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9781782175872-THINKING IN HTML

Thinking in HTML
Learn to write intuitive HTML and build your sites on solid foundations
Aravind Shenoy

Thinking in HTML
Copyright © 2014 Packt Publishing
All rights reserved. No part of this book maybe reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embedded in critical articles or reviews.
Every effort has been made in the preparation of this book to ensure the accuracy of the information presented. However, the information contained in this book is sold without warranty, either express or implied. Neither the author, nor Packt Publishing, and its dealers and distributors will beheld liable for any damages caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by this book.
Packt Publishing has endeavored to provide trademark information about all of the companies and products mentioned in this book by the appropriate use of capitals. However, Packt Publishing cannot guarantee the accuracy of this information.
First published September Production reference Published by Packt Publishing Ltd.
Livery Place Livery Street
Birmingham B PB, UK.

Aravind Shenoy
Anirudh Prabhu
Commissioning Editor
Edward Gordon
Content Development Editor
Neeshma Ramakrishnan
Technical Editor
Dennis John
Copy Editor
Karuna Narayanan
Simran Bhogal
Maria Gould
Adonia Jones
Production Coordinator
Adonia Jones
Cover Work
Adonia Jones

About the Author
Aravind Shenoy is an in-house author at Packt Publishing. An engineering graduate from the Manipal Institute of Technology, his core interests are technical writing, web designing, and software testing. He was born and raised in Mumbai, India, and resides there. He is a music buff and loves listening to Oasis, REM, The Doors, Dire Straits, and Eminem. Rock 'n Rolland Rap rule his playlists. He is a simple person by nature and believes that we are all hereto have a good time, not along time. After all, the most important thing is to be happy.

About the Reviewer
Anirudh Prabhu is a software engineer at Xoriant Corporation with 4 years experience in web designing and development. He is responsible for JavaScript development and maintenance in his projects. His areas of expertise are HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and jQuery. When not working, Anirudh loves reading, listening to music, and photography.
He has completed his Master’s degree in Information Technology. He has also reviewed some titles related to JavaScript and CSS for Packt Publishing.
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This book provides you with an intermediate knowledge of HTML. Instead of wandering through loads of theory, we will understand HTML practically so that we can understand the markup of a web page. We have used Notepad for the examples in this book. Alternatively, you can also use Notepad+ or any advanced editor. All you need to do is copy the code and paste it into Notepad. Upon execution, you will get the output as depicted in the screenshots. Screenshots are provided for each piece of sample code.
Coding improves with practice. The examples in this book are compatible with almost every modern browser such as Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome, to name a few. Instead of using the verbatim code, you can modify the code and seethe change in the output, thereby understanding the subtle nuances of HTML. By the end of the book, with practice, you can achieve better things as you get to grips with HTML.

Thinking in HTML
HTML originated from a prototype created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1992. Berners-Lee felt that there was a possibility of linking documents together by the use of hypertext, and the concept of HTML evolved. The drawback was that the commercial hypertext packages available at that time, such as Zog and Intermedia, were customized to suit different types of computers and were too ambiguous in nature.
Berners-Lee developed HyperText Markup Language (HTML, and in conjunction, he developed a protocol to access text from other documents via hyperlinks. The protocol was called HTTP, and this paved the way for the future. HTML itself was derived from a markup language called Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
Standardization being an ongoing process, modifications were constantly made and versions were released accordingly. The various versions of HTML that have been released areas follows:
HTML 2.0 (November 1995)
HTML 3.2 (January 1997)
HTML 4.0 (December 1997)
HTML 4.01 (December 1999)
HTML5, which is widely used, but is still in the development stage
Another breakthrough in the field was the introduction of CSS along with HTML 4.0. Prior to the introduction of CSS, web designers and developers used HTML for formatting purposes. Formatting and styling a web page using HTML defeats the purpose of HTML, because HTML elements and attributes must only define the structure of the web page. The purpose of CSS was to separate styling out from structural markup. With the introduction of CSS, we could separate presentation from content. As a result, formatting could be separated from the HTML document and stored in a separate file, which could then be included in the document using a link tag.

Instead of wandering through loads of theory, we will understand HTML practically with the help of code examples in this book. We have used Notepad for the examples in this book. Alternatively, you can also use Notepad+ or any advanced editor such as Adobe
Dreamweaver. To execute the code, all you need to do is copy the code and paste it into Notepad. Upon execution, you will get the output as depicted in the screenshots. Coding gets better with practice. Instead of using the verbatim code in the book, you can alter the code and seethe change in the output to understand HTML better.
At the time of writing this book, HTML 4.0 is supported by most of the browsers. This means that you can execute the code in major browsers such as Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and Mozilla Firefox. However, when we move onto HTML, this might not be the case. HTML is still in the development stage and is expected to be released later this year. After HTML is accepted as the norm, it will be standardized and supported by all major browsers. Browser support for the forms and attributes in HTML is explained in detail at This also indicates which browsers are supporting which features and to what degree.
Getting started with HTML
HTML doesn't need any special editor to code. You can use Notepad if you are using Windows or TextEdit if you're using a Mac.
Let's have a look at the following instructions to understand the procedure, which is also depicted in the screenshots accompanying it. Open Notepad on your Windows PC. Write or paste your code in the Notepad file:

11 2. Save the file in the
(filename).html format. In this example, we will be using Demo as the filename. Make sure that Save as type displays All Files. When you go the location where you saved the file, you will seethe
Demo.html file. After opening the
Demo.html file, you will seethe following screen. Voila You have executed your first piece of HTML code.

Instead of wasting time on theoretical discussions, let's get straight to coding so that you get to grips with HTML.
The tutorials on HTML on the Internet usually contain a lot of clutter, where you have redundant tags for formatting and styling. However, the correct procedure is to keep the presentation separate from the content. Therefore, all the presentational HTML elements and attributes were replaced by
CSS to provide versatility and better accessibility. Thus, we will gain an understanding of the HTML essentials that are used frequently, keeping in sync with the times. Also, to learn CSS, you can refer to my free Kindle version book, Thinking on CSS, Packt Publishing, on Amazon at http://
HTML is a markup language and includes a set of markup tags. Basically, an HTML document has HTML tags and content. Let's have a look at the following code and understand its structure:

Welcome to Packt
Packt Lessons and element. The

element gives you information about the web page, and the information doesn't get displayed in the browser. The

tag is used to include script files responsible for styling and interactivity of the page. It contains tags such as
<br />, <br /><style><br />, <br /><meta><br />, and <br /><script><br />, to name a few.<br />Let's look at the following code example to understand the <br /><head><br />element better:<br /><html><br /><head><br /><title> The head container

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