there is (or was) a village called Anglim near Crookston in Polk County. The village was named after Crookston's Mayor Anglim, who was also a leading pioneer shopkeeper of the town. He was Canadian born and also served on the town's Board of Education. (More information on this town is included in Chapter VIII entitled, "Anglims in Canada and the United States" and part A, "The Town of Anglim, Minnesota.)
In the standard and authoritative work on Irish family history, Irish Families, Edward McLysaght described the early history of the Anglim family as follows :
this is an O name, O'hAngluinn in Irish, but
the prefix has long been discarded and I think never
resumed. In Griffith's Co. Cork Valuation (1851 53)
Angland is the most numerous form. In the fiants we
meet the early anglicized forms O'Hanglen, ny Anglyn
etc. and also Anglant, Angyllant, Anglound. These are
nearly all in County Cork, and it is in that county,
and adjacent areas of neighboring counties, the
name occurs in wills, marriage licence bonds etc. of
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and there it
is almost exclusively found today. The earliest
relevant reference I have met is in the Four Masters,
under the date 1490, i.e., to Fionn O'hAngluinn, chief
tympanist of Ireland, but his homeland is not there
recorded (McLysaght, p.10 and 310).
This passage largely reiterates what the Rev. Patrick Woulfe wrote in the authoritative classic Sloinnte Gaedheal Is Gall: Irish Names and Surnames (Dublin:1923):
O'hAngluinn O Hanglin, Anglin, Anglim; 'des. of Anglonn'
(hero, champion); an old Cork surname, almost peculiar
to that country; sometimes corrupted to O'hAngluim and
angl. Anglim. The Four Masters, under the year 1490,
record the death of Fionn Ua hAngluinn, chief tympanist
Fr. Jeremiah Anglim had also transcribed this passage in his notebook as part of his research on the Anglim family history. At the end of this section, you will find as an illustration, the passages from the Four Masters on the Anglim family.
Fr. Woulfe's dictionary was long considered the standard and most complete dictionary of Irish names. The dictionary is arranged by family names, under which are presented the origin,
evolution, and history of each Gaelic Irish, Norman and English surname with all varieties of spelling, and with brief notes on each family.
There are some other theories on the origin of the Anglim family name, however, the most accepted theory is that Anglim is Gaelic for the "son of the champion", an interpretation also found in McLysaght's Supplement to Irish Families (1964). Fr. Jeremiah Anglim, PP. of Co. Wexford, and Mr. Thomas Anglim of Co. Limerick (both in Eire) agree with McLysaght. Sr. Mary Perpetua Anglim also relied on McLysahgt's work. Thomas wrote, "Anglim is of the relationship group of surnames and means descended of Loughluint from the Irish word Anglonn which means champion" (Thomas Anglim letter, May 5, 1982). Fr. Jeremiah also believes that the Anglim surname pre dates the Norman invasion of the British Isles.
The Anglims (O’hAngluinn) originated as members of an ancient Irish clan (or sept) known as the “Corca Luighe” (aka Corca Laoidhe or Loigde or Corca Laoigdhe), and were seated at Cork. The Corca Luighe were a pre-Milesian race and the name Luighe was common among their early Irish chiefs. One of those, Lughaidh Mac Con was Monarch of Ireland. According to the Book of Ballymote, Corca Luighe extended from Beann Finn westward to Tragumina and Lough Ine and from Beal Atha Buidhe to Tragh Claen at the rock.
Each tuath of Corca Luighe was governed by a taoiseach and beneath him were the hereditary leaders. Tuatha O Fitcheallaigh and O Dunghalaigh merged in Clonakilty. O'Fehilly and O'Dunlea were the taoiseacha. Oglaigh or Leaders are represented by names which still survive, i.e. Duggan, Keady, Eady, Anglin, Kennedy, Cagney, Hennessy, Leary, Dineen, Cronin, Hayes or O'Hea, Murray, Dulea, Coffey, Cowhig, Cullinane, Downey, Lahiffe, Shinnick, Deady and Muintir Oh Illigh or Hill. The O'Driscolls were the ruling race. These races had been gradually pushed south of the Bandon river by the Eoghanachta of which the ruling families were the O'Mahony's and the O'Donoghues. Source: http://www.clon.ie/text/system/clehis1.html
An alternative theory on the origins of Anglim name is the “Anglo-Norman theory”, which is found in only one source. This theory is as follows:
Anglum – Our inquirers after the origin of this name will read the following communication with pleasure. Reliable authorities on the subject of irish surnames being very scarce in the libraries of New York, and not being ourselves very well posted on those of foreign origin, we shall always feel thankful to contributors who, as in this instance will take the trouble to supply us with any interesting facts that may have escaped our own researches: - Clifton, S.I. – The name “Anglum” or “Anglim,” as it is sometimes spelled, is Anglo-Norman, De Angelis being the Norman-French rendering for a pure English or “Anglo” cognomen. It would appear from this that there had been a play on the name, as has been frequently the case in the olden times, referring it not to its manifest origin but to the Latin word “Angelus,” angel. Or “Anglum” may be a contraction for Angelum, itself a contraction for Angelum, itself a contraction for Angelorum, gentitive plural of some word which was again rendered into Norman –French by De Angelis – a name which occurs in early English and Irish history. This would remind you of what one of the early Popes said when his attention was called to the Anglo-Saxon slaves in Rome: “Non Angli, methercle sed Angeli!” – Not Angles, so help me, but angels. Marum, Oram, Odlum, etc., are similar English or Saxon names, the latter being a corruption from Adelm or Fitz Adelm, a branch of the DeBurgo. (See Burke’s Nobility and Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland. There is or was a respectable family of the name Anglim, at Rosegreen, in Tipperary (Source; The Emerald: An Illustrated Literary Journal, Feb. 20, 1869, at 40).
The compiler finds no other sources mentioning this theory.
A third theory, the “Norse Origin theory”, presented by Mr. James Anglim Hurley, whose research which concluded that the name is originally Norwegian and means, "A Hill and a Hole" in Norse, i.e., "a valley". Mr. Hurley also asserted that there still Anglims in Norway. Sr. Mary Perpetua Anglim, referring to this theory, said: "since that region (Scandinavia) was more or less the home of Angles who, centuries ago invaded the shores of the British Isles, the suggestion is not beyond the bounds of possibility," (from Leaves of the Anglim Family). Mr. Hurley is of the Clare branch. He has relatives who live in Kilmihill, which is 30 miles from Limerick. Many Anglims
still live there. The origin of the family name was transmitted by word of mouth. He believes that his great great grandfather came from Norway and settled in the Shannon River area. His first
cousin, Thomas, is the family historian (Source: telephone conversation with Mr. Hurley on August 1, 1982). One of the leading problems with this theory, in addition to it being contradicted by leading authorities and other evidence of, Anglim family history is that Irish surnames are never derived from placenames (see, Chapter IV on Irish Social and Cultural History). Second, there are only a very few Norse family names in Ireland. Furthermore, Norwegian genealogists assert that the term “Anglim” has no meaning in Norwegian, that Anglim is not a Norwegian name, and neither these genealogists nor the compilers have found any evidence of any Anglims having lived in Norway.
Other theories, such as the origin of the name being from Palatine Germany or from France seem implausible and are not supported by reliable evidence. In 1709 families of German settlers from the Rhine Palatinate were brought to Limerick and settled around Rathkeale. Of the original 800 families who were brought to the county, only 200 (around 1200 people) remained in Ireland. Later in the century, groups of the remaining Palatine families moved to other colonies in Adare and in Castleisland in County Kerry. There is no evidence to indicate that the Anglim family was a Palatine family.
Miss Mary Anglim who wrote a letter from Ohio at the turn of the century, however, did allude to the Anglims being of French ancestry. Also, Fr. Jeremiah apparently investigated a possible relationship between the Anglims of Ireland and the D'Angouleme family of French nobility. He mentioned that there is a town called Angouleme in the Department of Charente in the "ancient province"(before the French Revolution of 1789) of Angoumois. Very detailed maps of France also indicate a small town called "Anglim" in Southwestern France. The author of this work has, however, found no evidence of a link between a French lineage (including that with the D'Angoulemes) and the Anglims of Ireland.
There is also an oral tradition holding that the Anglim family is of Hugenot origin. Aidan Anglin makes the following points that I believe persuasively argues against such a Hugenot Anglim connection.
i) The Huguenots immigrated to Ireland but there is no surname remotely similar to the Anglin/Anglim surname.
ii) If a mother was Hugenot and married an Anglin/Anglim then that particular Protestant tradition could continue.
iii) The Huguenot immigration began in mid 1500's, a time when the surname O'hAnguinn already existed in Ireland.
iv) The O'hAnguinn surname in Ireland came prior to Elizabeth I, as demonstrated in the Elizabethean Fiant documents
v) There is no evidence of any French connection with the Anglin/Anglim surname.
Fr. Jeremiah also mentioned a man named De Angulo in association with a noble or warlord named DeBurgo. Following the Norman invasion in the Middle Ages, County Limerick was granted to the DeBurgos, ancestors of the Burkes, and to the Fitzwalters and Fitzgeralds. DeAngulo, was apparently a lieutenant of DeBurgo, and was of Norman descent. In 1575, they became the Costellos. Fr. Jeremiah made no clear connections between the Anglims and the DeAngulos. There also seems to be no other evidence to connect the Anglim family to De Angulo. While the Norman influence is clearly evident in the names which are now common in Limerick (including Fitzgerald, Fitzgibbon, deLacy, Woulfe, and Wall), there is no evidence to establish that the Anglim name is Norman is origin.
There is some controversy over whether the Anglins and Anglims should be placed together in the same family history. According to some such as the late Mr. James Anglim of London England, "The Anglins have nothing to do with the Anglims." Mr. John Anglim of
Madison NJ. had a more colorful way of describing a possible
distinction between the two names. He added:
As the saying goes "you may talk the Irish
out of Ireland, but you cannot talk the Irish
out of an Irishman". This applied to my father's
opinion of the Canadian Margaret Anglin...
Whether true or not he heard that she was a
Protestant and that added to the N instead of
M at the end of her name resulted in his calling
her, among less quotable expressions, "a
The reader should first note, as stated in Margaret Anglin's biography, in chapter VII and section B of this work, that she was a Catholic.
Second, the leading genealogical authorities treat the Anglim and Anglin surnames together because they have the common derivation from the old Gaelic name, O'Hangluinn as do the names
O'Hanglen, Anglant, and Angyllant. Caution should be exercised, however, since some Anglin families are apparently of either of German or German ancestry. The focus of this work will be exclusively on those Anglins of Irish ancestry.
Some interesting issues of language have arisen. One of these being that “Anglim” means “English” in either Hebrew or Yiddish. This is an interesting coincidence, but is not relevant to this study.
Also, in some versions of the Bible, there is apparently a story about Abram (Abraham), who after leaving Ur, of the Chaldeea, had settled in Canaan, and had became involved in a dispute with an “opulent and powerful family” named Anglim, which whom he had earlier traded with. This study makes no attempt to trace these Anglims to the Anglim familieis who trace their origins to Ireland.
There are several challenges in tracing an accurate lineage of the Anglim family in Ireland. One problem is the Irish tradition of many ancestors of the same family naming their children after
siblings or cousins. The usual pattern is to name the first son after the paternal grandfather, the second after the father, and the third after the maternal grandfather. Successive daughters were named after the maternal grandmother, the mother, and the paternal grandmother respectively. There are variations to this pattern, for example, if a child, or a close relative, died it was not uncommon for the next-born child of the same sex to be given the same name. In many cases the record clearly indicates, that a child has been named after a god-parent. This situation is well described by Michael Dore of Dublin who recognized:
(the) dependence of the old folk on a limited number of christian names as well as by the
intermarriage of people of the same surname within a relatively narrow area. For example
my grandfather and grandmother were both Dore; her father and mother were Dore, as were her paternal grandparents. there were also numerous
This work provides several examples of inter marriages between the Anglims and the Dores, who lived close to each other in Limerick County. The old tradition of passing down the same Christian names has persisted for several generations. The parents most often used the names of their siblings or cousins to name their own children. The lineage of the compiler of this work presents a good example. Christopher Anglim's grandfather's name is Edward Thomas Anglim; Christopher's uncle (who is older than Christopher's father) is named Edward Michael Anglim (whose maternal grandfather was Michael Flaherty); Christopher's father is named Richard Thomas Anglim (after one of Edward T. Anglim's brothers). Christopher's middle name is Thomas (with his father's, Richard's, middle name) and Christopher's brother's name is John Richard Anglim (after one of Edward T. Anglim's brothers and with his father's, Richard, first name). Edward Michael Anglim's son is also named Edward and is a career US Navy officer.
I highly recommend the report written by Aidan Anglin of Cork Ireland as the best source of the earliest history of the Anglin/Anglim surname – Aidan Anglin, O’h Angluinn: A Research Report, with Particular Reference to Pre-20th Centuries (Updated September 2010). A summary of Mr. Anglin’s conclusions follows. This author concurs with Mr. Anglin’s conclusions.
Mr. Anglin concluded that:
The Original surname was O’hAngluinn, a Gaeilge epithet surname.
Its origin probably flows from the epithet ‘anglonn’ being applied in times past to particular individuals due to their valour.
The major anglicised forms of the surname are Anglin, Anglim, Hanglin
The origin of the name lies in Ireland.
Judging from the early occurrences of the surname as indicated in the appendices, this origin is in South West Cork, particularly in the Clonakilty area. But there is the possibility the epithet was also applied to a person in the North West Cork area.
No creditable evidence was unearthed indicating a non Irish source.
The early holders of this surname were ordinary people, there is no evidence of them being landed people. However a feature of the research is how successful the descendants were having left Ireland.
An individual person of this name is initially identified in 1490 and is rare in documents in Ireland prior to 1700,
The occurrence of the surname outside Ireland commences in the late 1500’s. It surfaces in the early stages of its diaspora in continental Europe and then later in those south American countries linked to the continent. In the 1600’s it is linked to English colonies beginning with Maryland, Virginia and the Caribbean.
The scatter of the surname follows the same pattern as Irish emigration in general including the vicissitudes of their lives
While originally those with the surname were Catholic, it is clear at an early stage there grew an important segment who were of the reformed faith.
During the 1800’s the surname in Ireland became Anglin or Anglim, the Hanglin form having died out. The presence of the Hanglin form abroad is reasonably common and would indicate the original emigrants who carried this form abroad would have left Ireland pre 1800.
While the Hanglin/Anglin/Anglim surname has been passed down through the male line, there are instances in Irish records of females whose maiden name was Anglin passing their maiden name Anglin to their male progeny. For the descendants of such individuals there is no doubt of their Irishness but there are real implications for the DNA research in these instances.
This family history, for the most part, covers the period from the late 18th to the 20th centuries. The Anglims were, of course, profoundly effected by events in both Ireland and America throughout this period. The Irish during the early part of this period were a people yearning for change, while clinging desperately to ancient traditions. The American Irish during this period were a people who both grieved their forced departure from the old world, while also reaping benefits from the new world.
Throughout decades of challenges and progress, some have family members have noticed that some traits that tended to be passed on from generation to generation. Fr. Jeremiah, for example, wrote that the "marks of Anglims" include, "long arms, singing voice, broad shoulders, bossy." Well not universally true, this generalization does merit thoughtful reflection. As for myself, I would prefer to think of the Anglim family legacy as the enduring presence of certain basic values. While hazardous to generalize about so many people, of different times and places, I have generally found Anglim family members to possess the values of a strong religious belief, patriotism, a commitment to service, devotion to family, the drive to succeed tempered by high ethical conduct, and a love of nature. This appreciation of the outdoors is undoubtedly derived from a deep love of the ancestral homeland. I've also found the Anglims to practice traditional Irish warmth and friendliness. Even during the dark days of foreign rule, as Horace Walpole remarked, the "Irish have the best hearts in the three kingdoms" of what was then the United Kingdom.
I am equally as sure that most Anglims, wherever they eventually settled, share the same dream for Ireland that Eamon de Valera enunciated in his "dream speech" of St. Patrick's Day, March 17, 1943. De Valera said:
The Ireland which we have dreamed of would
ní fhaghaim lem thuigsi ar ttoil, tuigsi do adhair d[’]anntoil.
Mo thuigsi ar thoil mo thoile, le toil do thoil mh[’]anntoile
mo thoilsi ar thoil na tuigsi, toil dar bhfoigsi síorthuigsi.
Déis a ttuigim truagh mo thoisg, dar leam is duine díochoisg
nach géil[l] ó thoil do thuigsi, le céill oimh na hanntuigsi.
Mo thoil a Dhé ar do thoilsi, coisgeadh da t[h]oil mh[’]anntoilsi
mo thoil mo thuigsi mar so, tuigsi gan oil a Íosa
Sao / gal // so // nach // sao / gal // damh //
This life is no life for me, this life is not our life;
a life in which we are not long-lived, this life is dangerous, I feel.
I understood not, slight was [my] understanding; a pity I did not realize as I now do
that it was not the understanding I grasped; know that mine was no understanding.
Now I realize I understood not, though slowly my understanding grasped it,
I do not obtain understanding accordingly, [but] understanding that worships self-will.
My understanding in accord with my will, a will that wills self-will,
my will in accord with my understanding, a will that nears eternal understanding.
Since I realize the pitifulness of my state, I feel a wayward person,
who yields not willingly to your understanding, from a crude sense of misunderstanding.
May my will, O God, be as Thy will, a hindrance to the will that is my self-will,
May my will, my understanding, be thus, an understanding without reproach, O Jesus.
III. Maps of Ireland
IV. Irish Social and Cultural History And what a people loves it will defend.
We took their temples from them and forbade them,
For years , to worship their strange idols.
They gathered in secret, deep in the dripping glens,
Chanting their prayers before a lichened rock.
---John Hewitt, “The Colony,” 1950.
In order to understand some context for the references to names and customs, the compiler, Christopher Anglim, has supplied the following notes.
The Magic Known as Ireland Shrouded by the signature Irish mist, Ireland is a land of contrasts, and it evokes strong images. It is an island marked by old dunes shaped by tide and wind. Ireland's emerald green landscape is due to the fact that it is the most rainy and fertile countries in Europe. It is also the land of the mysterious Burren (derived from Boireann, which means rocky place). It has a profusion of flowers such as blue gentian, cranesbill, maidenhair fern, rock rose, and many rare orchids which grow in the crags and crevices.
Ireland's history, to a large extent, is documented in stone. First, there is Bunratty Castle, the most complete and authentic medieval castle in Ireland, and the last of four fortresses to stand on that site overlooking the Shannon River. There are also 100 ring forts, 70 Norman-style castles, and more than 500 churches just on the Burren near Ennis. These include the Dysert O'Dea Castle, St. Tola's Church with its 11th century tower, and intricately stone cross, and a holy well. Many of Ireland's medieval structures were reduced to ruins under Oliver Cromwell's orders, in order to eliminate both the Roman Catholic Church and Irish national identity.
The Origin and Development of Irish Surnames Ireland was one of the first countries in which a system of hereditary surnames arose: they were known in Ireland long before the Norman invasions brought English style surnames to the
country. The Irish prefixes Mac ('son of') and O ('grandson or descendant of') gave rise at an early date to a fixed hereditary names in which the literal patronymic meaning was lost or
obscured. O'Neill, for example, became known as a hereditary byname from the fourth century onwards.
These surnames originally signified membership of a clan, but with the passage of time, the clan system became less distinct, and surnames came to identify membership of what is called a
'sept': a group of people all living in the same locality, all bearing the same surname, but not necessarily descended from a common ancestor. Adoption of the name by people who did not
otherwise have a surname and by dependents was not uncommon. Later nicknames were in some cases to supersede the original clan names, giving rise to surnames such as Duff 'Black'.
During the long centuries of English domination, Irish surnames were crudely Anglicized. The Irish Gaelic language was proscribed, and surnames were Anglicized phonetically or by translation. At its mildest, the prefixes Mac and O' were abandoned, so that O Manachain became Monaghan and Mac an Fhailghigh became McNally and then Nally. At worst, Irish surnames were distorted beyond all recognition. Thus, Mac Giolla Eoin "son of the servant of Eoin" was transmuted into Munday by confusion of the last part of the name with Irish Luain, genitive of Luan Monday. O Glasain became Gleeson, while O Beagloaich became Begley.
Irish surnames proper are never derived from placenames. The reverse is in fact the case. Ballymahon is a typical example of one of the many placenames derived from a surname: it is named as 'the townland of Mahon'. (Thus, this is one of the problems with Mr. Hurley's theory on the origin of the family name as mentioned in the Introduction of this work).
Ireland and the Question of Language Before the famine in the 1840s, millions of Irish spoke Gaelic. The famine deeply affected Gaelic Ireland. Of the millions who died or emigrated, most were Gaelic-speaking. One of the truly great testimonies of Gaelic Ireland was Daniel Corkery's The Hidden Ireland, which celebrated the Gaelic poets of 18th century Ireland. The 1937 Irish Constitution states that Irish is the "first national language".
The Recording of Baptism In Ireland Baptism is the most recorded event in church records since most dioceses did not maintain death records and not everyone married (at all, or before emigrating). Pursuant to Catholic doctrine, children are to be baptized as soon as possible after birth. Most baptisms were performed at the home or the priest's house up to the 19th century. Gradually, there was a move towards church baptisms. As the availability of churches increased, the ceremony moved to the church. In 1850 the Synod of Thurles recommended that baptisms be performed in church. When this recommendation was communicated to Rome for verification, it was made mandatory. From then on it became the normal practice and undoubtedly the change assisted in the orderly maintenance of records.
The Recording of Marriages in Ireland. The preferred times of the year for Catholic marriages were the autumn and spring months, Marriage during Advent (the four weeks before Christmas) and Lent (the forty days before Easter) was not allowed without a special dispensation from the Church. Some popular times were just before Lent, i.e., during February and early March and also September to October. Marriage was generally celebrated in the home. Over time, the ceremony gradually moved to churches as these facilities became available. In 1850, the Synod of Thurles made it mandatory for the marriage to be performed in church.
The Irish have traditionally married within their own social class. For example, laborer's sons tended to marry laborer's daughters, while large farmer's daughters to large farmers. This was ensured by the dowry system, whereby the family of the groom would expect the bride to bring with her a dowry suited to her groom's status. Many, if not most, marriages among more prosperous families through matchmakers who ensured that the couple were socially suited. Another feature of Irish marriage was that among the poorer classes marriage tended to occur at an early age, while the more prosperous usually married later. It was also the traditional rule that it is unusual to marry anyone outside the parish ("pos ar an gcarn aviligh").
Prior to the famine of 1845 47, economic factors had led to earlier marriages. Following the famine, there were several economic and social changes including a rising standard of living, a prohibition of the subdivision of holdings, the rule that only one son could inherit and the need for larger farms. One dramatic consequence of the famine was that the age of marriage increased.
The Traditions of Irish Settlements The Irish have a very old tradition of living in rural communities. The villages and towns which emerged over time were associated with the surrounding country.
To understand the references in this work regarding an ancestor's place of origin in Ireland, you must become familiar with the various jurisdictions of that place. The important jurisdictions to know are:
Province: There are four provinces in Ireland, consisting of several counties each. They are: Ulster, Leinster, Connaught, and Munster.
County: There are 32 counties in Ireland. There are two counties that have changed their names Leix or Laoighis or Laois formerly Queen's County, Offaly (Ua Failghe) formerly King's County.
Barony: The barony is usually an area of land within a county. It is based on old tribal jurisdictions. There are 325 baronies in Ireland.
Diocese: This is an ecclesiastical division. There are 29 Dioceses for the Church of Ireland. The boundary of each diocese does not always correspond to the boundaries for counties.
Parish: This is a smaller division of a diocese. It may contain several towns or cities or there may be many parishes in a large city. There were 2,447 parishes in Ireland.
Townsland: The townsland is Ireland's smallest administrative unit. It most clearly influences daily life and social relations in the county. The townsland is an Irish person’s pastoral address and preserves historic communal life. The Irish still belong to a given townsland even if they've become separate units , or if the "town" or cluster had been divided.
Baile (or bally) is Gaelic for home place or townsland. Five thousand townslands begin with the prefix "Bally" in Ireland. The size varies, but averages about 1/2 square mile. The average
townsland population in a rural area is about 50.
Note: see, "Translations of Irish Placenames" at the end of this chapter.
see Appendix II for "Traditional Territories of Ancient
Irish Families," reproduced from John O'Hart's Irish
Pedigrees (Dublin: J. Duffy, 1892).
The traditional Irish cottage is usually viewed as something like Maureen O'Hara's place in the "Quiet Man", i.e., a rustic stone house with a thatch roof and peat burning in the hearth. The old style homes in Ireland were also shelter for man and beast, and were a vehicle of family lore and regional tradition.
Local roads in many places have been described as rough, ill defined tracks (and roads in many parts of Ireland are still bad). Horseback riding until contemporary times has long been the
common means of travel.
Inheritance in Ireland Landholding changes in Ireland are dominated more by kinship networks, than by other factors such as economics, technology, or government activities. One strong feature in the Irish tradition is love for the land and pride in the inheritance of ancestral property. A tradition developed of dwellers on such lands to claims that their forefathers had retained possession of the homestead since the days of "Brian Boru" or some other distant date. It is not uncommon for small farms to be in a family for 250 years. Another factor is that the British, by force and cajolery, had during the 17th and 18th centuries, taken the lands of the native Irish, and set up a series of military "plantations", turning owners into tenants. While English landowners extracted rent, the soldiers were often rewarded with small-holdings. Many of the descendants of the native Irish regained their families' status as landowners after land reform in the late 19th century. This property is not taxed under an Irish government policy to protect family farmers.
Another problem was that particularly after the Napoleonic wars, population growth and social and economic change transformed the adaptive strategy of peasant families. It had been the custom for a father to provide a patch of land to each son upon his marriage usually by subdividing the family's holdings. As land grew scarcer, however, fathers could no longer thus provide for their sons. The offspring were forced to either join the growing ranks of landless laborers or to leave the country.
Irish Emigration When the "Great Emigration" occurred during the Potato Famine, Ireland's population decreased from 8 million to 5 million within 20 years. Between 1845 and 1851 about 1.5 million Irish people died of starvation and disease. Another 1.5 million immigrated to America, largely from the west and southwest of Ireland. The emigrants left hurriedly, and by any means they could, including overcrowded unseaworthy "coffin ships", vessels characterized by a death rate similar to that of the slave ships from Africa. Those who survived the voyage were compelled to live in squalid compounds set up to house migrants on the east cost of the United States.
Emigrants who wished to return to Ireland would embrace a particular stone. Emigrants would recite a special prayer called "Mairbhne Phadraic". Another emigration tradition is the "Bridge of Tears" at Newcastle West (An Caislen Nua Thiar). Here, immigrants forced by the famine to leave their beloved homeland, said their farewells to their homeland and families before sailing down river to Cork and then overseas.
There has been significant Irish emigration eastward, as well as westward. By the 1990s, some have remarked that there are more people of Irish descent in Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) than in Ireland itself. There are few families in Ireland without cousins across the Irish Sea.
Translations of Irish Placenames Agh, a field
Anagh or Ana, a river
Ard, high place or rising ground.
Ath, a ford.
Awin, a river
Bally, or Bailin,' a town or inclosed place
Ban, or Bane, white or fair.
Ben, the summit of a mountain, generally
an abrupt head.
Bun, a bottoIIl, a foundation or root.
Car, or Cahir, a city.
Carrick, Carrig, Carrow, a rock or stony place.
Clara, a plain.
Clogh, Clough, a great stone.
Clon, a glade or level pasture ground.
Col, Cul, a corner.
Cork, Corragh, a marsh or swampy ground.
Croagh-Croghan, a sharp pointed hill resembling a rick.
Curragh, a marshy or fenny plain.
Derry, a clear dry spot in the midst of a woody swamp.
2. The Exiled Irishman's Farewell, by George Nugent Reynolds
3. The Exile of Erinn, by George Nugent Reynolds
4. Ireland’s Appeal, by Mrs. L.H. Sigourney
5. The Irish Emigrant's Lament, by Mrs. Blackwood
The Gazette Davenport, Scott, Iowa
July 1, 1847
IRELAND'S APPEAL By Mrs. L.H. Sigourney
Pale Erin towered her rocky strand
In frantic anguish press'd,
And shrieks of wild, imploring pain
Burst from her laboring breast.
Her children in their vigor fell,
To secret shafts a prey-
And marr'd by famine's plague spot dire,
In fearful numbers lay,
For all around her mournful realm
The smitten havest spread,
While sad the furrow'd church-yard told
The planting of the dead.
Wake! glorious Nation of the West-
Wake to thy sister's woe,
Her earnest hands to thee are spread-
Thy liberal aid bestow.
Bid thy rich harvests load the wave,
Unlock compassion's stream,
And with the surplus of they wealth
Her misery redeem.
Haste!- pluck the poison'd arrow forth
That rankles in her breast-
And win the blessing of the skies,
Oh, fair and fruitful West.
The Gazette Davenport, Scott, Iowa
April 20, 1848
THE IRISH EMIGRANT'S LAMENT. By Mrs. Blackwood
I'm sitting on the stile, Mary,
Where we sat side by side,
On a bright May morning, long ago,
When first you were my bride;
The corn was springing fresh and green,
And the lark sang loud and high,
And the red was on your lip, Mary,
And the love-light in your eye.
The place is little changed, Mary-
The day is bright as then-
The lark's loud song is in my ear,
And the corn is green again;
But I miss the soft clasp of your hand,
And your breath warm on my cheek,
And I still keep list'ning for the words
You never more may speak.
'Tis but a step down yonder lane,
And the little church stands near-
The church where we were wed, Mary,
I see the spire from here;
But the grave-yard lies between, Mary,
And my step might break your rest,
For I've laid you, darling, down to sleep,
With your baby on your breast.
I'm very lonely now, Mary,
For the poor make no new friends,
But, O, they love the better still
The few our Father sends!
And you were all I had, Mary,
My blessing and my pride-
There's nothing left to care for now,
Since my poor Mary died!
Yours was the brave good heart, Mary,
That still keeps hoping on,
When the trust in God had left my soul,
And my arms' young stretch had gone;
There was a comfort ever on your lip,
And the kind look on your brow-
I bless you, Mary, for that same,
Though you can't hear me now.
When your heart was fit to break,
When the hunger-pain was gnawing there,
And you hid it for my sake;
I bless you for the pleasant word,
When you heart was sad and sore-
O! I'm thankful you are gone, Mary,
Where the grief can't reach you more.
I'm bidding you a long farewell,
My Mary- kind and true!
But I'll not forget you, darling,
In the land I'm going to.
They say there's bread and wear for all,
And the sun shines always there,
But I'll not forget old Ireland,
Were it fifty times as fair.
And often in those grand old woods,
I'll sit and shut my eyes,
And my heart will travel back again
To the place where Mary lies;
And I'll think I see the little stile,
Where we sat side by side,
And the springing corn and bright May morn
When first you were my bride.
V. Coats of Arms The following are three different heraldic renderings of the Anglim/Anglin coat of arms. The most authoritative of these designs is the one registered at the Irish Genealogical Office by Clifford Anglim in 1956. The document issued by the Chief Herald of Ireland follows the coat of arms.1 Jimmie Anglim of County Wexford, Ireland provided a photograph of the coat of arms which the document describes (see Chart C-6).
CLIFFORD C. ANGLIM.
TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS shall come, I, Gerard Slevin, Master of Arts, Chief Herald of Ireland, send Greeting.
WHEREAS application hath been made unto me by CLIFFORD C. ANGLIM of Richmond in the State of California in the United States of America, Attorney at Law, son of Patrick Anglim of Napa in the same State, grandson of Matthew Anglim of Rosegreen in the county of Tipperary in Ireland and great-grandson of William Anglim of the same setting forth that he is desirous that certain Armorial Ensigns may be duly marshaled and assigned by lawful authority unto him and to the other descendants of his great-grand-father the said William Anglim such as without injury or prejudice to any other they may for ever bear and advance and praying that I would grant and assign unto them such Armorial Ensigns as aforesaid and that the Armorial Ensigns so granted and assigned may be ratified and recorded in my Office, to the end that the Officers of Arms there and all others upon occasion may take full notice and have knowledge thereof.
NOW I, the said Chief Herald of Ireland, having taken the said application into consideration and having enquired into and examined the circumstances, am pleased .to comply with the said application, and do, by these Presents, acting on behalf of and by the authority of the Government of Ireland ratify unto the said CLIFFORD C. ANGLIM and to the other descendants of his great-grandfather the said William Anglim the Arms following, that is to say: Tierce in pairte or, gules and azure, on the dexter a garb and on the sinister a balance of the first, in chief a laurel wreath vert, with the Crest: A lyre or between two laurel branches vert,i mantled gules doubled argent, and the Motto: Fides, the whole more clearly depicted in the margin hereof.
TO HAVE and to hold the said Arms unto the said CLIFFORD C. ANGLIM and to the other descendants of his great-grandfather the said William Anglim for ever and :he same to bear, use, shew, set forth and advance in shield or banner or otherwise according to the Laws of Arms and without the let, hindrance, molestation, interruption, controlment or challenge of any manner of person or persons whatsoever.
IN WITNESS whereof I have hereunto subscribed my Name and Title and affixed the Seal of my Office this llth day of February, 1956.
VI. The Anglim Family Lineages
Part A: County Clare Lineage 1. Wakefield on Clare.
2. Places of Anglim residence, reproduced from
Samuel Lewis' Topographical Dictionary of
Ireland (London: S. Lewis, 1846).
3. Parish Map, Barony, and Poor Law Maps of Clare.
4. Family History.
County Clare, situated on the west coast of Ireland in the province of Munster experienced heavy emigration over the last two hundred years. Between the years 1850 and 1880 an estimated 112,000 people emigrated from Co. Clare. By comparison the present population stands at just under 90,000.
Emigration led to the Clare Diaspora that resulted in millions of people world-wide who trace their ancestry to County Clare. Clare people emigrated to the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, South Africa and Argentina