V6.1 The original document, including many of the orbats and the forward was prepared by Andy Johnson, to whom I owe a great debt of gratitude for preparing the original document. At this point, with the exception of some of the US lists (and the TO&E), and the French Army OOB, little of his original work remains except his insightful commentary, which appears in blue.
Last update by Mr. Johnson: 27 May 00
Last update by Pat Callahan: 10 January 07 NATO ORDER OF BATTLE - 1989 TABLE OF CONTENTS Left Click on the page numbers to jump to that section (control-left click on some machines) References
NATO Forward 4
United States Army 5
United States National Guard & Reserves 23
US Army generic TO&E 37
United States Air Force 40
United States Marine Corps 48
United States Naval Air Power 53
British Army 58
British Royal Air Force 69
British Royal Marines 72
German Army 73
German Luftwaffe 91
Belgium Royal Army 92
Belgium Royal Air Force 95
Canadian Forces 96
Danish Royal Army 99
Danish Royal Air Force 102
French Army 103
French Air Force 110
Greek Army 112
Greek Air Force 116
Italian Army 118
Italian Air Force 132
Luxembourg Army 134
Netherlands Royal Army 135
Netherlands Royal Air Force 138
Norwegian Royal Army 140
Norwegian Royal Air Force 144
Portuguese Army 145
Portuguese Air Force 146
Spanish Army 148
Spanish Air Force 156
Turkish Army 158
Turkish Air Force 162 Non-Aligned European Countries
Austrian Army 164
Austrian Air Force 167
Finnish Army 169
Finnish Air Force 173
Irish Army 174
Irish Air Corps 175
Swedish Army 176
Swedish Air Force 177
Swiss Army 179
Swiss Air Force 182
Yugoslav Army 184
Yugoslav Air Force 188 Appendices
Appendix 1: NATO Deployments 189
Appendix 2: NATO Organization 191
NATO ORDER OF BATTLE - 1989
Andy Johnson’s References: References: 1. Almanac of Airpower 1989
2. Jane's Defense Weekly's published in the late 1980's
3. Military Technology’s World Defense Almanac 1988, 1989 and 1990
4. NATO Armies Today, Osprey Publishing 1987
5. NATO in Europe 1989
6. The British Army in the 1980’s, Osprey Publishing 1987
7. US Army Active Troop List, June 1988 and June 1989
8. US Army Field Manual 1-111 Aviation Brigades August 1990
9. US Army Green Book 1988, 1989, and 1990
10. US Army, British Army, Canadian Army, and assorted unit internet home pages
Note 1: Only the Combat and Combat Support units are listed. The Combat Service Support such as maintenance, medical, and transport were excluded.
Note 2: Throughout this OOB there will be an occasional bold designation or value other than titles. Since research is not an exact science, sometimes I had to resort to a more refined approach…I took a swag (stupid wild a-- guess), hence the bold lettering. Newly updated information will be underlined.
References Added For Revised Edition:
Armies of NATO’s Central Front, David Isby and Charles Kamps, 1985
Jane’s Armour & Artillery, 1986-87 and 1992-93
ORBATs available at ORBAT.com
“Combined Arms,” GDW, Frank Chadwick, 1987
World Armies Today, John Keegan, 2nd Edition, 1983 (good for general organizational information)
IISS Military Balance 1989-90, 1990-91, 1991-92 (last is particularly useful, as it has initial CFE declarations)
USNI’s Combat Fleets of the World 1988/89 and 1990/91
Various Micro Mark army lists for some specialist units (for example, Gurkhas, Spanish Marines and Paras, Greek special forces, etc)
Jane’s NATO Handbook 1990-91 (OOB comes straight from IISS, but best source out there for holdings of older equipment)
John Baugher’s US Aircraft Encyclopedia was extremely useful for nations holding US aircraft.
In addition, numerous web sites were utilized and are noted in each individual section.
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION Historical Introduction: NATO was organized on 4 April 1949 with 12 original members as a response to the growing Soviet threat. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States became a unified force to protect Western Europe. Greece and Turkey joined NATO on 18 February 1952 followed by West Germany on 9 May 1955. Spain joined on 30 May 1982. As the Cold War in the eighties heated up, new and modern equipment entered into service throughout NATO and the Warsaw Pact in ever increasing numbers. By July 1989, most of Europe had become an armed camp with both sides having reached a pinnacle of proficiency and capability. Unexpectedly, in November 1989, the Berlin wall came crashing down and in December, Soviet President Gorbachev stunned the world by announcing a unilateral withdrawal from Eastern Europe. This was soon followed by massive downsizing throughout Europe and America with units and designations changing faster than ever before. In August 1991, Soviet hard-liners attempted to reverse the situation and following a failed coup attempt, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Presently, the former foes are no longer poised for global annihilation, but face new challenges as old hatreds and fears re-surface. Recently, Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, all former Warsaw Pact members, joined NATO in March of 1999. Other former Warsaw Pact and Soviet Republics are seeking membership as NATO struggles to find new purpose.
The NATO military chain of command began with the North Atlantic Council based in Brussels under the Secretary General and aided by the International Military Staff controlling all NATO forces. The various commands included Allied Command Europe (ACE), Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN), Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT), and the Canada-US Regional Group. ACE contains the majority of the NATO ground forces and is based at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Belgium. The Commander is titled Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) and is usually a US Army General. The four subordinate commands to the SACEUR are Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH) at Kolsas, Norway responsible for defending Scandinavia. The Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) at Brunssum, Netherlands which include NORTHAG and CENTAG are responsible for the defense of West Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. The Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) at Naples, Italy defends southern Europe and Asia Minor. Finally, the Allied Mobile Force (AMF) was an international quick reaction force of US, UK, Belgium, Canadian, W. German, Italian, Luxembourg, and Spanish battalions or brigades capable of deploying anywhere within NATO. A British Admiral commands ACCHAN while a US Admiral commands ACLANT.
Named locations were peacetime barracks positions. Prior to hostilities, all units would deploy to their wartime General Defense Plan (GDP). There were three wartime scenarios that could have occurred. The first was where the Warsaw Pact attacked directly out of their barracks locations with only a few days of preparation, depending on strategic surprise, NATO would have had about 48 to 72 hours warning. This was the scenario NATO feared the most. The second, and most likely, was a 7 to10 day warning with REFORGER units moving into place and the Soviets mobilizing for 2 to 3 weeks. The last scenario would have allowed full deployment for both sides. A nuclear exchange was a high probability in the 1st and 3rd scenarios.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
During the 1970's, the US Military was recovering from the Vietnam era with much of its strength downsized and that which was left seriously neglected. With the election of Ronald Reagan and the coming of the early eighties the military underwent a Renaissance. The US Army grew from 13 Divisions to 18, new equipment such as the M1 Abrams tank, M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle, Multiple Launch Rocket System, and the AH-64 Apache were but a few of the systems integrated into the force structure. For the individual soldier, new uniforms, kevlar helmets, better pay and realistic training had much improved the situation. All this along with determined leadership created an entirely new image for the US Army. No longer was the Army a haven for drugs and alcohol. A new breed of soldier was emerging and with it the pride and esprit de corps that had been so long neglected. This was one of many legacies of the 1980's, the re-birth of the US Army.
With the new equipment came new tactics and a reorganization that maximized combat power. The Airland battle concept was developed emphasizing a combined-arms approach. Although this was not really new, the degree of combined arms integration and the new approach onto a non-linear three dimensional battlefield was. The Division 86 or “Army of Excellence” was born and fully in place by the summer of 1989.
This Order of Battle includes the entire US Army, US Marine Corps, and the US Air Force with their respective Reserve and National Guard components. Although not all the forces listed were scheduled for deployment to Europe in the event of a war with the Warsaw Pact, many of the forces did have multiple wartime contingencies.
US Country Data
Population: 248 million, including 9.48 million males 18-22 and 21.26 million males 23-32.
GDP: (1988) $4.48 trillion
Defense Budget: (1989) $289.9 billion
Army National Guard: 454,000
Army Reserve: 588,000
Marine Corps: 193,000
Air Force: 571,000
US ARMY Note 1: National Guard and Army Reserve Round-out units are included in their designated active Army organization’s.
Note 2: A generic Airborne, Air Assault, Armor, Artillery, Cavalry, and Infantry Tables of Organization and Equipment are included at the end of the US Army section. Unique equipment types are incorporated within each specific unit.
FORCES COMMAND Note: The Army level headquarters located within the States did not have any designated subordinate units as their counterparts in Germany or Korea had. They were primarily responsible for the mobilization of Reserve and National Guard forces in their region in time of national crisis. Each headquarters could be assigned combat formations and sent to a theatre of operations as did the Third US Army during the Gulf War. All of the active duty units were assigned to an existing Corps Headquarters. Several of the National Guard and Reserve units would also go to existing Corps but in the event of a major war additional Corps Headquarters would be activated and assigned to support Combat Operations as needed.
1. FORSCOM Headquarters - Ft McPherson, GA:
2. First US Army - Ft Meade, MD:
3. Second US Army - Ft Gillem, GA:
4. Third US Army - Ft McPherson, GA:
5. Fourth US Army - Ft Sheridan, IL:
6. Fifth US Army - Ft Sam Houston, TX:
7. Sixth US Army - San Francisco, CA:
8. I US Corps HQ - Ft Lewis, WA:
a. 7th Infantry Division (Light) - Ft Ord, CA:
1) 1st Brigade:
10) 7th Military Police Company:
Note: 7th Infantry M102 battalions began to convert to M119 (UK 105mm Light Gun) in Nov 1989.
b. 9th Infantry Division (Motorized) - Ft Lewis, WA: The 9th ID was the High Technology Test Bed with a very unique organization of Combined Arms (CA) Battalions.
1) 1st Brigade:
a) 1 -33rd Armor Battalion: M60A3
b) 2 -23rd CA Heavy Battalion: 44 TOW HMMWV, 67 Mk19 GL, 15 Dragon, 6 4.2in mortars, 9 Infantry squads
c) 4 -23rd CA Light Battalion: 24 TOW HMMWV, 75 Mk19 GL, 30 Dragon, 6 4.2in mortars, 18 Infantry squads
Note 1: Throughout the late 1980’s, this divisions organization was in flux. At times, the roundout brigade was the 39th Infantry Brigade, Arkansas National Guard instead of the 81st Mech Brigade, Washington National Guard.
Note 2: In case of war, the division was to deploy by air to North Germany and reinforce the LandJut command.
Note 3: All of the CA (combined arms) battalions were mounted in HMMMWVs
c. 35th Air Defense Brigade:
1) 1-52nd Air Defense Artillery: 24 I-Hawk
2) 3-2nd Air Defense Artillery: Chapparal
d. I Corps Artillery (no brigade organization, all units National Guard)
1) 1-140th Field Artillery Bn: 155mm Towed
2) 1-145th Field Artillery Bn: M110
3) 2-222nd Field Artillery Bn: M109
4) 2-10th Field Artillery Bn – Ft. Benning, GA: M109 (may have been disbanded or assigned elsewhere)
5) 260th Field Artillery Detachment – Ft. Rucker, AL: 105mm Towed (may have been disbanded or assigned elsewhere)
Note 1: I Corps was essentially a holding unit for unassigned artillery battalions and brigades. These are the independent Guard battalions assigned to it. Many of the other artillery units, brigaded and unbrigaded, would have been under I Corps administrative control in peacetime.
9. III US Corps HQ - Ft Hood, TX: Primary mission was to reinforce NATO’s NORTHAG with contingencies to Southwest and Northeast Asia. The 1st and 4th Infantry Divisions would reinforce the VII and V Corps respectively in the event of war in Europe. All units had a set of POMCUS equipment in Europe.
a. 1st Infantry Division (Mech) - Ft Riley, KS: Reinforces VII Corps, POMCUS set 1 at Mannheim, FRG:
1) 1st Brigade:
11) 12th Chemical Company:
Note: DAHSUM 89 indicates that a provisional assault helicopter was formed at Ft. Riley with 1st ID(M) assets during FY89.
b. 1st Cavalry Division - Ft. Hood, TX - REFORGER unit, POMCUS set 5 in Belgium:
1) 1st Brigade: