The Philosophical Foundation of His Ideological Legitimation3

Download 199.16 Kb.
Size199.16 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6


Aberle, K. G., Anthropology and Imperialism", Radical Education Project (1970).

Abt, C. C., "The social costs of cancer", Social Indicators Research 2, (1975) 175-190.

Anderson, C., Interview with C. Anderson", Scientific Research 4 (1969) 24.

Arditti, R., Brennan, P. and Cavrak, S. (Eds.), Science and Liberation, Boston: Southend Press (1980).

Aronowitz, Stanley, Science and Power, Boston: (1988).

Barnes, B., Scientific Knowledge and Sociological Theory, London: Routledge & K. Paul (1974).

Barth, H., Truth and Ideology, (F. Lilge, trans.) Berkeley, CA: University of California Press (1976).

Barzun, Jacques, Science: The Glorious Entertainment, New York: Harper & Row (1964).

--------------, The House of Intellect (1969).

Beardslee, D. C., and O'Dowd, D. D., The college student image of the scientist", In R. K. Merton (Ed.), Sociology of Science, Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1973).

Bernal, J. D., Science in History, New York: Cameron Associates (1954).

Blisset, M., Politics in Science, Boston: Little Brown & Co. (1972).

Boos, B., and Rasmussen, R. O. Problems of the better use of the earth's resources", Scientific World XIII (1979) 13, 19-22.

Brown, M. (Ed.). The Social Responsibility of the Scientist. New York: The Free Press (1971).

Bunge, M. R.,The miners' canary", Bulletin of Atomic Scientists 38(2) (1982) 16-23.

Burhop, E., From a speech to the special session on disarmament of the United Nations, Scientific World 13 (1978) 4-5.

Burtt, E. A., The Metaphysical Presuppositions of Modern Science, Garden City, New York: Doubleday Anchor (1954).

Bury, J. B., The Idea of Progress, New York: Dover (1932).

Bush, Vannevar, Science: The Endless Frontier, ----).

Callahan, D., Review of the AAAS professional ethics project", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 38(1) (1982) 43.

Chalk, G. H,. The process of professionalization of American science", ISIS 58(2), (1967) 151-166.

Chalk, R., Frankel, M. S., & Chafer, S., Professional ethics activities in scientific and engineering societies, AAAS Report (December 1980) cited in Chalk (1982).

Chomsky, Noam, American Power and the New Mandarins, New York: Random House (1969).

Cohen, B. L., Perspectives on the nuclear debate", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 30(8) (1974) 35-39.

----------------, Environmental impacts of nuclear power due to random emissions", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 32(2) (1976) 61-63.

Commoner, Barry, The Poverty of Power, New York, NY: Knopf (1976).

---------------, Science and Survival,

---------------, The Closing Circle,

Daniels, La Ciencia, su Metodo, y su Filosofia, Buenos Aires: Siglo Veinte (1973).

Daniels, G. H., The pure science ideal and democratic culture", Science (1967) 156, 1699-1705.

-----------------, American Science in the Age of Jackson, New York: Columbia

University Press (1968).

Danto, A., and Morgenbesser, S. (Eds.), Philosophy of Science, New York: Meridian Books (1960).

De Jouvenel, B., The political consequences of the rise of science" , Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (1963) 19(10) 2-8.

Dittmann, R., Institutional Normative Deviance in Science: Its Ideological Legitimation and Philosophical Foundation", from The Dark Side of Science, Kilbourne and Kilbourne (eds.), American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division (1981).

---------------, Scientists: Savants or Servants", Proceedings of the Conference on the Role of Young Scientific Workers, World Federation of Scientific Workers, Enschede, Netherlands (1971).

---------------, The real costs of nuclear power", Colloque: Le Debat Nucleaire, Namur, Belgium (September 1977).

---------------, External costs of nuclear power", Unpublished manuscript, California State University, Fullerton (1977).

---------------, Two contemporary issues in the politics of scientific research in the United States", Physics and Society (1979) 8, 2-19.

---------------, (co-author Phil Gianos) Attitudes and Values in the Scientific Community", Conference Proceedings on Science and Society, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (1975).

Dixon, E., and Lange, T., The norms of scientists and the public debate on nuclear power". Colloque: Le Debat Nucleaire, Namur, Belgium (September 1977).

Doctorow, E. L., Mythologizing the Bomb", The Nation (14, 21 August 1995) 170.

Doderlein, J., Nuclear power as a public issue: Protection of the public interest", IAEA-CN-36/451 (1970).

Dubos, R., Reason Awake: Science for Man, New York: Columbia University Press (1970).

Dunham, B., Heroes and Heretics, New York: Knopf (1964).

Dye, Lee, Tell Your Children! Evil, Ineffectual Scientists Are Out to Conquer the World!", Los Angeles Times (Monday 24 June 1996) D15.

Dyson, F., Disturbing the Universe, New York: Harper and Row (1979).

Easlea, B., Liberation and the Aims of Science: An essay on the obstacles to the building of a beautiful world, Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield (1973).

------------, Witch Hunting, Magic, and the New Philosophy, Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press (1980).

------------, Science and Sexual Oppression, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson (1981).

------------, Violent Eros: Masculinity and the nuclear arms race, London: Pluto Press (1982).

Ellul, J., The Technological Society, New York: Random House (1964).

Feuer, L., Basic Writings on Politics and Philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Garden City, New York: Doubleday (1959).

----------, The Scientific Intellectual, New York: Basic Books (1963).

Feyerabend, P., Against Method, London: Verso (1975).

------------------, Science in a Free Society, 7 Carlisle Street, London W1, England, UK: NLB (1978).

Frank, P., Philosophy of Science, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall (1957).

Franklin, H. Bruce, Only the Hardware is Erotic", The Nation (14, 21 August 1995) 174.

Froebel, F., Heinrichs, J., Kreye, O., Die Armut des Volkes, Hamburg: Rowohlt (1974).

Froebel, F., Heinrichs, J., Kreye, O., and Sunkel, V., "Internationalisierung von Kapital und Arbeitskraft", Leviathan (1973) 4, 429-454.

Froebel, F., Heinrichs, J., and Kreye, O., Die neue internationale arbeitsteilung, Hamburg: Rowohlt (1977).

Gianos, P., and Dittmann, R., Attitudes and values in the scientific community", Proceedings of the Conference on Science and Society, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (July 1973).

Gilpin, Anthony Bruce, Deluge of crime foreseen by speaker", Daily Titan, Fullerton, CA, USA: California State University, Fullerton (5 March 1996) 2.

Gorz, A., The Scientist as Worker", In R. Arditti, R. Brennan, and S. Cavrak (Eds.), Science and Liberation, Boston: Southend Press (1980).

Greenberg, D. S., The Politics of Pure Science, New York: New American Library (1968).

--------------------, Science and Government Report, (15 October 1981) 1.

Grinnell, G., Gravity and uniformity, a historical probe into the sources of the errors of science in its opposition to Velikovsky", Paper presented at the Velikovsky Conference, Portland, Oregon (August 1972).

Habermas, J., Theory and practice, Boston: Beacon Press (1973).

Harding, Sandra, Whose Science? Whose Knowledge?: Thinking from Women’s Lives, Ithaca, N.Y., USA: Cornell University Press (1991).

Hardy, G. H., A Mathematician's Apology, London: Cambridge University Press (1940).

Hessen, B., The Social and Economic Roots of Newton's Principia, New York: H. Fertig (1971).

Holton, Gerald (Ed.), Science and Culture, Boston: Beacon Press (1965).

Horkheimer, M., Kritische Theorie, Frankfurt: S. Fisher (1968).

Horowitz, D., ‘Sinews of Empire", Ramparts (1969) 8(4) 33-42. He also wrote another article, “Billion Dollar Brains” that analyzed the compliant nature of scientists as proletarians before he discovered upon which side his bread was buttered and founded the right wing Institute for the Study of Popular Culture.

Hoyle, F., Energy or Extinction?: The case for nuclear energy, London: Heinemann (1977).

Husserl, E., Phenomenology and the Crisis of Philosophy, New York: Harper Torchbooks (1965).

Hutchins, R. M., Science, Scientists, and Politics, Occasional Paper of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, Santa Barbara, CA. (1963) 1-4.

Kallen, H., Patterns of Progress, Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press (1950).

Khalilzad, Z., and Benard, C., "Energy: No quick fix for a permanent crisis", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (1980) 36(10) 15-19.

Kilbourne and Kilbourne (eds.), The Dark Side of Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division (1981).

Klaw, S

., The New Brahmins: Scientific life in America, New York: Wm. Morrow & Co. (1968).

-----------, The Faustian Bargain", In M. Brown (Ed.), The Social Responsibility of the Scientist, New York: The Free Press (1971).

Koestler, Alfred, The Sleepwalkers,

Kuhn, T., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press (1962).

Kuznick, Peter J., Beyond the Laboratory: Scientists as Activists in 1930s America, Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press (1987)

Lapp, R., The New Priesthood, New York: Harper (1965).

Landis, F., CIA Psychological Warfare Operations", Science for the People (1982) 14(1), 6-11.

Lakatos, I., and Musgrave A., Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, London: Cambridge University Press (1970).

Lens, S., The Doomsday Strategy", Progressive (1967) 40(2) 12-35.

Lewontin, R., Biological Determinism as an Ideological Weapon", Science for the People, (1977) 9(6), 36-39.

Lipset, S. M., and Ladd, E. C., The Divided Professoriate", Change Magazine (1971) 3(3), 54-60

Mannheim, K., Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction, New York: Harcourt Brace, (1954).

Marcuse, H,. One-dimensional man, Boston: Beacon Press (1964).

Mead, M., and Metraux R., "The Image of Science among High School Students", In B. Barber & W. Hirsch (Eds.), The Sociology of Science, New York: Free Press (1962).

Medawar, P. B., The Hope of Progress, Garden City, New York: Doubleday Anchor (1973).

Merton, R. K., The Sociology of Science, Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1973).

_________., Social Theory and Social Structure, New York, New York: Free Press of Glencoe (1975), revised edition.

Mitroff, I. I., The Subjective Side of Science, Amsterdam: Elsevier (1974).

Morgenthau, H., Does Government Have too Much Power?", Current (1965) 55, 22-29.

Mulkay, M., Norms and Ideology in Science", Social Science Information (1975) 15, 637-656.

Myrdal, G., Are the Developing Countries Really Developing?", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (1971) 27(1), 5-8.

--------------, The Challenge of World Poverty, New York: Pantheon (1970).

Nader, R., Petkas, J., and Blackwell, K. (Eds.), Whistle blowing: The Report of the Conference on Professional Responsibility, New York: Grossman (1972).

Nagel, E., Impression and Appraisals of Analytic Philosophy in Europe", Journal of Philosophy (1936) 33.

Nobel, David, A World without Women, New York, N.Y., USA: Alfred A Knopf (1992).

Nuclear Info 54 (August 1979) 1-4.

Ortega y Gassett, JoséŽ, “The Barbarism of Specialization", The Revolt of the Masses (193 ).

Palmer, R., Hermeneutics, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press (1969).

Parenti, Michael, Second Opinion", in an interview with Matthew Rothschild, editor of the Progressive Magazine, broadcast on KPFK-FM Los Angeles (0930hr 8 January 1996), expressing views from his most recent book Against Empire (1995).

Pearson, Ruth, "The UN cries 'uncle'", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (October 1988) 36-39.

Pfeiffer, E. W., Operation Ranchhand: the U.S. Herbicide Program", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 38(5) (1972) 20-24.

Polanyi, M., The Republic of Science: Its political and economic theory", Minerva 1 (1962) 54-73.

Popper, K. R., The Nature of Philosophical Problems and Their Roots in Science", The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 3 (1952) 128-156.

--------, The Open Society and Its Enemies (Vol. 2) London: Routledge (1966).

--------, Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, London, England, UK: Basic Books (1962).

Price, D. K., Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 106(3) (1962) 235-245.

Radnitzky, G., Contemporary Schools of Metascience, Chicago, IL: H. Regnery (1973).

Rasmussen, N. C., How Safe Is Nuclear Power?", Atom 252 (October, 1977) 257

Roszak, T., The Making of a Counter Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and its Youthful Opposition, New York, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1969).

Sargent, L., Utopia and dystopia in contemporary science fiction", Futurist VI 6(3) (1972) 93-98.

Sheffler, I., Science and Subjectivity, New York: Bobb-Merrill (1967).

Schick, Theodore, Jr., and Vaughn, Lewis, How To Think about Weird Things, London, England, UK: Maysfield (1995).

Schwab, J., The Teaching of Science as Inquiry, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Harvard University Press (1962).

Schwartz, Charles, Professors in the Pentagon: JASON II", Berkeley, California: Sespa Newsletter (February 1974).

--------, Scholars for Dollars". In R. Arditti, P. Brennan & S. Cavrak (Eds.), Science and Liberation, Boston: Southend Press (1980).

Schroyer, Trent, "A Critical Theory of Late Capitalism", In G. fisher (Ed.), The Revival of American Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press, (1971).

Solomon, Joan, and Aikenhead, Glen, STS Education: International Perspectives on Reform, Joan Solomon and Glen Aikenhead (Eds.), Teachers College Press (1995).

Soulé, Michael E., and Lease, Gary, (Eds.), Reinventing Nature? Responses to Postmodern Deconstruction (1995).

Stone, Richard, Baltimore Defends Paper at Center of Misconduct Case", Science 269 (14 July 1995) 157.

Tobey, R. C., The American Ideology of National Science, Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press (1971).

Vollrath, John, Science and Moral Values, New York, NY, USA: University Press of America (1990).

Waterman, A., "The changing environment of science", Science, 147 (1965) 13-18.

Weber, Max, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (T. Parsons, translator) New York: Scribner (1958).

Weber, M., Economy and Society: an Outline of Interpretive Sociology. (G. Roth and C. Witlich, Eds., and E. Fischoff, translator) New York: Bedminster, (1968).

Wellmer, A., Critical Theory of Society, New York: Herder & Herder (1971).Elements of this projection are shared by LAPD Commander Gregory R. Berg, who predicted the reduction of public police agencies leading to the possible privatization of law enforcement in the face of a predicted increase in crime attributable to poverty stricken youth [Gilpin (1996)].

The Nobel Peace" Prize was also awarded to Henry Kissinger, who played a major role in directing the Viet Nam War, and to Menachem Begin, a Zionist terrorist who later directed the invasion of Lebanon, although these activities were apparently ignored in recognition of more approbated behavior. On the other hand, it was also awarded to the late Honorary Chair of the US Federation of Scholars and Scientists, Linus Pauling, former Vice-President of the World Federation of Scientific Workers.

In traditional agriculture, all of the energy gained from the sun is a net gain. It is sustainable in perpetuity. In fossil fuel agriculture about three units of energy are expended for each unit of food produced. It is sustainable only as long as the petroleum lasts.

E. U. Condon tells the story of tainted" funding. He pointed to a huge accelerator which was funded by the Naval Research Laboratory. Then he pointed to a small table-top cyclotron, which, he said was built with tainted" money--"’t’ain’t the Navy’s".

Commonly referred to as sexist", but there is a distinction between sex" and gender". People don’t expect partners to have gender" with them.


The Imanishi-Kari and Baltimore cases have received considerable attention recently. Sloppy data record keeping, or invention or falsification of data in fulfillment of theoretical expectations, regardless of whether they were later confirmed or refuted, have been a longstanding problem in some areas, especially when large batches of experimental animals were lost. However, these are cases of individual, methodological misconduct, not institutional, normative misconduct [Stone, R. (14 July 95) 157].

Even if fault cannot be discovered with a data point, as is commonly the case with detective work in general, it is considered that the data point must be invalid if it lies outside 3 1/2 standard deviations from the average of the set of repeated independent measurements.

This title is taken from the book of the same title [Kilbourne (1981)].

1 Eunuch \’yu-nеk\

A powerful emasculation with uncritical loyalty to a master.

2 This is an expanded and updated version of a Chapter entitled, “Normative Deviance in Science”, that was published by the AAAS, Pacific Division in a book edited by Brock and Marie Kilbourne entitled, The Dark Side of Science[1981].

3 I was prompted to embark upon this effort by an invitation from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division, to participate in a study of “deviance” in science that culminated in the book, The Dark Side of Science. Science, in my experience, had never been deviant in a methodological sense of “hashing the data”, although there had been some major scandals in medical research that had motivated the project. However, upon reflection, I considered science to be quite “deviant” in a normative, humanistic, institutional sense that is explored here.

4 Preliminary reviews have revealed a need to identify the reference: A muledriver was mercilessly beating a stubborn mule. A passerby intervened, saying, “There is no need to abuse the poor creature, just reason with him”. The muledriver responded to the challenge, “Let’s see you try to reason with him!”. The passerby picked up a two-by-four and wacked the mule across the nose. “I thought you were going to reason with him!” “I am, but first I have to gain his attention!”

5 This is meant literally--the right to work!, the right to have access to the tools, to the means of production, the right to make a meaningful, socially-constructive contribution to society, with a decent wage and under dignified working conditions--not the right to seek an employer who can profit from your labor, not the right not to pay union dues (or taxes).

6 Those who are enticed into making a living by accepting destructive, anti-social employment which results in toxification and pollution of the habitat, exhaustion of non-renewable resources, or in oppression, destruction, manipulation, and repression, deserve especially sharp criticism. Those who succumb to coercion without organizing to resist also merit disapproval.

7 This definition is contrary to conventional terminology in which science is considered to be “pure’ if the practitioner is focused on gaining understanding of the behavior of nature without any concern for potential applications. I abandoned an earlier term “cultural science”, because it inevitably conjures the image of “culturology”—the study of culture, like cultural anthropology. Science that is motivated by potential applications by the funder, but not the practitioner, I define as “semi-pure”.

8 There are variations on this theme. Daniel Singer criticizes the ideology that argues that this is the best that can be done—TINA, “There Is No Alternative”. This argument has a long history: Alexander Pope’s famous poem concluded declarative finality, “Whatever is; Is right!” An optimist is someone who agrees with Leibniz who declared this to be “The Best of All Possible Worlds’. A pessimist is someone who agrees with the optimist (TINA). In Candide, Voltaire savagely satirized Leibniz, as did the book and film adaptation of “Candy”.

9 Immanuel Wallerstein suggested such a scenario at the World Systems Analysis Conference at the University of California, Irvine. The scenario: Confidence in government has plummeted since the days of the Kennedy administration. One of the functions of government upon which people depend is the provision of security. Lack of confidence in the ability of government to provide security is manifest in the rapid growth in private security agencies and guards. That is fine for the corporations and wealthy individuals who can afford it, but how can the average citizen provide for security if the government fails to do so? The increase in the purchase and possession of personal arms is an attempt to compensate for the perceived loss of security. However, one cannot forever remain on guard alone. The need for collective security becomes apparent. How can the average resident find collective security? The natural response is to form collective security groups (“gangs" or “militia") among people who share a common identity and which have contact, common interest, and rapport. Language will be a common unifying factor. So will ethnicity and religion. The rest of the story is all too familiar and tragic if the collapse of Yugoslavia into warring religious groups is considered.

10 “The Duty of Intellectuals” is the title of a compelling essay by Noam Chomsky published during the invasion of Viet Nam.

11 Historians of science have exposed some high visibility examples, e.g., the case of Millikan at California Institute of Technology, but even in these cases, while deviations from proper methodology might be justly criticized, the overall consequences seem quite salutary and matters of modest concern.

12 Justification for this “cheap shot" pun, which satirizes its actual motto, “All the news that’s fit to print", is provided by the analyses of Noam Chomsky, Ed Herman, and FAIR (Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting).

13 Do not asser the validity of anything for which there is no positive evidence.

14 The version of the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution most applicable to Southern California boldly proclaims, “We declare these truths to be self-evident. All men are created equal, endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, among these, life, liberty, and an automobile (with a catalytic converter) to pursue happiness.”

15 “Scientism" is defined as the unwarranted application or extrapolation of scientific results to areas where they are not valid. My favorite example of this is the French Catholic Existentialist philosopher Jacques Maritain, who railed against the “deadly disease" of science because of his scientistic expectation that it would be claimed that morality and ethics are relative because of the Theory of Relativity. Relativistic “situational" ethics gain no support from the Theory of Relativity even if the absolutist “perennialist" view lacks foundation.

16 Jacques Ellul (1964) suggests that there exists a compulsion of technique" (where technique" is taken in its broadest sense). Similarly, Barry Commoner (1976) warns against the tendency to “leap before we look", to introduce profit-taking technologies without assessing the desirability of attendant consequences. Abuses have become so common that an ideology which views most human intervention as species chauvinism" and destructive of nature, wilderness, and wildlife has emerged. “Deep ecology" has such tendencies [See, for example, Radical Ecology by Carolyn Merchant (1994)]. On the other hand, one is reminded of the minister who commented to a sweat-drenched parishioner, My, with the help of God you have done wonders with this land!", which prompted the reply, “Ja, you should have seen it when God had it all to herself!"

17 A proletarian sells her labor to achieve economic viability. Whether it is intellectual or physical labor makes little difference. Both are valuable, both necessary, and both exploitable for profit by the owners of the means of production (the tools). A balanced life consisting of both intellectual and physical labor has much to commend it.

18 Many terms with an implication of the absolute are carelessly and imprecisely used in reference to science. Science is not mathematics. It is relative, not absolute. Despite the high degree of consensus, reproducibility, pragmatism, and predictive power that science has achieved, higher than in any other human endeavor excepting the tautological exercise of mathematics, science is not absolute. It has no absolutely precise numbers, not even fundamental constants of nature. The term “truth" should be reserved for “truth tables" in logic, and replaced by “validity", which is relative. “Knowledge" should be replaced by “understanding". “Fact" should be replaced by (fallible) “observation". “Proof" should be replaced by “observation"[Although, in the process of “geometrizing” theory, many deductive logical processes are involved, but science remains empirical, i.e., inductive (in a broad, generic sense). It is in this process of reducing theory to a minimum of postulates that the elegance appears. In lower division courses an empirical, inductive approach is used. E.g., in E&M, the Biot-Savart, Ampere, and Faraday lead to Maxwell’s Equations. In upper division, these empirical laws are derived from Maxwell’s Equations.] . “Laws", a relic of the ideology of previous centuries should be replaced by “theory". Note that the scientists who have worked in this century constitute the overwhelming majority of the sum total of all the scientists who have ever lived. Among the scientists of this century are some of the greatest scientists of all time, including Einstein, Pauling, Fermi, Planck, Mach, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Pauli, etc. Yet no “laws" ordained to govern the conduct of nature have been “discovered" in this century. All of the “laws" date from previous centuries. How can this be explained? Scientists have not been unproductive. However, instead of interpreting their activity as discovering preordained “laws", scientists, generally unconsciously, consider themselves to be discoverers of phenomenological regularity and creators of theory. [Sometimes “phenomenological regularity" is informally called the “laws of nature". This is not to be confused with the concept of “natural law", a term which is used by some in an attempt to disguise and portray their moral exhortation as something objective and natural, very much like appeals to the authority of the gods.] Much data has been taken, much regularity discovered, and much theory invented. Theories are never proven like theorems. Rather, they compete for acceptance in a scientific community that uses criteria which are not strictly empirical [and even the relevance and significant of data is subjectively evaluated], but aesthetic as well, in the aspiration for elegance a la Occam’s razor.

As Lewis Carroll illustrated, contradiction is fun. The statement, “all absolute statements are false (including this one)”, is logically contradictory. This is the “fallacy of levels”. A statement about cows would not likely be confused with, or considered to be, itself, a cow. A statement [“metastatement”] about statements in no more included in the category of the statements about which the statement is made than is a statement a cow, or included in the same category with cows. This confusion is attributable to ambiguity in language. A statement about statements should be called a “metastatement”.

19 Kahn was the author of “On Thermonuclear War” that produced the ringing phrase, “Thinking about the unthinkable”.

20 I am happy to report the emergence of a “Cardinal Theory of Economics”, developed by a former student of mine, Craig McLaren. In an ordinal theory, priorities are merely listed in order In Craig’s mathematically sophisticated theory, a quantitative weight is factored in. Now that these values can be somewhat quantified, the aspiration is to reduce their neglect.

Download 199.16 Kb.

Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6

The database is protected by copyright © 2024
send message

    Main page