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Lesson Plans and Classroom Activities



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Lesson Plans and Classroom Activities for the

Secondary Classroom


  • Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture – Middle and Senior High School



  • Compare and Contrast the Lives of Toussaint L’Ouverture and George Washington – Middle and Senior High School



  • Haitian History Timeline – Middle and Senior High School




  • Haitian History and Culture – Middle and Senior High School



  • Current Problems Facing Haiti – Middle and Senior High School



Haitian Heritage Month

Secondary Lesson Plan


GRADE LEVEL: Social Studies – Secondary – Middle and Senior High School
TITLE: Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture
OBJECTIVES: Objectives from the Florida Standards are noted with FS.


  1. The students will describe the contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture to Haitian independence and history.




  1. The students will differentiate fact from opinion, utilize appropriate historical research and fiction/nonfiction support materials. 




  1. The students will utilize a variety of primary and secondary sources to identify author, historical significance, audience, and authenticity to understand a historical period.




  1. The students will determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. (FS)




  1. The students will determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. (FS)


SUGGESTED TIME: 1 class period
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES:
TEACHER’S NOTE: Separate middle and senior high school reading assignments and questions are provided for this lesson. Teachers may use the reading most appropriate for their students.


  1. Show students an image of Toussaint L’Ouverture (provided) and ask them if they know who he was and why he was important to the history of Haiti. Explain that he led the Haitian Revolution over 200 years ago which led to the end slavery in Haiti. The revolution also helped Haiti become a free and independent country from France. Toussaint L’Ouverture is considered a patriot and national hero in Haiti even though he died many years ago.

Remind students that the American Revolution was fought in North America over 200 years ago to help secure the 13 colonies independence from Great Britain. Ask students to name patriots from the American Revolution that supported independence for the colonies; e.g., George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, John and Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin.


  1. Explain that students will read about Toussaint L’Ouverture and the Haitian Revolution. Have students read the “Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture” assignment (provided) and answer the questions about the reading (provided).




  1. Discuss the answers to the reading questions focusing on Toussaint L’Ouverture’s role as a leader of Haiti’s efforts to become a free nation.




  1. Review the students’ earlier responses regarding American patriots from the past. Explain that in the next lesson, students will compare and contrast the lives of two patriots, Toussaint L’Ouverture and George Washington.


ASSESSMENT STRATEGY: Completion of the reading and questions.
MATERIALS/AIDS NEEDED: Image of Toussaint L’Ouverture (provided); “Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture” (provided); Questions (provided)
SOURCES: Readings adapted from:


  1. Black Past, http://www.blackpast.org/gah/loverture-toussaint-1742-1803

  2. History Wiz, http://www.historywiz.com/toussaint.htm

  3. UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/dialogue/the-slave-route/resistances-and-abolitions/toussaint-louverture/

Image of Toussaint L’Ouverture
http://www.umsoi.com/francais/wp-content/uploads/toussaint_louverture.jpg

Source:http://www.umsoi.com/francais/wp-content/uploads/toussaint_louverture.jpg



Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture (Middle School Reading)
François-Domenique Bréda known as Toussaint L’Ouverture (1743-1803) was a patriot, general, and political leader who helped bring Haiti its independence from France. He was nicknamed the “black Napoleon.”
Toussaint L’Ouverture was born into slavery in approximately 1743 in the French colony of Saint Dominque (later to be re-named Haiti). He belonged to a small and privileged class of slaves who worked as personal servants. The Count de Breda, Toussaint’s owner, actively encouraged him to learn to read and write. He developed a passion for books and his readings were to become a great influence in his political life. By the time he was twenty, the well-read and tri-lingual L’Ouverture - he spoke French, Creole, and some Latin - had also gained a reputation as a skilled horseman and for his knowledge of medicinal plants and herbs. Toussaint was freed from slavery at around the age of 33. Over the next 18 years, L’Ouverture settled into life as a free man. He married Suzanne Simon and fathered two sons.
The French Revolution (1787- 1799) was a period of great social and political change in France. The French colony of Saint Dominique, though far away, would never be the same. Inspired by French Revolutionary beliefs and angered by generations of abuse at the hands of white planters, mass slave revolts occurred in Saint Dominique in 1791. After helping his own former owner escape, L’Ouverture joined the revolt. Organizing an army of his own, he trained his followers in the tactics of guerrilla warfare. This slave revolt would eventually be known as the Haitian Revolution, the first and only victorious slave revolt in history.
In 1793, representatives of the French government offered freedom to slaves who joined them in the fight against foreign invaders, Spain and Britain. In 1794, slavery was abolished throughout all French territories. This was a determining factor in Toussaint’s decision to join the French army. Under his increasingly influential leadership, the French defeated the British and Spanish forces.
Having made himself ruler of the Saint Dominque, L’Ouverture did not wish to surrender power back to France. In 1801, he issued a constitution for the island, which abolished slavery and established L’Ouverture as governor-for-life.
When Napoleon Bonaparte came to power in France he aimed to return the Caribbean colonies to their earlier profitability as plantation colonies. In 1802, he sent an expedition of French soldiers to the island, led by his brother in law Charles Leclerc, to reestablish French authority and slavery. Leclerc arrested L’Ouverture and deported him to France where he was imprisoned in Fort de Joux. He died on April 7, 1803.
For a few months the island remained under Napoleon’s rule. However, the French soldiers soon surrendered to the Haitian army in November 1803. The new leader of the Haitian Revolution, Jean Jacques Dessalines, declared Saint-Domingue the independent country of Haiti in 1804.
Sources: Readings adapted from:


  1. Black Past, http://www.blackpast.org/gah/loverture-toussaint-1742-1803

  2. History Wiz, http://www.historywiz.com/toussaint.htm

  3. UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/dialogue/the-slave-route/resistances-and-abolitions/toussaint-louverture/


Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture - The Slave Who Defeated Napoleon

(Senior High School Reading)
Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the most successful generals who ever lived. However, at the end of the 18th century, a self-educated slave with no military training drove Napoleon out of Haiti and led an army of slaves to independence.
The remarkable leader of this slave revolt known as the Haitian Revolution was Toussaint Breda (later called Toussaint L'Ouverture, and sometimes the “black Napoleon”). Slave revolts from this time normally ended in executions and failure. This story is the exception.
It began in 1791 in the French colony of Saint Dominique (later re-named Haiti). Though born a slave in Saint Dominique, Toussaint learned of Africa from his father, who had been born a free man there. He learned that he was more than a slave. He was a man with an intelligent mind and personal dignity. He was fortunate in having a master who had him trained as a house servant and allowed him to learn to read and write. Toussaint took full advantage of this, reading the books in his owner’s personal library. He particularly admired the writings of the French Enlightenment philosophers, who spoke of individual rights and equality. His readings were to become a great influence in his political life. Toussaint was freed from slavery at around the age of 33. Over the next 18 years, L’Ouverture settled into life as a free man. He married Suzanne Simon and fathered two sons.
The French Revolution (1787- 1799) was a period of great social and political change in France. The sugar plantations of the French colony of Saint Dominique, though far away, would never be the same. Spurred on by such Enlightenment thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the early moderate French revolutionaries seriously considered the issue of slavery. Those moderate revolutionaries were not willing to end slavery, but they did apply the "Rights of Man" to all Frenchmen, including free blacks and mulattoes (those of mixed race). Plantation owners in the colonies were furious and fought the measure. Finally, the revolutionaries gave in and withdrew the measure in 1791. The results of this action would be felt very dramatically by the slave owners in in Saint Dominique!
Angered by this betrayal and generations of abuse at the hands of white planters, mass slave revolts occurred in Saint Dominique in 1791. After helping his own former owner escape, Toussaint joined the revolt. Organizing an army of his own, he trained his followers in the tactics of guerrilla warfare. He became known as Toussaint L'Ouverture (the one who finds an opening) and brilliantly led his slave army. He successfully fought the French, as well as the invading Spanish and British. This slave revolt would eventually be known as the Haitian Revolution, the first and only victorious slave revolt in history.
By 1793, the revolution in France was in the hands of the Jacobins, the most radical of the revolutionary groups. This group, led by Maximilian Robespierre, was responsible for the Reign of Terror, a campaign to rid France of “enemies of the revolution.” Though the Jacobins brought indiscriminate death to France, they were also idealists who wanted to take the revolution as far as it could go. So they again considered the issue of “equality” and voted to end slavery in the French colonies, including in Saint Dominique (Haiti).
There was jubilation among the blacks in Haiti, and Toussaint agreed to join the French army and help France defeat the invading British and Spanish. Toussaint proved to be a brilliant general, winning 7 battles in 7 days. He became a self-appointed governor of the colony of Saint Dominique.
In France, the Jacobins lost power. People finally tired of blood flowing in the streets and sent Maximilian Robespierre, the leader of the Jacobins, to the guillotine, ending the Reign of Terror. A reaction set in. The French people wanted to get back to business. More moderate leaders came and went, eventually replaced by Napoleon, who ruled France with dictatorial powers. He responded to the pleas of the plantation owners by reinstating slavery in the French colonies, once again plunging Haiti into war.
By 1803, Napoleon was ready to end the fighting. He and Toussaint agreed to terms of peace. Napoleon agreed to recognize Haitian independence and Toussaint agreed to retire from public life. A few months later, the French invited Toussaint to come to a negotiating meeting with full, safe conduct. When he arrived, the French (at Napoleon's orders) betrayed the safe conduct and arrested him, putting him on a ship headed for France. Napoleon ordered that Toussaint be placed in a prison dungeon in the mountains, and murdered by means of cold, starvation, and neglect. Toussaint died in prison on April 7, 1803.
Six months later, Napoleon decided to give up his possessions in the New World. He was busy in Europe and he concluded that these far-away possessions were more trouble than they were worth. He abandoned Haiti to independence and sold the French territory in North America to the United States (the Louisiana Purchase).
Jean Jacques Dessalines had followed Toussaint as leader of the Haitian revolution. He declared Saint-Domingue the independent country of Haiti in 1804.
 

Sources: Adapted from:



  1. History Wiz, http://www.historywiz.com/toussaint.htm

  2. UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/dialogue/the-slave-route/resistances-and-abolitions/toussaint-louverture/

Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture – Questions (Middle School)
Name: ______________________________________________________________


  1. Describe Toussaint’s early life as a slave, including how his early life influenced his political beliefs and actions later in life.



  1. What occurred in Saint Dominique (now Haiti) in 1791? What role did Toussaint play in the Haitian Revolution?



  1. What occurred in Saint Dominique in 1794? How did Toussaint help France following this event?



  1. What did Toussaint do in 1801 that upset Napoleon of France? What was Napoleon’s reaction?



  1. Who became the new leader of the Haitian Revolution following Toussaint’s death? What year did Haiti become an independent country?




  1. Identify each statement below as either a FACT or an OPINION:

__________ Toussaint was leader in the Haitian Revolution.
__________ As an educated man, Toussaint felt that all people should be given a free education.
__________ The Haitian Revolution was a successful slave revolt.
__________ If Toussaint had not made himself governor for life, Napoleon would not have had him arrested.


Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture – Questions (Senior High School)
Name: _________________________________________________________



  1. Describe Toussaint L’Ouverture’s early life as a slave and how it influenced his political beliefs and actions later in life.


  1. List 5 Facts about Toussaint L’Ouverture:


  1. Place the following events of the Haitian Revolution in chronological order:

_____ Napoleon becomes the leader of France.

_____ Mass slave revolts occur in Haiti.

_____ Toussaint dies in prison.

_____ The French Revolution under the Jacobins brings a Reign of Terror to France.

_____ Toussaint becomes a free man.

_____ Haiti becomes a free nation.

_____ The Rights of Man were withdrawn by the French for free blacks and mulattoes.


Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture – Questions continued (Senior High School)


  1. Briefly summarize the events of the Haitian Revolution including the slave revolts and the establishment of Haiti as an independent nation:



  1. Identify each statement below as either a FACT or an OPINION:

__________ Toussaint was a leader in the Haitian Revolution.


__________ As an educated man, Toussaint felt that all people should be given a free education.
__________ The Haitian Revolution was a successful slave revolt.
__________ If Toussaint had not made himself governor for life, Napoleon would not have had him arrested.



Haitian Heritage Month

Secondary Lesson Plan


GRADE LEVEL: Social Studies – Secondary – Middle and Senior High School
TITLE: Compare and Contrast the Lives of Toussaint L’Ouverture and

George Washington


OBJECTIVES: Objectives from the Florida Standards are noted with FS.


  1. The students will compare and contrast the lives and achievements of the revolutionary patriots Toussaint L’Ouverture and George Washington.

  2. The students will describe the influence of individuals on social and political developments in history.

  3. The students will conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question. (FS)

  4. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. (FS)


SUGGESTED TIME: 1 class period
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES:
TEACHER’S NOTES: This lesson provides the opportunity to compare and contrast the lives and achievements of two revolutionary patriots. Separate readings are provided for middle and senior high school students.



  1. Discuss the concepts of comparing (finding similarities) and contrasting (finding differences). To illustrate the concepts, have students compare and contrast any two things as a whole group activity (e.g., two sports, two brands of phones, two types of TV service). Record responses using the Venn diagram graphic organizer (provided).

  2. Explain that students will be using the same Venn diagram graphic organizer to compare/contrast the lives of two important heroes/patriots who lived at approximately the same time in history - Toussaint L’Ouverture, leader of the Haitian Revolution, and George Washington, American general and president.

  3. Show students the images of Toussaint L’Ouverture and George Washington (provided).

Using the “Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture” (provided with the previous lesson) and the “Biography of George Washington” (provided), have students work in pairs to develop the Venn diagram.

  1. Following the activity, debrief by having students share the results of their work. Develop a master Venn diagram on the board. Correct student inaccuracies during the discussion.

ASSESSMENT STRATEGY: Completion of the Venn diagram compare/contrast activity.
MATERIALS/AIDS NEEDED: “Biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture” (provided in previous lesson); Images of Toussaint L’Ouverture and George Washington (provided); “Biography of George Washington” (provided); blank Venn diagram (provided)
EXTENSION ACTIVITY: Have students read a short biography of Cuban patriot Jose Marti. Using the same Venn diagram, have students compare and contrast Jose Marti to Toussaint L’Ouverture and/or George Washington.

Image of Toussaint L’Ouverture
http://www.umsoi.com/francais/wp-content/uploads/toussaint_louverture.jpg

Source:http://www.umsoi.com/francais/wp-content/uploads/toussaint_louverture.jpg



Image of George Washington http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/rembrandt_peale_-_george_washington_(porthole_type)_-_google_art_project.jpg
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Rembrandt_Peale_-_George_Washington_(Porthole_type)_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Venn Diagram


http://www.clipartbest.com/cliparts/aiq/zex/aiqzexrqt.gif
Biography of George Washington (Middle School Reading)
Introduction
George Washington (1732-99) was commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1775-83). He also served two terms as the first President of the United States (1789 – 1797).
The son of a wealthy planter, Washington was raised in colonial Virginia. As a young man, he worked as a surveyor then fought in the French and Indian War (1754-63). During the American Revolution, he led the colonial forces to victory over the British and became a national hero. In 1787, he was elected president of the convention that wrote the U.S. Constitution. Two years later, Washington became America’s first president. Less than three years after leaving office, he died at his Virginia plantation, Mount Vernon, at age 67.
Childhood and Early Life
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 near Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County in the colony of Virginia. He was the first son of Augustine Washington and his second wife Mary Ball Washington. Washington had an older half-brother named Lawrence Washington. Lawrence was a mentor to young Washington.
Few details about Washington’s early education are known, although children of wealthy families like his were often taught at home by private tutors or attended private schools. It’s believed Washington finished his schooling at around age 15.
As a teenager, Washington, who had shown an aptitude for mathematics, became a successful surveyor. His surveying expeditions into the Virginia wilderness earned him enough money to begin acquiring land of his own.
Early Career and Family Life
In December 1752, Washington, who had no previous military experience, was made a commander of the Virginia militia (volunteer army). He saw action in the French and Indian War and was eventually put in charge of all of Virginia’s militia forces.
By 1759, Washington had returned to Mount Vernon, where he expanded the plantation from 2,000 acres into an 8,000-acre property with five farms.
In January 1759, he married Martha Dandridge Custis (1731-1802), a wealthy widow with two children. Washington became a devoted stepfather to the children. He and Martha never had any children of their own.
George Washington and American Revolution
By the late 1760s, Washington had experienced firsthand the effects of rising taxes placed on American colonists by the British. He came to believe that it was in the best interests of the colonists to declare independence from England. Washington served as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in 1774 in Philadelphia. By the time the Second Continental Congress met in 1775, the American Revolution had begun. Washington was named commander in chief of the American Continental Army.
Washington proved to be a better general than military strategist. His strength lay not in his genius on the battlefield, but in his ability to keep the struggling colonial army together. His troops were poorly trained and lacked food, ammunition and other supplies (soldiers sometimes even went without shoes in winter). However, Washington was able to give them the direction and motivation to keep going.
Over the course of the long eight-year war, the colonial forces won few battles but consistently held their own against the British. In October 1781, with the help of the French (who allied themselves with the colonists over their rivals the British), the Continental forces were able to capture British troops under General Charles Cornwallis in Yorktown, Virginia. This action effectively ended the American Revolution and Washington was declared a national hero 
Presidency of the United States (1789-1797)
Believing he had done his duty, Washington gave up his command of the army and returned to Mount Vernon to resume his life as a gentleman farmer and family man. However, in 1787, he was asked to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and head the committee to draft the new U.S. Constitution. His impressive leadership there convinced the delegates that he was by far the most qualified man to become the nation’s first president.
At first Washington hesitated, but public opinion was so strong that eventually he gave in. The first presidential election was held on January 7, 1789, and Washington won easily. John Adams (1735-1826), who received the second-largest number of votes, became the nation’s first vice-president. The 57-year-old Washington was inaugurated on April 30, 1789, in New York City. Because Washington, D.C., the nation’s future capital city wasn’t yet built, he lived in New York and Philadelphia.
The United States was a small nation when Washington took office, consisting of 11 states and approximately 4 million people. Knowing that his actions would likely determine how future presidents were expected to govern, Washington worked hard to set an example of fairness, wisdom, and integrity. In foreign matters, he favored neutrality in foreign conflicts. Domestically, he nominated the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, John Jay (1745-1829), signed a bill establishing the first national bank and set up his own presidential cabinet. His two most prominent cabinet appointees were Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) and Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804), two men who disagreed strongly on the role of the federal government. Hamilton favored a strong central government, while Jefferson favored stronger states’ rights. Washington believed that different views were critical for the health of the new government, but he was concerned by partisanship.
Washington Retires to Mount Vernon
In 1796, after two terms as president and declining to serve a third term, Washington finally retired. In his farewell address, he urged the new nation to maintain the highest standards domestically and to keep involvement with foreign powers to a minimum. Washington returned to Mount Vernon and devoted his time to making it productive. More than four decades of public service had aged him, but he was still a commanding figure.
In December 1799, he caught a cold after inspecting his properties in the rain. The cold developed into a throat infection and Washington died on the night of December 14 at the age of 67. He was entombed at Mount Vernon, which in 1960 was designated a national historic landmark.
Washington left one of the most enduring legacies of any American in history. Known as the “Father of His Country,” his face appears on the U.S. dollar bill and quarter, and hundreds of U.S. schools and towns, as well as the nation’s capital city, are named for him.
Sources:

  1. The Famous People, http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/george-washington-18.php

  2. History.com, http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/george-washington


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